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A&P Chapter 30 The Urinary System
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A&P Chapter 30 The Urinary System

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  • 1. THE URINARY SYSTEM Chapter 29 A&P
  • 2. OBJECTIVES
    • Describe the purpose and function of the urinary system
    • Identify the organs and the function of each
    • List 3 processes involved in the production of urine
    • Normal constituents of urine.
    • Common disorders
    • Lifespan considerations
    • Case study
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • The urinary system consists of organs that produce and excrete urine from the body.
    • Urine contains waste: mostly excess water, salts and nitrogen compounds.
    • Primary organs are the kidneys
    • Normal adult bladder can store up to .5 liters.
    • Also responsible for regulating blood volume and blood pressure.
    • Regulates electrolytes.
  • 4. ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
    • The components of the urinary system include :
    • the kidneys
    • the ureters
    • the urinary bladder
    • the urethra.
  • 5. MALE URINARY SYSTEM
  • 6. KIDNEYS
    • The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity.
    • They lie on either side of the spinal column.
    • This area is known as the flank area and is against the muscles of the back.
    • The external kidney has a notch at the concave border known as the hilum.
    • The hilum is the entrance for renal artery, veins, nerves and lymphatic vessels.
  • 7. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY
    • The cortex is the outer layer; arteries, veins, convoluted tubes and glomerular capsules
    • The medulla is the inner layer; renal pyramids
  • 8. NEPHRONS
    • 1 million nephrons
    • The functional unit of the kidney
    • Remove waste products of metabolism from the blood plasma.
    • Waste products are urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium, potassium chloride and ketone bodies.
  • 9. URETERS, BLADDER AND URETHRA
    • Ureters -tubes that carry newly formed urine from the bladder to the kidneys.
    • Bladder -muscular sac that serves as a reservoir for urine; bladder stretches to accommodate urine.
    • Urethra - tube extends from the bladder to the external opening of the urinary system, the urinary meatus
  • 10. URINE
    • The formation of urine has 3 processes, filtration, reabsorption and tubular secretion.
    • Urine consists of 95% water and 5% solid substances.
    • The need to urinate is usually felt at 300-350ml of urine in the bladder.
    • Typically 1000-1500 mL is voided daily.
    • Observations of urine?
  • 11. COMMON DISORDERS
    • Cystitis- inflammation of the bladder “honeymoon disease”
    • Glomerulonephritis- a type of kidney disease
    • Incontinence- stress, urge, overflow, functional, reflex and mixed
    • Kidney stones- renal calculi caused my mineral salt deposits in the kidneys
    • Polycystic kidney disease- cysts develop in the kidneys
    • Pyelonephritis- infection of the kidney and renal pelvis.
    • Renal Failure- kidney do not function as they should
  • 12. LIFESPAN CONSIDERATIONS
    • Child
    • At 10 weeks gestation the kidney begin to form
    • Newborns kidneys are not able to concentrate urine
    • Kidneys are more susceptible to trauma
    • Diapers- more susceptible to UTI
    • Older Adult
    • Kidney lose mass and the blood vessels degenerate
    • Kidneys lose their ability to filter
    • Dehydration can happen more quickly
    • Electrolyte balance happens more quickly
    • Loss of muscles tome in urinary structures
    • Decreased bladder capacity
  • 13. CASE STUDY
    • What substance was found in his urine?
    • If he could not pass the kidney stone, what treatment would have to be done?
    • What types of dietary restrictions should be followed?
  • 14. THE FAR SIDE