The Respiratory System A&P Chapter 27
Introduction <ul><li>The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Organs of the Respiratory System <ul><li>Upper Respiratory Tract </li></ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx or Throa...
The Nose <ul><li>Organ of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Apparatus of respiration and voice </li></ul><ul><li>Warms & moistens ai...
Pharynx <ul><li>Musculo-membranous tube about 5 inches long. </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to the trachea and the esophagus <...
Larynx <ul><li>Voice box </li></ul><ul><li>Structure made of muscles and cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage helps prote...
Trachea <ul><li>“ Windpipe” </li></ul><ul><li>Tube of cartilage about 4.5” long </li></ul><ul><li>Connects larynx to main ...
Bronchi <ul><li>Two main branches of brinchi stretch from trachea and the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a passage way </...
Alveoli <ul><li>Small air sacs that support a network of capillaries that allow for oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer </l...
Lungs <ul><li>Pink at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Turn grey color with age </li></ul><ul><li>Porous and spongy with high elast...
Lungs <ul><li>Pleura are thin sheets of epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Pleural membranes cover the outer surface of the lung...
Diseased Lungs
Mechanism of Breathing <ul><li>Ventilation is movement to and from the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation and exhalation...
Lifespan Considerations <ul><li>Premature babies may be given surfactant.  Surfactant is found in mature lungs and will de...
Lifespan Considerations <ul><li>Older adults may increase RR due to pollution, smoking and lung disease </li></ul><ul><li>...
Patient Teaching <ul><li>Vary daily activities according to respiratory status </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental irritants s...
Case Study <ul><li>What could Joe have done early to reduce his risk of COPD? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was an antibiotic pres...
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A&P Chapter 27 The Respiratory System

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A&P Chapter 27 The Respiratory System

  1. 1. The Respiratory System A&P Chapter 27
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>The blood delivers the oxygen to the parts of the body (cells need what 3 things?) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs and diaphragm. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organs of the Respiratory System <ul><li>Upper Respiratory Tract </li></ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx or Throat </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Respiratory Tract </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx or Voice Box </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea or Windpipe </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Nose <ul><li>Organ of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Apparatus of respiration and voice </li></ul><ul><li>Warms & moistens air </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia traps dust </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds during speaking and singing </li></ul><ul><li>External structures are called nares </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal mucosa produce 1 quart a day; drains into sinuses. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pharynx <ul><li>Musculo-membranous tube about 5 inches long. </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to the trachea and the esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Passage way of air and food </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with speech </li></ul><ul><li>3 pairs of tonsils in the pharynx-help control infection </li></ul>
  6. 6. Larynx <ul><li>Voice box </li></ul><ul><li>Structure made of muscles and cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage helps protect from trauma </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adam’s apple” </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis-covers trachea during swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Production of vocal cords </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trachea <ul><li>“ Windpipe” </li></ul><ul><li>Tube of cartilage about 4.5” long </li></ul><ul><li>Connects larynx to main bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Lined with mucous membrane and cilia to trap foreign matter </li></ul><ul><li>Important fx.= breathing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bronchi <ul><li>Two main branches of brinchi stretch from trachea and the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a passage way </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs divide at the hilum </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi divide into smaller branches called bronchioles. </li></ul><ul><li>End at alveoli </li></ul>
  9. 9. Alveoli <ul><li>Small air sacs that support a network of capillaries that allow for oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Inflate and deflate as air moves in and out </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lungs <ul><li>Pink at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Turn grey color with age </li></ul><ul><li>Porous and spongy with high elasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Right lung has 3 lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Left lung has 2 lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs are separated by the mediastinum – heart, trachea, esophagus and blood vessels </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lungs <ul><li>Pleura are thin sheets of epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Pleural membranes cover the outer surface of the lung and the inside of the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Space in between is called the pleural space </li></ul><ul><li>Produces surfactant. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diseased Lungs
  13. 13. Mechanism of Breathing <ul><li>Ventilation is movement to and from the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation and exhalation are completed from the nervous system and the muscles of the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>CNS-medulla oblongata and the Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles-intercostals and diaphragm </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lifespan Considerations <ul><li>Premature babies may be given surfactant. Surfactant is found in mature lungs and will decrease the occurrence of respiratory distress and lung damage in infants </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn RR=30-80 </li></ul><ul><li>1 year RR=20-40 </li></ul><ul><li>5 years RR=20-25 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lifespan Considerations <ul><li>Older adults may increase RR due to pollution, smoking and lung disease </li></ul><ul><li>Less mucous and cilia < function= increased mucous and chance of infection </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal changes in older adults allow susceptibility to bronchitis and pneumonia </li></ul>
  16. 16. Patient Teaching <ul><li>Vary daily activities according to respiratory status </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental irritants should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with medications </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with pulmonary diseases should avoid individual who are sick </li></ul>
  17. 17. Case Study <ul><li>What could Joe have done early to reduce his risk of COPD? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was an antibiotic prescribed? </li></ul><ul><li>Two puffs of medicine q4h? </li></ul>
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