The Circulatory System Body Structure and Function Chapter 25
Overview of the Circulatory System <ul><li>The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels and the stru...
The Heart <ul><li>The heart is a four-chambered muscular pump lying just left of the midline of the chest. </li></ul><ul><...
The Heart <ul><li>The human heart is about the size of a fist and weighs 9 oz. </li></ul><ul><li>Cone shaped. </li></ul><u...
 
Blood Flow Through the Heart Right Side (oxygen poor blood) <ul><li>Blood enters the right atrium first.  It is the smalle...
In the lungs… <ul><li>In the lungs we exhale releasing waste and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>We inhale, enriching th...
Left side of the heart (oxygen rich) <ul><li>On return from the lungs, the blood enters the left atrium through the pulmon...
Valves <ul><li>Valves in the heart act as doorways. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flows in one direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Any ...
Vascular System of the Heart <ul><li>The heart is comprised of dense muscle and requires its own vascular system. </li></u...
Myocardial  infarction <ul><li>When the coronary vessels are blocked, the heart muscle becomes starved for oxygen. </li></...
Heart Facts <ul><li>The heart is able to determine its own rate and rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by the autonomic n...
Blood Vessels
Arteries <ul><li>Carry blood away from the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic tubes that expand with pressure during contrac...
Pulse Sites
Veins <ul><li>The vessels that transport blood from the peripheral tissues to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin walls </li...
Capillaries <ul><li>Microscopic blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Single-celled walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of oxygen...
Veins and Arteries
Blood Pressure <ul><li>Measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure is de...
Blood Pressure <ul><li>Blood pressure is measured systolic(when the left ventricle contracts)  over the diastolic pressure...
Pulmonary Circulation versus Systemic Circulation <ul><li>Pulmonary </li></ul><ul><li>Moves blood from the heart to the lu...
Blood <ul><li>Blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells and plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma is about 55% of...
Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in the red bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Small enough to p...
White Blood Cells <ul><li>Leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Larger, have nucleus and lack hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Not as m...
Blood Platelets <ul><li>Thrombocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Control bleeding by forming a clot </li></ul>
Functions of blood
Case Study <ul><li>What are the signs and symptoms of angina? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the patient given nitroglycerin? <...
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A&P Chapter 25 The Circulatory System

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A&P Chapter 25 The Circulatory System

  1. 1. The Circulatory System Body Structure and Function Chapter 25
  2. 2. Overview of the Circulatory System <ul><li>The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels and the structures that make up the lymphatic system. </li></ul><ul><li>The heart is responsible for the blood through the arteries and veins. </li></ul><ul><li>The blood provides oxygen for the cells and removes carbon dioxide and waste. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Heart <ul><li>The heart is a four-chambered muscular pump lying just left of the midline of the chest. </li></ul><ul><li>Beneath the sternum. </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 3 layers: pericarduim, myocardium and endocardium </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Heart <ul><li>The human heart is about the size of a fist and weighs 9 oz. </li></ul><ul><li>Cone shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers on the right side move blood to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers on the left move blood back to the body. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Blood Flow Through the Heart Right Side (oxygen poor blood) <ul><li>Blood enters the right atrium first. It is the smallest chamber and receives blood from the inferior and superior vena cava. </li></ul><ul><li>From the right atrium the blood passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve to the lungs. </li></ul>
  6. 7. In the lungs… <ul><li>In the lungs we exhale releasing waste and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>We inhale, enriching the blood with oxygen. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Left side of the heart (oxygen rich) <ul><li>On return from the lungs, the blood enters the left atrium through the pulmonary vein. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood then passes from the atrium to the ventricle through the bicuspid valve. </li></ul><ul><li>The left ventricle is the strongest chamber, pumping blood throughout the entire body. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood leaves the heart through the aorta. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Valves <ul><li>Valves in the heart act as doorways. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flows in one direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Any damage or disease can allow a backflow of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting sound is a heart murmur. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Vascular System of the Heart <ul><li>The heart is comprised of dense muscle and requires its own vascular system. </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary arteries supply the heart with blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary veins drain the blood into the coronary sinus and back into the right atrium for oxygenation. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Myocardial infarction <ul><li>When the coronary vessels are blocked, the heart muscle becomes starved for oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting chest pain is called angina. </li></ul><ul><li>If oxygen is deprived for a long time , the heart muscle will be damaged and death may result. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Heart Facts <ul><li>The heart is able to determine its own rate and rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by the autonomic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>The cardiac cycle is all the events that occur in a heartbeat. </li></ul><ul><li>Ault rates vary from 70-110 bpm. </li></ul><ul><li>“ LUB-DUB” is the sound of the valves closing. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Blood Vessels
  13. 14. Arteries <ul><li>Carry blood away from the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic tubes that expand with pressure during contraction of the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>We can calculate the heart rate by checking the pulse . (Pulse is checked at a site where an artery overlies a bone.) </li></ul><ul><li>Radial site, brachial, carotid, temporal, femoral, popliteal dorsal pedis ad anterior tibial. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Pulse Sites
  15. 16. Veins <ul><li>The vessels that transport blood from the peripheral tissues to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin walls </li></ul><ul><li>Valves that force the blood to flow towards the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic walls, pressure is lower than in the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>More superficial = blood work/phlebotomy sites or IV sites. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Capillaries <ul><li>Microscopic blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Single-celled walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and waste takes place. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Veins and Arteries
  18. 19. Blood Pressure <ul><li>Measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure is determined by the force and the amount of blood pumped and by the size and flexibility of the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes depending on activity, temperature, diet, emotional state, posture, physical condition and medication use. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Blood Pressure <ul><li>Blood pressure is measured systolic(when the left ventricle contracts) over the diastolic pressure (when the pressure in the left ventricle relaxes). </li></ul><ul><li>Average BP120/80mmHg </li></ul>
  20. 21. Pulmonary Circulation versus Systemic Circulation <ul><li>Pulmonary </li></ul><ul><li>Moves blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart again. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for oxygenation of the blood and carbon dioxide to leave the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic </li></ul><ul><li>Route the blood takes when it leave the heart, travels through the body and then returns to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Function is to delivery oxygen and nutrients to the cells and to pick up carbon dioxide and waste. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Blood <ul><li>Blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells and plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma is about 55% of total volume of whole blood. Helps to maintain fluid volume an control blood pressure. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in the red bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Small enough to pass through capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Red pigment called hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin carries oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Low RBC=anemia </li></ul>
  23. 24. White Blood Cells <ul><li>Leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Larger, have nucleus and lack hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Not as many as RBC </li></ul><ul><li>Fight infection </li></ul><ul><li>Increased # may indicate infection or disease. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Blood Platelets <ul><li>Thrombocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Control bleeding by forming a clot </li></ul>
  25. 26. Functions of blood
  26. 27. Case Study <ul><li>What are the signs and symptoms of angina? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the patient given nitroglycerin? </li></ul><ul><li>If no relief from chest pan, what should he do next? </li></ul>
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