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A&P Chapter 23 Nervous System
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A&P Chapter 23 Nervous System






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    A&P Chapter 23 Nervous System A&P Chapter 23 Nervous System Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 23 A&P The Nervous System
    • Introduction
      • The nervous system is the body’s information gather, storage center and control system.
      • It controls, directs and coordinates body functions.
      • The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
    • Objectives
      • Identify the structures that make up the nervous system.
      • Explain how nerve impulses are transmitted.
      • State the functions of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
      • Identify disorders associated with the nervous system.
      • Lifespan considerations.
    • Neurons, Nerve Fibers, Nerves and Tracts
    • Neurons / Nerve Cell
      • All nervous system tissue is made up of nerve cells, called neurons, and their supporting tissues called neuroglia.
      • These cells allow the body to interacts with its internal and external environments.
      • There are 3 types of neurons: motor (doers), sensory (sensors) and interneurons (communicators).
    • Motor Neurons
      • Motor neurons cause muscles to contract and glands to secrete, and organs to perform their functions.
      • They can also inhibit these actions.
      • Motor neurons are also known as efferent meaning they carry messages away from the cell body to the muscles and organs.
    • Motor neuron
      • Motor neurons have a nucleated cell body with process extending away from the cell body.
      • These nerve fibers are called axons and dendrites.
      • Dendrites carry impulses to the cell body and the axon carries impulses away from it.
    • Motor neurons
      • Most axons are covered with a fatty insulating substance called the myelin sheath.
      • Axons with myelin sheath transmit impulses faster than those without.
      • Damage to unmyelinated cells is usually permanent.
      • The axon and dendrites allow neurons to communicate.
    • What does this mean?
      • Hit your thumb with a hammer and the motor neurons allow you to pull back you hand.
      • Smell fresh baked bread and your mouth waters.
      • Dust in your eye causes you to blink.
    • Sensory neurons
      • The second types of nerve cell is known as the sensory neuron or afferent neurons.
      • Sensory neurons have sensor receptors that allow transmission or impulses, or messages, to the central nervous system.
      • Therefore our ability to feel the hammer, smell the bread or feel the discomfort from the dust.
    • Interneurons
      • Third type of nerve cell.
      • Found in the central nervous system and mediate impulses between the motor and sensory neurons.
    • Nerve fibers, Nerves and Tracts
      • A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers, located outside the brain and spinal cord, that connect various parts of the body.
      • Sensory nerves carry messages to the CNS (brain) and the motor nerves carry messages away from the CNS.
      • Groups of nerve fibers within the CNS are known as tracts.
    • Nerve Impulses
      • Chemical neurotransmitters are stored in the axon terminals.
      • The space between neurons is called a synapse.
      • Information is received in the dendrite, passed through the cell body, travels down the axon and over the synapse to the next dendrite.
    • The Central Nervous System Brain Cerebrum Largest part of the brain Thought intelligence Cerebellum Regulates & Coordinates Body movement Brainstem Connects Cerebrum To spinal cord Spinal Cord Conducts info To & from the brain. Protected by Meninges Dura Matter Arachnoid Pia Matter
    • The Peripheral Nervous System
      • The peripheral nervous system has 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
      • Peripheral nerves with special functions for the autonomic nervous system.
    • Cranial Nerves
      • The cranial nerves conduct impulses between the brain and the head, neck, chest and abdomen.
      • Impulses for smell, vision, hearing, pain, touch, temperature and pressure, voluntary and involuntary muscles control.
    • Peripheral Nervous Stsyem
      • Spinal nerves carry impulses from skin, extremities and internal body structure not supplied by cranial nerves.
    • Autonomic Nervous System
      • Controls involuntary muscles and functions including heartbeat, blood pressure, intestinal contractions and glandular secretions.
    • Autonomic Nervous System
      • Sympathetic
      • Speeds up functions
      • Stimulated with exercise
      • Stimulated with anger, excitement or fear.
      • Parasympathetic
      • Slows down functions
      • Activated with relaxation
      • Activated when under stimulated for too long
    • What happens with fear?
    • The Sensory System