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  1. 1. A&P Chapter 19 Body Structure and Function
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Anatomy - the study of the structure of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology -the study of the function of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Pathophysiology – the study of diseases or disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis – all systems working together to maintain balance </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Human Body Levels of Organization <ul><li>What is the human body comprised of? </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms – the smallest chemical unit of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are comprised of protons, neutrons and electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of atoms : carbon, oxygen, nitrogen </li></ul>
  4. 4. Molecules <ul><li>The smallest part of a substance called a compound that can still be considered that substance </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are composed of atoms joined together chemically </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules can be solids, liquids or gases </li></ul><ul><li>What atoms make up a molecule of water? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cells <ul><li>A cell is one of the most basic units of life </li></ul><ul><li>Often described as the basic building blocks of the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Some cells are organisms unto themselves such as a bacterial cell </li></ul><ul><li>Others only function as past of a larger organism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cell Structure <ul><li>Cell membrane – the skin of a cell that protects it from he outside environment </li></ul><ul><li>The cell membrane helps regulate movement of water , nutrients and wastes into and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus – it is the center of the cell and contains the cell’s DNA </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cell Structure con’t <ul><li>Cytoplasm – the substance that fills the cell. It is a jelly like material that is 80% water. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tissues <ul><li>A group of cells creates a tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Each tissue performs a special function </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 types of cell tissue: </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve tissue </li></ul>
  9. 9. Body Organs and Systems <ul><li>Organs – groups of tissues that serve a common purpose or function </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : lungs, brain , stomach and kidney </li></ul><ul><li>System – when groups of organs work together to perform a specific function </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : respiratory, nervous, digestive and circulatory </li></ul>
  10. 10. Anatomical locations and positions <ul><li>What is the anatomical position of the body? </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 19-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Directional anatomical terms include; </li></ul><ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior or ventral </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior or dorsal </li></ul><ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><li>Distal </li></ul>
  11. 11. Planes of the body <ul><li>Anatomical planes are imaginary lines – vertical or horizontal – drawn through the upright body </li></ul><ul><li>Coronal plane (frontal plane) </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal plane ( median plane) </li></ul><ul><li>Axial plane ( transverse plane) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Body cavities and abdominal regions <ul><li>Cavities contain the organs and viscera </li></ul><ul><li>2 main cavities are the ventral and dorsal </li></ul><ul><li>The ventral is divided into the thoracic and abdominopelvic </li></ul><ul><li>These 2 cavities are separated by the diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>The dorsal cavity is divided into the upper portion (brain) and the lower portion (spinal cord) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Electrolytes <ul><li>Electrolyte – a medical term for salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Body fluids, such as blood, plasma and interstitial fluid are like sea water and have a high concentration of NaCl. </li></ul><ul><li>Major electrolytes in the human body include potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium calcium, bicarbonate, sulfate and phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells use electrolytes to carry electrical impulses, important for nerve, heart and muscles. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Genetics and heredity <ul><li>Genetics is the study of the make up of animals or plants </li></ul><ul><li>DNA carries all the information for protein synthesis and replication of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is organized in chromosomes in the cell’s nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>“ Genetic engineering” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Genetic fingerprint” </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity is the genetic transmission from parent to child. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Critical thinking pg 359 <ul><li>Where is the epigastric region? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you position a patient into the supine position? </li></ul><ul><li>Which quadrant would the pain be localized in? </li></ul>