Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                 SOC2 Sir Mel GarciaGENDER SENSITIVITYFeminism ...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                   SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia    Feminist researchers...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                              SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia    Domestic violence    Wom...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                 SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia    Poverty          There...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                   SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia    Sexism in media and ...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                    SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia      doing sex shows at...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                 SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia                         LE...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                  SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia      Historically differe...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                                   SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia                   POLICI...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                               SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia      Other affirmative actio...
Navarro, Mary Concepcion A.                                             SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia      SOURCES:      http://en.w...
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Gender sensitivity about feminism

  1. 1. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel GarciaGENDER SENSITIVITYFeminism  The advocacy of womens rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.  Is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment.Feminist  Are people who believe in (with some campaigning for) the equality of women with menPro-Feminism  Pro-feminism is the support of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism. The activities of pro-feminist mens groups include anti- violence work with boys and young men in schools, offering sexual harassment workshops in workplaces, running community education campaigns, and counseling male perpetrators of violence. Pro-feminist men also are involved in mens health, activism against pornography including anti-pornography legislation, mens studies, and the development of gender equity curricula in schools. This work is sometimes in collaboration with feminists and womens services, such as domestic violence and rape crisis centers. It refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism and of efforts to bring about gender equality. A number of pro-feminist men are involved in political activism, most often in the areas of womens rights and violence against women.Anti-Feminism  Anti-feminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its formsTheory  Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines womens social roles, experience, interests, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, psycho analysis, economics, literary, education, and philosophy. While generally providing a critique of social relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on analyzing gender inequality and the promotion of womens interests. 1
  2. 2. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia  Feminist researchers embrace two key tenets: 1. Their research should focus on the condition of women in society, and 2. Their research must be grounded in the assumption, that women generally experience subordination. Feminist research rejects Webers value-free orientation in favor of being overtly politicaldoing research about gender equality. Themes explored in feminism include discrimination,objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression, patriarchy, stereotyping, arthistory and contemporary art, and aesthetics.EXPLOITATION OF WOMENFilipino Women in the Spanish Period  The position of our women in society, already high during the pre-Spanish period, was further elevated under Spanish rule. Unlike in many Oriental countries and in some Christian countries in Europe, they were never considered as mere chattels and were never used as beasts of burden laboring the fields and on the roads. They were respected by men. If still unmarried, they were strictly chaperoned when they attended dances and other social parties. They had no freedom to study in the universities, to engage in the professions (law, medicine, engineering, etc.), and to mix freely with men. They were, however, permitted by custom and law to engage in business. The young women were kept in seclusion in home or in school. They were given education in the colegios (colleges) which were exclusive schools for girls and were operated by the nuns. At the colegios they were trained to observe the rigid rules of good mothers. Those young women who had no intention of marrying or who were unfortunate in their romances unusually entered the nunnery and consecrated their lives in the service of God.WOMEN’S ISSUES TODAY  Sexual harassment  is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Harassment can include "sexual harassment" or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature.  is a behavior. It is defined as unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature. For example, a man whistles at a woman when she walks by. Or a woman looks a man up and down when he walks towards her. Read more here: 2
  3. 3. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia  Domestic violence  Women are more likely to be victimized by someone that they are intimate with, commonly called "Intimate Partner Violence" or (IPV). The impact of domestic violence in the sphere of total violence against women can be understood through the example that 40–70% of murders of women are committed by their husband or boyfriend. Studies have shown that violence is not always perpetrated as a form of physical violence but can also be psychological and verbal. In unmarried relationships this is commonly called dating violence, whereas in the context of marriage it is called domestic violence. Instances of IPV tend not to be reported to police and thus many experts believe that the true magnitude of the problem is hard to estimate. Women are much more likely than men to be murdered by an intimate partner. In the United States, in 2005, 1181 women, in comparison with 329 men, were killed by their intimate partners. In England and Wales about 100 women are killed by partners or former partners each year while 21 men were killed in 2010. In 2008, in France, 156 women in comparison with 27 men were killed by their intimate partner.  Though this form of violence is often portrayed as an issue within the context of heterosexual relationships, it also occurs in lesbian relationships, daughter-mother relationships, roommate relationships and other domestic relationships involving two women. Violence against women in lesbian relationships is about as common as violence against women in heterosexual relationships.  Adolescent Mothers & Single Parents  Single Parents FAQS  Education Only 50 percent of teenage mothers finish high school. Only 70 percent of teenage fathers finish high school 90 percent of mothers under the age of sixteen will never finish high school. Less than two percent of women who become mothers before the age of twenty will complete college. Lack of education usually results in an inability to get adequate jobs.  Employment  Teenage parents are more likely to have low status jobs, lower hourly wages or be unemployed.  The younger the mother at childbirth, the lower her family income will be. 3
  4. 4. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia  Poverty There is a direct link between poverty and teenage parenting. Families headed by young mothers are seven times more likely to be poor. 71 percent of AFDC recipients under thirty were teenagers when their first child was born. Of all families with young children headed by women who gave birth as teenagers, 67 percent live below the officially designated poverty level. A study found that only one in ten children in two-parent families were poor while two out three children living in single parent homes were poor.  Future Pregnancies Teenage mothers are likely to raise large unplanned families alone. 60 percent of teenagers gave birth before the age of sixteen will be pregnant again before the age of eighteen.  Concerns About Children of Single Parents Children of single parents are likely to have lower I.Q scores and are more likely to repeat school grades than children raised in two parent families. Children from single parent homes have more physical and psychological problems than children raised in two parent homes When children of teenage parents grow up, they are more likely to become teenage parents themselves, receive welfare, or become divorced.  Concerns About Teenage Marriage  Marriages that result from an unplanned pregnancy often fail.  At least 60 percent of young people who marry before the age of twenty will be divorced within five years.  When pregnancy is the major reason for marriage, the failure rate could reach 90 percent within the first six years of marriage.  Even if a husband is working, it is not likely that he has a well paying job.  Because the young mother will likely drop out of school to care for her child, she will find herself with no education or job skills.  Marriage will not solve the problem of an unplanned pregnancy. A good marriage demands hard work and commitment from each partner. This is often difficult for young people still working on developing their own identities.  If you do not receive support from your family and will not be able to finish high school because you parent your child, consider these facts carefully. It may predict your future life and that of your child. 4
  5. 5. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia  Sexism in media and other social institutions Prejudice or discrimination based on sex; especially: discrimination against women, behavior, conditions, or attitudes that foster stereotypes of social roles based on sex. Used in feminist critiques of society and in general usage for: (1) Attitudes and behavior based on traditional assumptions about, and stereotypes of, sexual roles in society and some GENDER usages in language. (2) Discrimination or disparagement based on a persons sex, especially when directed by men or society at large against women. In terms of language, sexism refers to a bias through which patterns and references of male usage are taken to be normative, super ordinate, and positive and those of women are taken to be deviant, subordinate, and negative  Examples: 1. Crime sentencing gender gap 2. Domestic violence 3. Hate-motivated sexual assault 4. Education 5. Military service 6. Misandry 7. War rape 8. Sexual slavery 9. Sex-selective abortion 10. Transphobia Oppressive fashions  Discrimination is the prejudicial or distinguishing treatment of an individual based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or category, such as their race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, religion, age, disability, skin color, ethnicity, or other characteristics. It involves the groups initial reaction or interaction, influencing the individuals actual behavior towards the group or the group leader, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on logical or irrational decision making.  Child Pornography and Prostitution is the commercial sexual exploitation of children in which a child performs the services of prostitution, for financial benefit. The term normally refers to prostitution by a minor, or person under the legal age of maturity. In many countries there are specific laws against child prostitution which may include people who are older than the legal Age of consent. Is a very large and in many cases touchy subject. This is one of the reasons that it is hard to catch the people perpetrating it. Many people do not want to talk about it because it is such a horrible thing. This silence is one of the things child pornographers count on to keep their business going. In recent months the issue of child pornography has become visible in the media. Talk show hosts like Oprah Winfrey have produced shows exposing some of the information they have found about child pornography and the people who help to make it such a large and profitable industry. Recently, Oprah had a young man on her show who had been 5
  6. 6. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia doing sex shows at home and on the Internet for money and who is now working with government officials to help bring down the people who prey on children through this medium.  Another thing that keeps these web sites going is the amount of money that can, and is being made with this business. Some reports show that child pornography over the internet is more than a 50 billion dollar a year business. With technology growing faster and faster everyday and the Internet being such an instant source gratification in so many ways it has become easier for people who run child pornography sites to make a lot of money in a short amount of time. Another thing that keeps child pornography sites going is the laws. The United States has laws against child pornography and prostitution, but many other countries do not have the same laws. In some countries prostitution is legal. This link to other places makes it very appealing to people who wish to view and/or promote this type of material. There are, however, people and organizations in some of these countries that are trying to help expose these child pornographers. There are several organizations that have international ties and work with countries outside of the United States to help stop the spread of child pornography on the Internet. There are organizations that work with local and federal agencies in the United States, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), to help locate and round up the people running these child pornography rings and put a stop to the people using them. In the past year there have been two major child pornography rings busted. In both cases the people running the rings were spread across more than one country. Both cases included people from the United States and Canada.  The sites listed on the 2005 white paper on this topic are great for information on protecting children from predators as well as informing parents on the issues, dangers, and prevention of child pornography. There are some organizations listed in it that help with these issues. In this addendum I will give some additional sites for that purpose as well as some sites with more recent information. Some of these will be about specific cases and others will be about the laws that are in place to help protect our children. One of the sites of particular interest included help and support from the adult film industry. Some of the people in this industry have gotten together to help stop child pornography and the people who keep it going. This group helps to report and investigate suspected child pornographers and their customers in order to assist the government agencies with their reviews of suspected sites. Read More: 6
  7. 7. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia LESBIANISM OF FEMALE HOMOSEXUALITY Women who deal with same sex attraction, possess a history of misidentification with their mothers, and therefore with their femininity. This leads to a longing for connection with the feminine that becomes sexualized in adolescence or adulthood. Without a secure attachment to mother, she fails to identify with mother as a female role model losing the opportunity to develop trust and a healthy gender identity. Because of an empty or distorted view of her feminine self she has an inability to connect in a healthy way with other girls. Her sexual development is arrested. This can create an underlying depression and anxiety within the little girl that may follow the remainder of her life. She does not have a sense of well-being and lives with restlessness within her as she searches for security and stability. She seeks validation for her dependency needs that were denied as a child and longs to be connected with a loving caretaker and ultimately with herself. Rather than finding the feminine within her, she looks to another woman to give her the identification and connection she is missing. Like all other deep- seated identity issues, same sex attraction is difficult to overcome. Psychotherapy consists of understanding the emotional roots of the attraction, strengthening feminine identification, grieving the losses of childhood and learning to meet same sex needs for attention, affection and affirmation with emotional dependency and in a non-erotic manner The History of Lesbianism Origin of the Term Lesbian The earliest mention of the world Lesbian is in ancient Greece. An early Greek female poet Sappho is known to have written love poems to women as well as men, thus making her an early example of bisexuality. Two terms referring to female homosexuality derive from Sappho; Sapphic, referring to Sapphos name, and Lesbian, referring to the Island where Sappho was born. It has been suggested that Sapphos relationships did not include any overt sexual relations, though it has also been suggested that female homosexuality was common place on the Island of Lesbos. Origin Gay or Lesbian Definitions The etymology of many words related to same sex relations. Womens Studies – UMD Womens Studies Database Violence in Same Sex Relationships - An overview of violence in same sex relations Sapphos – Poetry & Lesbianism Lesbianism & Feminism – An Analysis of Lesbian History Gay & Lesbian Relationships – A Guide to Lesbian Studies Historic Legality of Female Homosexuality 7
  8. 8. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia Historically different nations and cultures have treated same sex relations differently, and also have had different standards for male and female same sex relations. For instance in the Jewish culture same sex relations between men are forbidden where as relations between women constitute minor moral issues. Greek culture in general did not regard same sex relations as distinctly perverted though the idea of same sex relations being perverted did prevail in some ways. Jewish Lesbianism – The Talmud on Lesbian Relations Lesbianism & Law – The National Bar and Females of Same Sex Orientation The Legality of Homosexual Relations – Gay & Lesbian Legal Issues Political Considerations & Same Sex Relations Many nations have ignored same sex relations in general regardless of the sexes involved. However, certain political considerations have affected these policies. During times of expected war there is always an incredible desire for able-bodied fighters. Even today with many nations facing population decline there is a prevailing attitude toward same sex relationships as preventing the future of the nation. At the same time many nations have turned a blind eye toward these relationships especially when, much as did Sappho, the persons involved bare children. Historically many same sex relations were between persons who did maintain heterosexual relations, and resulted in children. Homosexual in War – Consideration of Same Sex Relations in War Time Victims of the Holocaust – The homosexual victims of Nazi Fascism The Holocaust & Gender Studies – The Genocide of Homosexuals Famous Lesbians in History There are many openly same sex relationships between women recorded in history. There are also some relationships that are accepted as probably between two female partners without explicit support for these claims. There are also many mythological characters who were either implicitly, or explicitly same sex females (or males). Lesbian Resources – A List of Notable Lesbians Famous Lesbians – Famous Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Celebrities Yulia Volkova – A recent advocate of tolerance for same sex relations 8
  9. 9. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia POLICIES AND ENACTMENTS ON WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND SEXUAL RIGHTS POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR WOMEN’S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN THE PHILIPPINES 1987 Constitution of the Philippines “The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men.” (Article II, Section 14) Family Code of the Philippines Spouses have joint responsibility to support the family. (Article 70) Women in Dev’t & Nation-Building Act (RA 7192) Equality in capacity to act (Section 5) • Capacity to borrow & obtain loans • Equal access to all government & private sector programs granting credit, loans & non- material resources • Equal rights to act as incorporators & enter into contracts • Equal rights for married women & men to apply for passports, secure visas & other travel documents without the need to secure consent of spouses Women in Dev’t & Nation-Building Act (RA 7192) Equal membership in clubs (Section 6) • Access to membership in social, civic and other organizations w/ the same rights and privileges according to their spouses RA 7192 (cont…) Admission to military schools (Sec. 7) • Equal opportunities for appointment, admission, training, graduation & commissioning to all military or similar schools Voluntary social security coverage (Sec. 8) • Entitlement to voluntary social security coverage to “married persons who manage the HH full-time to the extent of 1/2 of the salary of the working spouse However: In decision making, e.g., administration & enjoyment of conjugal properties, “Husband’s decision shall prevail in case of disagreement.” (Family Code, Articles 96, 124, 211 & 225) 9
  10. 10. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia Other affirmative action policies: RA 7796: Women’s seat in the TESDA TESDA policy: at least 10% of graduates = women RA 7941: Party-list representatives CSC MC: Equal Representation of Women & Men in Third Level Positions Other recent policies: RA 7655: Increasing minimum wage of house helpers RA 6972: Day Care Center Act AO 241: Day care centers in all government & private offices RA 7882: Eligibility of women to avail loans to start micro & cottage enterprises IRR of National Health Insurance Act = being revised to include gender concerns 10
  11. 11. Navarro, Mary Concepcion A. SOC2 Sir Mel Garcia SOURCES: period.html 11