The Russian Orthodox ChurchThe Patriarchate of Moscow and All Russia MaryBeth/Masha Keller
The Legend of St. Andrew in Rus’ St. Andrew came to the site of Kiev and foretold the founding of a great Christian City.
The rise of Christianity in Rus’ • St. Olga, Grand • Paganism Princess of Kiev • Greek Missionaries converts in c. • St. Cyril and St. Methodius 946/957 • First Bishop of Kiev was • 988: St. Vladimir sent in c. 866-867 the Great chooses Byzantine Christianity
Under the Mongols• The Church enjoyed a favored position & tax immunity • Supported the dominance of Moscow• Dramatic growth in Monasticism
During the 15th CenturyThe Church was the dominant aspect of life and livelihood.Council of Florence (1439): Catholics and Orthodox meet up to discuss andwork out their differences1448: Constantinople grants ecumenical independence to the Russianchurch, now in Moscow1453: Constantinople falls to the Muslims and Russia becomes anecumenical “orphan”
REFORM!! The Church was given the right of ownership of property; as the State’s power grew so did the that of the Church 1589: Job is elected as Russia’s first real Patriarch More Monasteries!!! 1540’s: The Tsar’s jurisdiction over the Church is nullified; Patriarchs eventually came to “out rank” the Tsar, and even ruled in his stead.Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery Kirillo-BelozerskySolovetsky Monastery Monastery
The 17th CenturyThe Time of Troubles Patriarch Germogen dies a Prisoner, calling for the Russians to take back their countrySchism of Old Believers against Patriarch Nikon’s GreekReforms
MORE REFORM!!1700-1721: No one held the title of Patriarch; Patriarchalduties were carried out by a “Synod” Synods are still in use today1762: Peter III secularizes church property; Catherine II (theGreat) promises to return it
Fin-de-siècle religious renaissance Prevalent during the last 20+ years of the Empire
The ROC under Communism Religion was vilified and greatly discouraged; public practice of the faith could mean arrest, and labor camps or execution. 1917-1941: Churches are closed/demolished, members and clergy are executed, land is secularized, and religion is banned, of course under penalty of death. WWII: Stalin & the “idea” of the Church 1945-1985: (please see 1917-1941)
1985 – PresentWith Glasnost and Perestroika, the church was able tobegin their ministry again without fear of arrest orpunishment1988: Gorbachev helped the Church celebrate itsmillennium anniversary and encourages participation andinclusion1991: USSR collapses (yay!)/Russian Federation is formed Church was given all its privileges back and, today, is now a close part of government
Beliefs and practices• All churches face the east• Iconostasis, Royal Gate, Deacons’ doors • http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_VKMQjq6ujoA/TOrw90gwk_I/AAAAAAAAAfw/k1DmSHR5nZU/s1600/8%2B- %2BPrayers%2Bat%2Bthe%2BRoyal%2Bdoor.JPG) • http://www.templestudy.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/iconostasis.jpg• An icon is always present on the Iconostasis, and is of a saint(s)/event that is commemorated on that day. • Icons are to be venerated by all present at services• A crucifix is always to the left of the iconostasis in church, surrounded by candles • http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/radist/radist0811/radist081100052/3824932-decoration-of-russian-orthodox- church-indoor-uglich.jpg• More icons are scattered around the church, w/(or)w/o candles, lamps, etc.• Candles are always beeswax; Oil is always olive oil.• Incense is used for both icons and worship service.
• Everyone is to remain standing during services, though we are free to move freely throughout the service. Women must cover their head, and only the elderly, expectant women, and infirm may sit. • the division of men and women in church• Choral music only!! Musical instruments are banned. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlRU7OEBpAk• The Orthodox cross is made with the thumb, index, and middle finger touching and is made in reverse fashion of the Catholic cross. (head, chest, right shoulder, left shoulder)• Communion wine is received from a chalice and spoon, bread is in small pieces soaked in wine. You may take confession before or after, and you can’t eat anything before taking communion.• Baptism occurs during infancy and chrismation occurs at the age of reason, however children may take communion regardless of having had chrismation or not. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZnzO47YCMs• Priests may marry, but only before their ordination. They can not divorce or remarry.• Bishops are the highest rank in the Church, called metropolitans or Patriarchs.