Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  1. 1. Understanding Color Chapter 4: The Vocabulary of Color
  2. 2. The three qualities of color are:•Hue• Value• Saturation
  3. 3. RedGreen BlueYellow Hue means the name of the color.
  4. 4. In science, the colors of light are called spectral colors.
  5. 5. Spectral colors can be measured precisely bytheir different wavelengths (or frequencies.)
  6. 6. The words “hue” and “color” are often used interchangeably.
  7. 7. In everday speech (including ourtext book), the word “color” isused in two different ways.It can mean:It can mean:• the HUE of something, or• the complete visual experience of the color’s hue, value and saturation together.
  8. 8. The word “hue” should never, however,be used to mean anything other than the name of a color. Chroma is a synonym for hue.
  9. 9. Chromatic: having hue
  10. 10. Achromatic: without hue
  11. 11. Polychromatic: having many hues
  12. 12. Monochromatic: having one hue only
  13. 13. It has been theorized that the average person candistinguish about 150 colors of light and every one can be described using one of two of only six words:
  14. 14. Red
  15. 15. Orange
  16. 16. Yellow
  17. 17. Green
  18. 18. Blue
  19. 19. Violet
  20. 20. YellowYellowYellow Yellow A color is called by the name of its most obvious, or dominant, hue.
  21. 21. Nearly all colorsamples include morethan one hue, butone hue is mostapparent and othersare present in smallerproportion.
  22. 22. A sample mayseem to be pure yellow until it isplaced next to a different yellow sample.
  23. 23. Suddenly, one yellow is seen to contain a bit of green, the other afraction of orange.
  24. 24. Both are called yellow because yellowpredominates in each.
  25. 25. Using the word“contains” helps toevaluate colors.
  26. 26. “This yellowcontains someorange.”“This yellowcontains somegreen.”
  27. 27. The artists’spectrum is a circle thatillustrates huesin their natural (spectral) order.
  28. 28. The spectrum of visible light (additive color) islinear and is displayed according to wavelength.
  29. 29. The artists’spectrum is alsofixed in its order ofcolors, but it has sixhues instead of sevenand they arepresented as acontinuous circle.
  30. 30. The artists’spectrum is alsocalled thecolor wheel orcolor circle.
  31. 31. There are too manyhues in the range ofhuman vision toinclude all of them inone circle...
  32. 32. the artists’spectrum is asort of visualoutline, orsynopsis, of allvisible hues.
  33. 33. The basicspectrum ismade up of sixhues: red,yellow, blue,orange, green,and violet
  34. 34. The expandedspectrumincludesyellow-orange,red-orange, red-violet,blue-violet,blue-green, andyellow-green.
  35. 35. The artists; spectrum is limited to six or twelve huesonly because this is a concise, easily illustrated figure.
  36. 36. It can be expanded to any number of hues as long as the added colors are inserted at regular intervals in all hue ranges.
  37. 37. Color wheels come in all types...
  38. 38. But they all recognize the same sequence of colors.
  39. 39. All color circles include the primary hues in some way, and all follow the same color order.
  40. 40. A chromatic scale is any linear series of hues in spectrum order. Each step in the progression is a change in hue.
  41. 41. The words “cool” and “warm” are used to describe two opposing qualities of hue.
  42. 42. Warm colors are reds, oranges, yellows, and the steps between them.
  43. 43. Cool colors are blues, greens, violets, and the steps between them.
  44. 44. The primary colors are weighted toward the warm.
  45. 45. Only blue is cool, while both red and yellow are considered warm.
  46. 46. As a result, the entire spectrum is more heavily “warm” than it is “cool.”
  47. 47. Blue is the polar extreme of cool, and orange, made of red and yellow, is the polar extreme of warm.
  48. 48. Warmth and coolness in colors are not absolutequalities. Any color, even a primary, can appear warmer or cooler relative to another color.
  49. 49. Warmth and coolness in colors are not absolutequalities. Any color, even a primary, can appear warmer or cooler relative to another color.
  50. 50. Analogous colors are hues that are adjacent on the artists’ spectrum
  51. 51. They are described in various ways.
  52. 52. For the purposes of this class, analogous colors are simply colors that are next to each other on the color wheel.
  53. 53. And while it is true that the most harmoniousanalogous groupings are made up of even intervals of hue...
  54. 54. ...all analogous color schemes achieve a sense of harmony.
  55. 55. The text book claims that they never contain all three primary colors.
  56. 56. But when you expand your analogous color schemes to include hues that contain the third primary–as long as thecolors are next to each other–you still achieve a harmonious color scheme.
  57. 57. Remember that analogy is not confined to pure colors. Colors that havebeen diluted in any way can also be analogous–no matter what their value or saturation.
  58. 58. Complementary colors are hues that areopposite one another on the artists’ spectrum.
  59. 59. Together, the two are called complements, or a complementary pair.
  60. 60. The basic complementary pairs of the artists’ spectrum are:
  61. 61. Yellow and violet
  62. 62. Blue and orange
  63. 63. Red and green
  64. 64. In each of thesepairs, one half is aprimary color andthe other half is thesecondary that is amixture of theremaining twoprimaries.
  65. 65. It is important to note that the threebasic complementary pairs are different from each other in how much they contrast with each other.
  66. 66. Because the complements vary in value,their contrast is more or less accordingly.
  67. 67. Red and green
  68. 68. Orange and blue
  69. 69. Yellow and violet
  70. 70. Othercomplementay pairs are less contrasting because eachcolor containsone primary in common with its opposite.
  71. 71. For instance, red-violet and yellow-green each contain blue.
  72. 72. No matter what thevalue or saturation of acolor, it maintains atall times acomplementaryrelationship with itsopposite.
  73. 73. Ignore your book on the subject of tertiary color!
  74. 74. For the purposes of this class, tertiaries are colors that are mixed with their complement.
  75. 75. There are aninfinite amount ofcolors that can be produced by mixing colors with their complement.
  76. 76. As you can see, many tertiary colors resemble the color wecall “brown,” and others approach the color we call “gray.”
  77. 77. But remember that brown and gray are not hues.
  78. 78. Black, gray and white are achromatic - meaning “without color.”
  79. 79. Absolute blacks and whites exist only in the medium of light.
  80. 80. In subtractive media, blacks and whitesalways have some colorant that gives them a suggestion of hue.
  81. 81. True grays, or mixtures of black and white, are also achromatic.
  82. 82. Subtractive grays are characterized as either warm or cool.
  83. 83. Value refers to the relative light and dark in a color.
  84. 84. Hue iscircular andcontinuous,but value islinear andprogressive.
  85. 85. Value exists whether or not hue is present.
  86. 86. The colors of the artists’ spectrum (or color wheel) have different values.
  87. 87. White is the lightest possible value, and black is thedarkest possible value. All other colors fall somewhere in between.
  88. 88. Only value contrast makes objectsdistinguishable from their background.
  89. 89. The degree of contrastbetween light and dark areas determines the strength, or graphic quality, of an image.
  90. 90. Differences between form and their background may be further emphasized by contrasts of hue orsaturation, but difference in value is the only factorin the ability to see a distinct edge between colors.
  91. 91. The closer in value an image is to itsbackground, the harder it is to see.
  92. 92. However, high contrast images are not always desirable. Strong contrasts of dark and light induce lateral inhibition, and can fatigue the eyes.
  93. 93. One of the defining characteristics of a line is that it contrasts with the background. (The other is that it is longer than it is wide.)
  94. 94. When blocks of color are similar in value, they are difficult to make out...
  95. 95. ...but the thinnest of contrasting line between them creates an immediate separation.
  96. 96. The placement of different values relative to oneanother within an image give it individual identity.
  97. 97. In order to transpose an image from one color toanother, the number and placement of values within the image must be identical.
  98. 98. Value is also associated with the idea of luminosity. A hue that is luminous reflects a great deal of light, appears light, and is high in value.
  99. 99. The artists’ spectrum illustrates colors at evenly spacedintervals of hue, but not of evenly spaced intervals of value.
  100. 100. A tint is a hue that has white added to it.
  101. 101. A shade is a hue that has black added to it.
  102. 102. A tone is a hue that has gray added to it.
  103. 103. This is different than in your text book. Take notice!!!
  104. 104. A monochromatic value scale is a singlehue illustrated as a full range of values in even steps, including both tints and shades.
  105. 105. Any hue can be illustrated as a full range of tints and shades, from near-white to near-black.
  106. 106. A chart of sevensteps of equalvalue in differenthues illustrateshow a single stepof value maycontain both tintsand shades. On alimited chart suchas this one, somesaturated huesmay not appearat all.
  107. 107. It is easy todetermine valuedifferences ingray scale butmuch harderwhen comparingvalue in a hue.
  108. 108. It is especiallyhard whencomparing valuesin two differenthues.
  109. 109. Even complementswith the highest huecontrast can be made unreadable bymanipulating thevalue.
  110. 110. Saturation (or chroma)refers to the hue intensity.
  111. 111. A saturated color is a color at its fullest expression of hue. It is a color at maximum chroma.
  112. 112. Saturation is acomparativeterm. Itdescribes thecontrastbetween dulland vivid.
  113. 113. Saturation, like value, is linear and progressive.
  114. 114. The beginning of a saturation scale is a color that is hue-intensive. The end step is a color so dull that its hue can not be identified.
  115. 115. Although they are sometimes mixed up, saturation is a color quality that is distinct from value.
  116. 116. Shades are already reduced in saturation because they contain black, so it is instinctive to think ofmuted colors as dark. But any hue or tint can bereduced in saturation without changing its value.
  117. 117. One way to do this is to mix a hue with a gray of the same value. This is what we call a “tone.”
  118. 118. When white ismixed with a hue, it changes saturation. It also changes value.
  119. 119. When black ismixed with a hue, it changes saturation. It also changes value.
  120. 120. When gray is mixed with a hue, it changes saturation. But it does NOT change value.
  121. 121. Another way to reduce the saturation of a hue is to add its complement. + =
  122. 122. Another way to reduce the saturation of a hue is to add its complement.
  123. 123. There are an infinite number of variations within this type of mixture.And for the purposes of this class, ALL of these different colors are called tertiary colors.
  124. 124. Within thetertiary spectrum, we can recognizeother distinctions.
  125. 125. To help those in color studies indicate the degrees of saturation within a mixture like this, we use other descriptive terms.
  126. 126. The hues at maximum chroma are called Prismatic
  127. 127. The next step in saturation are called Muted
  128. 128. The next step in saturation are called Chromatic Grays
  129. 129. The least saturated tertiaries are called Achromatic Grays
  130. 130. Theoretically, they are called achromatic because there is no discernible hue.In practice, though, the achromatic gray or the mixture of any two complements is the middle point where neither hue dominates.
  131. 131. Keep in mind that this point is subjective and can be different for different individuals. ?
  132. 132. The term “theoretical gray” is used in thetext book to indicate a concept used by color theorists to characterize a perfect tertiary color: one of no discernible hue.
  133. 133. In theory, there should be a middle point between all complements that is the same. But in practice, it does not exist.For the purposes of this class, theoretical gray is the same thing as achromatic gray.
  134. 134. Some of the most interesting colors result from mixedcomplements that have been tinted to raise their value. These are the light neutrals you see in many consumer goods.
  135. 135. The exuberance of saturated color is easily found innature, but muted colors are by far the greatest part of our visual world.
  136. 136. And remember, that it is the CONTRAST between these different qualities of color that draw our attention to them.
  137. 137. And remember, that it is the CONTRAST between these different qualities of color that draw our attention to them.