Refers to the methods in which trainees are passive
recipients of information. It includes traditional
instruction, distance learning, audiovisual
techniques, and mobile technology such as Ipods
and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant).
It requires the trainee to be actively involved in
learning. Hands-on methods include on-the-job
training, simulations, business games and case
studies, behavior modeling, interactive video, and
this is a classroom instruction compose
of the trainer and the trainees
Instruction and delivery training by
computers through the internet or company
is used geographically dispersed companies
to provide information about new products,
policies, or procedures as well as skills
training and expert lectures to field locations
Teleconferencing vs. Webcasting
It includes overheads, slides, and video. It has
been used for improving communications skills,
interviewing skills, and customer-service skills
and for illustrating how procedures should be
It is useful not only for entertainment, but can
also be used for employees who travel and
need to be in touch with the office.
It refers to new or inexperienced employees
learning through observing peers or managers
performing the job and trying to imitate their
is a training method that represents a real-life
situation, allowing trainees to see the outcomes of
their decisions in an artificial environment.
Examples: Avatars and Virtual Reality
*Second Life Video
Situations that trainees study and discuss
(case studies) and business games in which
trainees must gather information, analyze it,
and make decisions are used primarily for
management skill development.
one of the most effective techniques for
teaching interpersonal skills. Each sessions
presents the rationale behind key behaviors,
a videotape of a model performing key
behaviors, practice opportunities using role-
playing, evaluation of a model’s
performance and planning session.
Learning focused on the development of teamwork and leadership
skills by using structured outdoor activities.
Coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to
achieve a common goal.
Team members understand and practice each other’s skills.
Trains the team in how to share information and decisions.
Team Leader Training
Training the team manager or facilitator.
Teams work on an actual business problem, commit to an action plan,
and are accountable for carrying out the plan.
Six Sigma Training
An action training program that provides employees with defect-
reducing tools to cut costs and certifies employees as green belts,
champions, or black belts.
Identify the learning outcome that you want
training to influence (e.g. verbal influence,
cognitive strategies, attitudes, motor skills,
Consider the extent to which the method
facilitates learning and transfer of learning,
the costs related to development and use
of the method, and its effectiveness
Examining the outcomes of a program
helps in evaluating its effectiveness.
These outcomes should be in lined to the
program objectives in order for the
trainees to understand the program.
Training outcomes can be categorized
as cognitive outcomes, skill-based
outcomes, affective outcomes, results,
and return on investment.
OUTCOME WHAT IS MEASURED HOW MEASURED EXAMPLE
Cognitive Acquisition of
Safety rules, electrical
principles, steps in
Skill-based Behavior, skills Observation, work
Jigsaw use, listening
skills, coaching skills,
Affective Motivation, reaction
to program, attitudes
Interviews, focus groups,
regarding other cultures
Results Company payoff Observation, data from
information system, or
ROI Economic value of
comparison of costs and
benefits of the program
To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses
To assess whether content, organization, and
administration of the program contribute to learning
and the use of training content on the job
To identify which trainees benefited most or least from
To gather data to assist in marketing training
To determine the financial benefits and costs of the
To compare the costs and benefits of training versus
To compare the costs and benefits of different training
programs to choose the best program
Design Groups Pre-
Cost Time Strength
Posttest Only Trainees No Yes Low Low Low
Pretest / Posttest Trainees Yes Yes Low Low Medium
No Yes Medium Medium Medium
Pretest / Posttest
Yes Yes Medium Medium High
Time Series Trainees Yes Yes, several Medium Medium Medium
The process of educating employees
(and their families) who are given an
assignment in a foreign country.
Employee sent by his or her company
to manage operations in a different
To succeed overseas, expatriates need to
Competent in their area of expertise.
Able to communicate verbally and
nonverbally in the host country.
Flexible, tolerant of ambiguity, and
sensitive to cultural differences.
Motivated to succeed, able to enjoy the
challenge of working in other countries,
and willing to learn about the host
country’s culture, language, and
Supported by their families.
The aim of diversity training are
1. to eliminate values, stereotypes, and
managerial practices that inhibit
employees’ personal development
2. to allow employees to contribute to
organizational goals regardless of their
race, sexual orientation, gender,
socioeconomic status, religion, cultural