Chapter iii


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Chapter iii

  2. 2. Communication Communication- a two way process; exchange of information-a message sent is received and interpreted by the intended person.
  3. 3. Elements of Communication • Sender-you • Message-the information about your patient • Receiver-your supervisor • Feedback-supervisors attention, and questions about the complaint • Channel- the medium through which the message sent.
  4. 4. Characteristic of a Good Communication • Words that mean the same thing to you and the receiver • Use familiar words • Brief and concise • Information in logical and orderly • Give facts and be specific
  5. 5. Workplace Interactions • Face to face • Telephone • Electronic or two way communication • Written like memos, instructions or forms.
  6. 6. • Verbal Communication- uses words. They maybe spoken and written or use of symbols. • Non-Verbal Communication- • a message that is sent using one’s body language. (Gestures, signs, signals, facial expressions, posture, hand and body movement) •
  7. 7. Communicating with the Staff Use of Organizational chart---use as a guide and spells out lines of authority. Oral/Shift Reports---report from previous shift to incoming shift. Hands-Off Communication --- patient care is transferred from one worker to another worker or department. Answering the Telephone---
  8. 8. Written Communication among the Staff • Memos—a brief communication that informs or reminds employees. • Manuals—compilation of policies and procedures of a company. • Patient Care Plan—plan of action written by the interdisciplinary team that provides direction for each patient’s care. • Patients Medical Chart/Record— • Other Methods----like the use of computers
  9. 9. Safety Concerns: • Some patients value silence during talk. Allow adequate time while overcoming your discomfort with periods of silence. • *Communication is important to high quality patient care. • *Avoiding judgments of another person based on non-verbal communication for it may mean different. • *Secure consent always in every procedure. • *Document all the observations, procedures and communication made for what is not written is not done.
  12. 12. A. Aseptic Measures • Controlling Reservoirs • Provide hygiene needs • Wash contaminated areas with soap and water. • Use leak-proof plastic bags for soiled linens, tissues and other materials. • Keep equipments clean and dry. •
  13. 13. A. Aseptic Measures • Controlling Reservoirs • Label bottles with person’s name and the date opened. • Keep bottles and containers tightly capped or covered. • Keep drainage containers below the drainage site. • Empty drainage containers following center policy usually drainage containers emptied every shift.
  14. 14. Aseptic Measures • Controlling Portal of Exit • Cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing. • Provide tissues to use when coughing or sneezing • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as needed. •
  15. 15. Aseptic Measures • Controlling Transmission • Make sure all persons have their own linens and personal care items. This includes washbasins, bedpans, urinals, commodes, and eating and drinking utensils. • Do not take equipment from one room to another even if the item is unused. • Hold equipment and linens away from your uniform. • Practice hand hygiene • -before and after contact with every person • -whenever your hands are soiled • -after contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions. • -after removing gloves • -before assisting any sterile procedure
  16. 16. Aseptic Measures Controlling Transmission •Do not shake the linens or equipments •Clean from the cleanest to the dirtiest. •Clean away from your body. •Flush urine and feces down the toilet. Avoid splatters and splashes. •Pour contaminated liquids directly into sinks. •Do not sit on a person’s bed. You will pick up microbes and transfer them to next surface that you sit on. •Do not use items that are on the floor. The floor is contaminated. •Clean equipments every after use. Follow the centers disinfection process. •Report pests-ants, spiders, mice and so on.
  17. 17. Aseptic Measures • Controlling Portal of Entry • Provide for good skin care • Provide for good oral hygiene • Do not let person lie on tubes or other items. • Make sure linens are dry and wrinkle-free. • Turn and reposition person as directed by the nurse • Assist with or clean the genital area after elimination. Wipe and clean from urethra (clean) down to the rectum (dirty). • Make sure drainage tubes are properly connected. •
  18. 18. Aseptic Measures • Protecting the Susceptible Host • Follow care plan to meet hygiene needs • Follow care plan to meet nutrition and fluid needs. • Assist with coughing and deep-breathing exercises as directed. • •
  19. 19. B. Cleaning Measures • Wear PPE • Rinse the item in cold water to remove organic matter. Heat causes organic matter to become thick, sticky, and hard to remove • Wash the item with soap and hot water. • Scrub thoroughly. Use brush if necessary • Rinse item in warm water. • Dry the item • Disinfect or sterilize the item. • Disinfect the sink used in the cleaning procedure. • Discard used PPE in appropriate container. • Practice hand hygiene
  20. 20. • C. Disinfection and Sterilization • Disinfection-process of destroying pathogens • Reusable items are cleaned with disinfectant solutions like Lysol, alcohol, vinegar, cydex • Sterilization-process of destroying all microorganisms with the use of very high temperatures (ex. Autoclave)
  21. 21. D. Isolation Precaution • Isolation-refers to technique used to prevent or to limit the spread of infection. A. Protective Isolation • Person should be placed in a private room • Meticulous hand washing is strictly practiced by the person, his family and all care givers. • Restrict visitors • Persons with S/S of infection are not allowed to visit a person. • No fresh fruits or vegetables, raw foods, fresh flowers, a potted plant is allowed. • Only cooked or canned foods are allowed. •
  22. 22. Transmission-Based Precautions • Airborne Precaution-used for microorganism transferred by small particle droplets that can be dispersed by air current • Person should be cared in a private room • Person and caregiver should wear mask when transported out of the room.
  23. 23. Transmission-Based Precautions • Droplet Precaution-used with microorganism transmitted by larger-particle droplets. • Person should be in private room • Caregiver are to wear mask when working within 3 feet of the client • The client should wear mask when outside the room
  24. 24. Transmission-Based Precautions • Contact Precaution-used with microorganism that is transmitted by hand-or skin-to skin contact or touching client’s environmental surfaces or care items. • Person should be cared in a private room or a roommate who is infected with the same organism. • Caregiver should wear gloves before entering the room and change gloves when exposed to potentially infected material during care delivery. • Removed gloves before leaving the clients room. •
  25. 25. • Clean and reprocess all equipment before reuse by another patient • Discard all single-use items in an appropriate container that prevent contact or transfer to other person • Prevent injuries with used needles, scalpels and other sharp objects. • Use a private room or consult with an infection control professional for the care of patient who contaminate the environment or who cannot or do not assist with appropriate hygiene or environmental cleanliness measures. •
  26. 26. Use of Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment Gloves • Protect the hands for acquiring infective organisms • Reduce transmission of microbes from caregiver to client or client to caregiver • Gloves should be changed and discarded between clients or when they become torn or grossly soiled • Hands are washed and dried before and after removing the gloves • Gloves should not be washed and reused
  27. 27. Use of Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment Mask, Eye Protection, and Face Shields •Mask should be fit tightly to the face, covering the nose and the mouth •Mask lose their effectiveness if they are wet, worn for long periods, and when they are not changed after caring for each client Disposable particulate respirators like mask but fit the face more tightly and are able to filter out particles or microorganism as small as 1 micromillimeter. This indicated when working with a client who suspected of having contagious or airborne diseas
  28. 28. Use of Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment • Gowns • Gowns should be worn when caregiver’s clothing is likely to be soiled by infected materials. • Used gowns only once and discard • Change gowns when it becomes wet
  29. 29. Use of Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment Caps and Shoe Covering •Caps are used to cover the hair, special covers are available for shoes •These shield body parts from accidental exposure to contaminated body secretions
  31. 31. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARD • Occupational Health and Safety- is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. The goal is to foster a safe environment
  32. 32. Hazard is something that cause harm if not controlled. Outcome is the harm that results from uncontrolled hazard. Risk is a combination of the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved.
  34. 34. Mechanical hazard injury By type of agent: 1.Impact force -Collisions -Falls from height b. Struck by objects c. Confined space d. Slips and trips e. Falling on a pointed object f. Compressed air/high pressure fluids (such as cutting fluid) g. Entanglement h. Equipment-related
  35. 35. By type of damage: • Crushing • Cutting • Friction and abrasion • Shearing • Stabbing and puncture
  36. 36. Physical hazard- Noise Vibration Lighting Barotraumas (hypobaric/hyperbaric pressure) Ionizing radiation Electricity Asphyxiation Cold stress (hypothermia) Heat stress (hyperthermia) -Dehydration (due to sweating)
  37. 37. Biological hazard -refers to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organism a. Bacteria b. Virus c. Fungi (e.g. Molds) d. Blood-borne pathogens e. Tuberculosis f. Parasites g. Insects
  38. 38. Chemical hazard Chemical hazard-arises from contamination of an area with harmful or potentially harmful chemicals a. Acids b .Bases c. Heavy metals (lead) d. Solvents (Petroleum) e. Particulates (Asbestos and other fine dust/fibrous materials; Silica) f. Fumes (noxious gases /vapors) g. Highly reactive chemicals •Fire, conflagration and explosion hazards •Explosion •Deflagration •Detonation •Conflagration
  39. 39. Ergonomic hazard-scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interaction among humans and other element of a system and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in or order to optimize human well being and over all system.
  40. 40. Psychological a. Over exertion b. Excessive force c. awkward / static position d. fatigue e. direct pressure f. varying metabolic cycle .
  41. 41. Physiological monotony personal relationship work out cycle
  42. 42. Psychosocial work related stress-(excessive working time; over work) violence from outside the organization bullying (emotional or verbal abuse) sexual harassment mobbing burnout exposure to unhealthy elements during meetings with business associates (tobacco; alcohol)
  44. 44. 1. Corrosive-which erode the skin on contact 2. Carcinogen-which causes cancer 3. Teratogens-which damage the developing fetus 4. Target organ chemicals-which provide stress on a particular organ often the kidney or liver. 5. Sensitizers-can generates mild to severe allergy.
  45. 45. . Ergonomic hazard-scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interaction among humans and other element of a system and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in or order to optimize human well being and over all system.