Communication- a two way
process; exchange of
information-a message sent
is received and interpreted
by the intended person.
3. Elements of Communication
• Message-the information
about your patient
• Receiver-your supervisor
attention, and questions
about the complaint
• Channel- the medium
through which the message
4. Characteristic of a Good
• Words that mean
the same thing to
you and the
• Use familiar words
• Brief and concise
• Information in
logical and orderly
• Give facts and be
5. Workplace Interactions
• Face to face
• Electronic or two way communication
• Written like memos, instructions or
6. • Verbal Communication-
uses words. They maybe
spoken and written or use
• a message that is sent
using one’s body language.
(Gestures, signs, signals,
facial expressions, posture,
hand and body
7. Communicating with the Staff
Use of Organizational chart---use as
a guide and spells out lines of
Oral/Shift Reports---report from
previous shift to incoming shift.
Hands-Off Communication ---
patient care is transferred from one
worker to another worker or
Answering the Telephone---
8. Written Communication
among the Staff
• Memos—a brief communication that
informs or reminds employees.
• Manuals—compilation of policies and
procedures of a company.
• Patient Care Plan—plan of action
written by the interdisciplinary team
that provides direction for each patient’s
• Patients Medical Chart/Record—
• Other Methods----like the use of
9. Safety Concerns:
• Some patients value silence during talk. Allow
adequate time while overcoming your
discomfort with periods of silence.
• *Communication is important to high quality
• *Avoiding judgments of another person based
on non-verbal communication for it may
• *Secure consent always in every procedure.
• *Document all the observations, procedures
and communication made for what is not
written is not done.
10. CHAPTER IV
11. INFECTION CONTROL
12. A. Aseptic Measures
• Controlling Reservoirs
• Provide hygiene needs
• Wash contaminated areas with soap and water.
• Use leak-proof plastic bags for soiled linens,
tissues and other materials.
• Keep equipments clean and dry.
13. A. Aseptic Measures
• Controlling Reservoirs
• Label bottles with person’s name and the date
• Keep bottles and containers tightly capped or
• Keep drainage containers below the drainage
• Empty drainage containers following center
policy usually drainage containers emptied
14. Aseptic Measures
• Controlling Portal of Exit
• Cover your nose and mouth when coughing or
• Provide tissues to use when coughing or
• Wear appropriate personal protective
equipment as needed.
15. Aseptic Measures
• Controlling Transmission
• Make sure all persons have their own linens and personal care
items. This includes washbasins, bedpans, urinals, commodes, and
eating and drinking utensils.
• Do not take equipment from one room to another even if the item
• Hold equipment and linens away from your uniform.
• Practice hand hygiene
• -before and after contact with every person
• -whenever your hands are soiled
• -after contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions.
• -after removing gloves
• -before assisting any sterile procedure
16. Aseptic Measures
•Do not shake the linens or equipments
•Clean from the cleanest to the dirtiest.
•Clean away from your body.
•Flush urine and feces down the toilet. Avoid splatters and
•Pour contaminated liquids directly into sinks.
•Do not sit on a person’s bed. You will pick up microbes and
transfer them to next surface that you sit on.
•Do not use items that are on the floor. The floor is
•Clean equipments every after use. Follow the centers
•Report pests-ants, spiders, mice and so on.
17. Aseptic Measures
• Controlling Portal of Entry
• Provide for good skin care
• Provide for good oral hygiene
• Do not let person lie on tubes or other items.
• Make sure linens are dry and wrinkle-free.
• Turn and reposition person as directed by the nurse
• Assist with or clean the genital area after elimination. Wipe
and clean from urethra (clean) down to the rectum (dirty).
• Make sure drainage tubes are properly connected.
18. Aseptic Measures
• Protecting the Susceptible Host
• Follow care plan to meet hygiene needs
• Follow care plan to meet nutrition and fluid
• Assist with coughing and deep-breathing
exercises as directed.
19. B. Cleaning Measures
• Wear PPE
• Rinse the item in cold water to remove organic
matter. Heat causes organic matter to become thick,
sticky, and hard to remove
• Wash the item with soap and hot water.
• Scrub thoroughly. Use brush if necessary
• Rinse item in warm water.
• Dry the item
• Disinfect or sterilize the item.
• Disinfect the sink used in the cleaning procedure.
• Discard used PPE in appropriate container.
• Practice hand hygiene
20. • C. Disinfection and Sterilization
• Disinfection-process of destroying
• Reusable items are cleaned with disinfectant
solutions like Lysol, alcohol, vinegar, cydex
• Sterilization-process of destroying all
microorganisms with the use of very high
temperatures (ex. Autoclave)
21. D. Isolation Precaution
• Isolation-refers to technique used to prevent or to limit the
spread of infection.
A. Protective Isolation
• Person should be placed in a private room
• Meticulous hand washing is strictly practiced by the
person, his family and all care givers.
• Restrict visitors
• Persons with S/S of infection are not allowed to visit
• No fresh fruits or vegetables, raw foods, fresh
flowers, a potted plant is allowed.
• Only cooked or canned foods are allowed.
22. Transmission-Based Precautions
• Airborne Precaution-used for microorganism
transferred by small particle droplets that
can be dispersed by air current
• Person should be cared in a private room
• Person and caregiver should wear mask
when transported out of the room.
23. Transmission-Based Precautions
• Droplet Precaution-used with microorganism
transmitted by larger-particle droplets.
• Person should be in private room
• Caregiver are to wear mask when working
within 3 feet of the client
• The client should wear mask when outside
24. Transmission-Based Precautions
• Contact Precaution-used with microorganism that is
transmitted by hand-or skin-to skin contact or
touching client’s environmental surfaces or care
• Person should be cared in a private room or a
roommate who is infected with the same organism.
• Caregiver should wear gloves before entering the
room and change gloves when exposed to potentially
infected material during care delivery.
• Removed gloves before leaving the clients room.
25. • Clean and reprocess all equipment before reuse by
• Discard all single-use items in an appropriate container
that prevent contact or transfer to other person
• Prevent injuries with used needles, scalpels and other
• Use a private room or consult with an infection control
professional for the care of patient who contaminate
the environment or who cannot or do not assist with
appropriate hygiene or environmental cleanliness
26. Use of Appropriate Personal
• Protect the hands for acquiring infective organisms
• Reduce transmission of microbes from caregiver to
client or client to caregiver
• Gloves should be changed and discarded between
clients or when they become torn or grossly soiled
• Hands are washed and dried before and after removing
• Gloves should not be washed and reused
27. Use of Appropriate Personal
Mask, Eye Protection, and Face Shields
•Mask should be fit tightly to the face, covering the
nose and the mouth
•Mask lose their effectiveness if they are wet, worn for
long periods, and when they are not changed after
caring for each client
Disposable particulate respirators like mask but fit the
face more tightly and are able to filter out particles or
microorganism as small as 1 micromillimeter. This
indicated when working with a client who suspected of
having contagious or airborne diseas
28. Use of Appropriate Personal
• Gowns should be worn when caregiver’s
clothing is likely to be soiled by infected
• Used gowns only once and discard
• Change gowns when it becomes wet
29. Use of Appropriate Personal
Caps and Shoe Covering
•Caps are used to cover the hair, special covers
are available for shoes
•These shield body parts from accidental
exposure to contaminated body secretions
30. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND
31. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND
• Occupational Health and Safety- is a
cross-disciplinary area concerned
with protecting the safety, health
and welfare of people engaged in
work or employment. The goal is to
foster a safe environment
32. Hazard is something that cause harm if
Outcome is the harm that results from
Risk is a combination of the probability
that a particular outcome will occur and
the severity of the harm involved.
33. COMMON WORKPLACE HAZARD
34. Mechanical hazard
injury By type of agent:
-Falls from height
b. Struck by objects
c. Confined space
d. Slips and trips
e. Falling on a pointed object
f. Compressed air/high pressure fluids (such as cutting
35. By type of damage:
• Friction and abrasion
• Stabbing and puncture
37. Biological hazard
-refers to biological substances that pose a
threat to the health of living organism
c. Fungi (e.g. Molds)
d. Blood-borne pathogens
38. Chemical hazard
Chemical hazard-arises from contamination of an area with harmful
or potentially harmful chemicals
c. Heavy metals (lead)
d. Solvents (Petroleum)
e. Particulates (Asbestos and other fine dust/fibrous materials; Silica)
f. Fumes (noxious gases /vapors)
g. Highly reactive chemicals
•Fire, conflagration and explosion hazards
39. Ergonomic hazard-scientific discipline
concerned with the understanding of interaction
among humans and other element of a system
and the profession that applies theory,
principles, data and methods to design in or
order to optimize human well being and over all
a. Over exertion
b. Excessive force
c. awkward / static position
e. direct pressure
f. varying metabolic cycle
work out cycle
work related stress-(excessive working time; over
violence from outside the organization
bullying (emotional or verbal abuse)
exposure to unhealthy elements during meetings with
business associates (tobacco; alcohol)
43. HEALTH EFFECTS OF HAZARDOUS
44. 1. Corrosive-which erode the skin on contact
2. Carcinogen-which causes cancer
3. Teratogens-which damage the
4. Target organ chemicals-which provide
stress on a particular organ often the kidney
5. Sensitizers-can generates mild to severe
45. . Ergonomic hazard-scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of
interaction among humans and other element of a system and the profession that
applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in or order to optimize human
well being and over all system.