Presented to: Ma’am kiran shahzad
Presented by: Mahnoor khalid
Roll no: 24
“A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search
for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”
Conversion of unknown into known.
Objectives Of Research
The purpose of research is to solve the problems, or answers the
questions through a scientific or systemized process.
The main point of research is to find the story behind some event or
some hidden truth or the root of a problem.
Motivation In Research
What makes people to undertake research ?
Gaining the degree.
Facing the challenges
Sick of philosophies.
Types Of Research
The types of researches are as follow:
Significance Of Research
“All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than
overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”.
Increased amount of research
makes progress possible.
Research provides basis for nearly
all government policies in our
Through research we can find the
needs of anything and try to fullfill
The term methodology refers to the overall approaches & perspectives
to the research process as a whole and is concerned with the following
Why you collected certain data
What data you collected
Where you collected it
How you collected it
How you analysed it
The criteria of good research is:
Procedure used should be described in
Carefully planned procedural design.
Appropriate analysis of data.
Confidence in research.
Good research is systematic that means that research is made in
sequence with specific steps and the accurate one also.
A research problem is refers to some difficulty which a researcher
experiences in either a theoretical or practical situation.
The several factors which makes the problems complicated are:
• Change in environment factors
• Confused state of mind
Solution of a problem
Problem clearly stated is a problem half solved. Therefore it’s a need to
define problem well.
Solution is easy if it goes in systematic way:
Evaluate the problem
Gather the information
Break the problem in parts
Select the best solution
Tests and review
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and
analysis of data in a manner.
The research design is the conceptual structure within which research
Methods of data collection
There are two main types of data:
Primary data collection
Secondary data collection.
Primary data collection
We collect data through experiments.
We collect this data through surveys.
The important methods are (i) observation method, (ii) interview
method, (iii) through questionnaires,(iv) through schedules .
Secondary data collection
The secondary data is already available data. i.e., they refer to the data
which have already been collected and analysed by someone else.
Before using secondary data the researcher must see these things.
Reliability of data
Suitability of data
Adequacy of data
Processing and Analysis
The data after collection has to be processed and analyzed according
to the outline of the research plan.
Processing operations help in completion of research and consists of
A hypothesis is a proposition or a set of proposition.
Precise and clear
Limited and specific
Multivariate analysis technique
All statistical techniques which simultaneously analyze more than two
variables on a sample of observations can be categorized as
Represent data in simplified form.
It ensures complete analyzing of the data.
This step is the crucial one it has to be done with great care.
Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the
collected facts after an analytical and/or experimental study
It’s the major component of research task. As research task is
incomplete till the report has been presented or written.
Logical analysis of subject matter
Preparation of final outline
Preparation of rough draft
Rewriting and polishing of rough draft
Preparation of the bibliography.