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Research methodolgy

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  • 1. Research methodology Presented to: Ma’am kiran shahzad Presented by: Mahnoor khalid Roll no: 24
  • 2. Introduction “A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”  Conversion of unknown into known.  Limitation.  systematic way.
  • 3. Objectives Of Research  The purpose of research is to solve the problems, or answers the questions through a scientific or systemized process.  The main point of research is to find the story behind some event or some hidden truth or the root of a problem.
  • 4. Motivation In Research What makes people to undertake research ?  Gaining the degree.  Facing the challenges  Sick of philosophies.
  • 5. Types Of Research The types of researches are as follow:  Descriptive research  Analytical research  Applied research  Fundamental research  Qualitative research  Quantitative research  Conceptual research  Empirical research
  • 6. Significance Of Research “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”.  Increased amount of research makes progress possible.  Research provides basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system.  Through research we can find the needs of anything and try to fullfill them.
  • 7. Research methods The term methodology refers to the overall approaches & perspectives to the research process as a whole and is concerned with the following main issues:  Why you collected certain data  What data you collected  Where you collected it  How you collected it  How you analysed it
  • 8. Research process
  • 9. Good research The criteria of good research is:  Clearly defined.  Procedure used should be described in sufficient detail.  Carefully planned procedural design.  Appropriate analysis of data.  Confined conclusions.  Confidence in research. Good research is systematic that means that research is made in sequence with specific steps and the accurate one also.
  • 10. Research problems A research problem is refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in either a theoretical or practical situation. The several factors which makes the problems complicated are: • Change in environment factors • Confused state of mind
  • 11. Solution of a problem Problem clearly stated is a problem half solved. Therefore it’s a need to define problem well. Solution is easy if it goes in systematic way:  Evaluate the problem  Gather the information  Break the problem in parts  Identify solutions  Select the best solution  Take action  Examine results  Tests and review
  • 12. Research design A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner. The research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. Research features:  Economical  Flexible  Appropriate  Effieicent  Maximum reliability.
  • 13. Methods of data collection There are two main types of data:  Primary data collection  Secondary data collection. Primary data collection  We collect data through experiments.  We collect this data through surveys. The important methods are (i) observation method, (ii) interview method, (iii) through questionnaires,(iv) through schedules .
  • 14. Secondary data collection The secondary data is already available data. i.e., they refer to the data which have already been collected and analysed by someone else. Before using secondary data the researcher must see these things.  Reliability of data  Suitability of data  Adequacy of data
  • 15. Processing and Analysis The data after collection has to be processed and analyzed according to the outline of the research plan. Processing operations help in completion of research and consists of following steps:  Editing  Coding  Classification  Tabulation
  • 16. Hypothesis testing A hypothesis is a proposition or a set of proposition. Chracteristics :  Precise and clear  Testable  Limited and specific  Simple  consistent
  • 17. Multivariate analysis technique All statistical techniques which simultaneously analyze more than two variables on a sample of observations can be categorized as multivariate techniques. Objective:  Represent data in simplified form. It ensures complete analyzing of the data.
  • 18. Interpretation This step is the crucial one it has to be done with great care. Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analytical and/or experimental study
  • 19. Report writing It’s the major component of research task. As research task is incomplete till the report has been presented or written.  Logical analysis of subject matter  Preparation of final outline  Preparation of rough draft  Rewriting and polishing of rough draft  Preparation of the bibliography.

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