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  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Arabia has the stern, grim and inhospitable land, and was, until the obtrusion of oil, a constant challenge for survival to the wits of man. His survival in it depended upon his ability to come to terms with it.  The Arab countries totaled around 367 million, nearly 5.2% of the world’s population,.  For trading they used to do bartering or practical physical return.
  • 3. DIVISION OF ARAB Arabs were divided into two classes: 1. Urban(developed) 2. Bedouin(Tribal communities) (3500 and 3000 B.C.E)
  • 4. TRIBAL SYSTEM  A tribe, was composed of those who had connections to a common relative(3500 and 3000 B.C.E).  Tribes were of matrilineal decent and therefore were only formed by male links . The tribe itself was tied together by a mutual understanding of spoken rules.  The only chief right a woman had during these times was stated in the Code of Hammurabi in 1752 B.C.E.
  • 5. STATUS OF POOR WOMEN IN ANCIENT ARAB In Arab poor women experienced limited rights. Women were not considered "worthy of prayer" and played no role in the religious aspect . Women could not make decisions based on their own beliefs. They were never bound by contract for marriage or custody of children and their consent was never sought.
  • 6. FEMALE INFANTICIDE  Arabs committed infanticide before Islam Female infanticide was commonly done by fathers Female infanticide was usually prompted by one of two reasons: 1. Fear of poverty 2. Fear of disgrace
  • 7. MARRIAGE Marriage was a flexible and loose institution. Marriage by agreement Marriage by capture Marriage by purchase Marriage by inheritance
  • 8. DIVORCE Marriage was often an arrangement between the husband and the woman’s father, so was divorce. If a husband did not get back the dowry, the woman could not be free because the husband had purchased the exclusive right, similar to the right of property, to use the woman as a wife.
  • 9. INHERITANCE Women were usually excluded from inheriting. The reason for this inequity has to do with the tribal structure of the society where the strength of each tribe depended on the ability of its members to participate in war. If a woman did have the right of inheritance, it was usually among the tribes where there were still traces of an ancient matriarchal culture which dictated that the woman remain with her tribe after marriage.
  • 10. ROLES OF WOMEN FOR THEIR SURVIVAL Prostitution  Prostitution was one of the most common source to survive.  These women flew flags on their houses, and were called “ladies of the flags” .  It was banned by the early “Jews”, but some adopted that as a profession.
  • 11. ROLES OF WOMEN TRADING  Trading was another source of to get value in those days.  Trading was done by the women of urban areas of the Arab , who got the rights in inheritance.  It was commonly adopted by the women of high society in those days.  Trading was considered a noble profession throughout the Arab.
  • 12. THANK YOU