1. ESP T-Kit on Fishery
M A R YA M E S K A N D A R J O U Y
 Understand the concept of Fishery in general
 Be able to identify different fishery types
 Be familiar with the term ―fish‖ in science
 Be able to apply fishery technical words to use in real world
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some
authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people
involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of
the activities or a combination of the foregoing features". The definition often includes a combination
of fish and fishers in a region, the latter fishing for similar species with similar gear types.
A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish farming or
aquaculture. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries
depends on fisheries and aquaculture. Overfishing, including the taking of fish beyond sustainable
levels, is reducing fish stocks and employment in many world regions. If fisheries are poorly
managed, environmental impacts go unchecked. Unsustainable fishing practices put seafood resources
and fishing livelihoods at risk – the United Nations FAO estimates that 11 of the world's 15 major
fishing areas, and 69 percent of the world's major fish species, are in decline and in need of urgent
4. The term “fish”
 In biology – the term fish is most strictly used to describe any animal with
a backbone that has gills throughout life and has limbs, if any, in the shape
of fins. Many types of aquatic animals commonly referred to as fish are not fish in
this strict sense; examples include shellfish, cuttlefish, starfish, crayfish and jellyfish.
In earlier times, even biologists did not make a distinction — sixteenth century
natural historians classified also seals, whales, amphibians, crocodiles,
even hippopotamuses, as well as a host of aquatic invertebrates, as fish.
 True fish – The strict biological definition of a fish, above, is sometimes called a
true fish. True fish are also referred to as finfish or fin fish to distinguish them from
other aquatic life harvested in fisheries or aquaculture.
Fisheries are harvested for their value. They can be saltwater or freshwater, wild or farmed. Examples are
the salmon fishery of Alaska, the cod fishery off the Lofoten islands, the tuna fishery of the Eastern Pacific, or
the shrimp farm fisheries in China. Capture fisheries can be broadly classified as industrial scale, small-scale or
artisanal, and recreational.
Close to 90% of the world’s fishery catches come from oceans and seas, as opposed to inland waters. These marine
catches have remained relatively stable since the mid-nineties (between 80 and 86 million tons).
Most fisheries are wild fisheries, but farmed fisheries are increasing. Farming can occur in coastal areas, such as
with oyster farms, but more typically occur inland, in lakes, ponds, tanks and other enclosures.
There are species fisheries worldwide for finfish, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms, and by
extension, aquatic plants such as kelp. However, a very small number of species support the majority of the
world’s fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp,
salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over
a million tons in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a harvest of over 22 million metric tons in
1999. Many other species are harvested in smaller numbers.
Overfishing is the act whereby fish stocks are depleted to unacceptable levels, regardless of
water body size. Low biological growth rates and critically low biomass levels result from
overfishing. For example, overfishing of sharks has led to the upset of entire marine
The ability of a fishery to recover from overfishing depends on whether the ecosystem’s
conditions are suitable for the recovery. Dramatic changes in species composition can result in
an ecosystem shift, where other equilibrium energy flows involve species compositions
different from those that had been present before the depletion of the original fish stock. For
example, once trout have been overfished, carp might take over in a way that makes it
impossible for the trout to re-establish a breeding population.
7. Vocabulary Bank
the occupation or industry of catching,
processing, or selling fish or shellfish.
The marine fishery is in steep decline
or even collapse.
a limbless cold-blooded vertebrate
animal with gills and fins and living
wholly in water.
The fossils rarely exhibited any traces
of the soft tissues of fish .
A person who catches fish
for a living or for sport.
Earthworms are then moved to the
surface, much to the fisherman 's delight.
Deplete the stock of fish in (a body of
water) by too much fishing.
Years of badly managed and overfishing
has left tuna in a parlous state.
12. Back bone
The series of vertebrae extending from
the skull to the pelvis; the spine.
Cut off head and tail and remove fish
from backbone .
The respiratory organ of aquatic animals,
as fish, that breathe oxygen dissolved
Your fish doesn't have lungs, and gills
only work in water.
A flattened appendage on various parts of
the body of many aquatic vertebrates and
some invertebrates, including fish and
cetaceans, used for propelling, steering, and
The two subspecies differ in color
and size of their dorsal fin .
15. Aquatic animals
An aquatic animal is an animal, either
vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in
water for most or all of its life.
Aquatic animals are subject to pressure
A swimming marine mollusk that
resembles a broad squid, having eight
arms and two long tentacles that are
Among the invertebrates the octopus,
squid and cuttlefish are rather brainy.
An aquatic shelled mollusk or a crustacean
esp. one that is edible.
Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and
shellfish tend to be lifelong.
A marine echinoderm with five or more
radiating arms. The undersides of the arms
bear tube feet for locomotion and, in
predatory species, for opening the shells of
It seems to me that the outbreak of
crown-of thorns starfish is a natural event.
A nocturnal freshwater crustacean that
resembles a small lobster and inhabits
streams and rivers.
The predators feed on other fish, as well
as small amounts of crab and crayfish .
A free-swimming marine coelenterate
with a jellylike bell- or saucer-shaped
body that is typically transparent and
has stinging tentacles around the edge.
Their nets are trapping jellyfish : giant,
gelatinous,wobbly and worthless.
A diverse group of semi-aquatic
marine mammals many of which are
commonly called seals
Crops will spread north as seal hunters
A very large marine mammal with a
streamlined hairless body, a horizontal tail
fin, and a blowhole on top of the head for
There is no eel so small but it hopes to
become a whale .
A cold-blooded vertebrate animal of a class
that comprises the frogs, toads, newts, and
There is some chemical that can get into
groundwater and it's bad for fish and
A large predatory semi-aquatic reptile with
long jaws, long tail, short legs, and a horny
textured skin, using submersion and stealth
to approach prey unseen.
Among others at risk: wild ginseng,
orchids and the crocodile newt.
A large thick-skinned semi-aquatic African
mammal, with massive jaws and large
They were found among stone tools
and butchered hippopotamus bones.
A large edible fish that is a popular
game fish, much prized for its pink
flesh. Salmon mature in the sea but
Migrate to freshwater streams to spawn.
Salmon in all their varieties are a
great resource for humanity.
Cod is the common name for the genus
Gadus of demersal fishes, belonging to
the family Gadidae.
In the autumn the dried cod was stored
in depots and sometimes used as
A large and active predatory schooling
fish of the mackerel family.
The fishing potential, mostly lobster
and tuna , is not fully exploited.
An invertebrate of a large phylum that
includes snails, slugs, mussels, and
octopuses. They have a soft,
unsegmented body and live in aquatic
or damp habitats.
All cephalopod mollusks with three
hearts are carnivorous.
A n arthropod of the large, mainly
aquatic group Crustacean, such as a
crab, lobster, shrimp, or barnacle.
Flamingoes, for instance, extract
pink pigments from algae and
A marine invertebrate of the
phylum Echinodermata, such as a
starfish, sea urchin, or sea cucumber.
It is an echinoderm which have
radial symmetry because of its
A large brown seaweed that typically
has a long, tough stalk with a broad
frond divided into strips.
Sea otters eat sea urchins and sea
urchins eat kelp .
A silvery fish that is most abundant in
coastal waters and is of great
commercial importance as a food fish in
many parts of the world.
In my view, juxtaposing these two
choices is a red herring.
A small shoaling fish of commercial
importance as a food fish and as bait.
It is strongly flavored and is usually
preserved in salt and oil.
Try the fried artichokes and a spicy
anchovy bread sauce.
Demersal fish found at the
bottom of coastal lagoons and
estuaries of the Northern Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans.
Flounder are a group of
A chiefly marine fish that is widely
caught for food.
Mullet are so profuse they will literally
jump into a fisherman's boat.
An elongated, fast-swimming
cephalopod mollusk with ten arms,
typically able to change color.
Feeding habits cobia feed primarily
on crabs, squid and other fish.
A small free-swimming crustacean
with an elongated body, typically
marine and frequently harvested for
There is also a thriving fishing
industry, providing shrimp
A crustacean with a broad carapace,
stalked eyes, and five pairs of legs, the
first pair of which are modified as
No crab has ever been attacked by a
truck when standing outside its burrow.
A large marine crustacean with a
cylindrical body, stalked eyes, and the
first of its five pairs of limbs modified
There's no better way to enjoy lobster’s
pure flavor than to have it boiled.
Any of a number of bivalve mollusks
with rough irregular shells.
Therefore the first preparation was
made for the oyster .
An edible bivalve mollusk with a
ribbed fan-shaped shell.
Tales of skate wings cut into circles
and sold as scallops are common.
A young pilchard or other young or small
herring like fish.
The looters may have found a few old
sardine cans but not much else.
The total mass of organisms in a
given area or volume.
Conversion of biomass to bio fuel
can be achieved by different
methods which are broadly classified
into: thermal, chemical, and
A biological community of
interacting organisms and their
Wildebeests, also known as gnus,
shape the ecosystem as they move.