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Cataloging maps

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  • 1. Cataloging Maps(Cartographic Materials)
    Mary Alice Osborne
    IST616: Information Resources: Organization and Access
    Professor Barbara H. Kwasnik
    Assignment 3: Providing Access to “Nonprint” Documents
    November 23, 2010
  • 2. Cartographic materials include all materials that represent the whole or part of the earth or any celestial body. Some examples include: maps, globes, atlas’, and electronic resources. For this presentation, I have chosen to focus only on the problems involved with cataloging maps.
    Chapter 3 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Resource (AACR2R) has the standard information on how to catalog Cartographic Materials, but I have also used “Maps and Related Cartographic Materials,” by Andrew and Larsgaard which gives a more in-depth view of cataloging challenges involving these materials and how to solve them.
    Cartographic Materials
  • 3. No one wanted to catalog the maps….
  • 4. Why catalog maps?
    maps are important sources of information
    cataloging provides more access points than a geographic index, especially for maps covering more than one area
    users are more likely to request (and use resources) that are cataloged
    reduces wear (from browsing)
    Catalogers must be able to make numerous decisions when cataloging maps and they must understand the needs of the users. Access is one of the key factors to keep in mind when cataloging these valuable resources.
  • 5. Maps can present many problems for Catalogers
    These may include:
    Dating the map and/or determining what countries and boundaries would be on the map at different time periods
    Lack of publishing details or obscure data
    Who are the authors, or involved parties?
    Accuracy of spatial data and/or drawn data (cartography)
    Scale or scales
    Languages used
    Country or area names may have changed over time
  • 6. Where does information come from when cataloging a map?
    May be taken from any part of the map, not just from the title page or it’s verso as in a book
    Information may be taken from the maps container or other accompanying materials
  • 7. The Average library user
    Looks for maps by location or subject, not by author
  • 8. Chief Source of Information
    (Heiser, et.al)
    Where might the Chief Source of Information be found on a map? Many places…
  • 9. 1. Title
    Problem: Maps quite often provide more than one title from which to choose, a.k.a. Parallel titles
    245 – Maps may have several titles. Take 245 title from actual map.
    When map is folded there might be an alternate title. This is called a panel title.
    246; 1;i Panel title: $a
  • 10. Choice of title
    Problem: Sometimes it is difficult to decide what the main title of a map is, since it can be located anywhere on the “chief source”, and at times is printed more than once, in more than one location, and with different wording (grr!)
    (Heiser, et.al)
  • 11. 2. Main Entry Problems
    May be a personal name (e.g. the cartographer)
    May be a corporate name – but only if the corporate body is responsible for more than just publication or distribution of the map (see AACR2 21.1B2, category f)
    May be title (no primary responsible author/entity)
    Author added entries (both personal and corporate names) are common
    “Areas of difference between books and maps are many: primary identification of maps is with area rather than with authority, and maps are frequently published by a corporate (often a governmental) body. Determination of author, especially for foreign maps, is not always easy; even with U.S.-produced maps, authorship tends to be diffuse.”
    (Heiser, et.al)
  • 12. Author
    Who is the Author or cartographer, or group, or corporation that produced the map?
  • 13. Problems: Statements of Responsibility & Applying Main Entry
    Maps may be the work of one person
    Maps may be the work of a group of people working for a publishing agency or commercial company
    Individuals may not be named
    (Heiser, et.al)
  • 14. Corporate Author
    Examples of maps with corporate authors:
  • 15. Map with Author Unknown
  • 16. 4. Date of Publication
    Problem: How should a Map with no date be cataloged?
  • 17. 5. Publisher and Place of Publication
    Publisher is not mentioned anywhere on the map
    Distributor but not publisher is given
  • 18. 6. Date of Publication
    No date of publication
    Different dates on covervs. legend
  • 19. 7. Physical Description
    300 – The physical description consists of the number of items, color (if any),
    material (if other than paper), mounting (if any), and size.
    Margins are not included in the dimensions of the map
    Neat lines, or the line that encloses the detail of the map may not be linear: may have irregular shapes
  • 20. Neat Line
    Explanation of map neat lines
  • 21. Scale
    Problem: Map with two different scales
  • 22. Mathematical data
    The main components of the mathematical data portion of the catalog record contain:
  • 23. Scale
    034 – Coded cartographic material data – Data must also be entered in textual form in field
    255. Scale is always given in a representational fraction. If only the verbal scale is given,
    it should be translated.
    Scale is given on maps in 3 basic formats:
    Bar scale
    Verbal scale
    Representative fraction
    • Representative fraction
    • 24. 1:6,842,880
    • 25. Verbal scale
    • 26. 108 English Miles to 1 Inch
  • Bar Scale Example
  • 27. Cataloging Problems with Scale
    There is no scale on the map
    The scale of a map changes across the face of the map (for instance, the scale is larger in the middle than along the edges)
    More than one scale given
  • 28. Map with No Scale Given
  • 29. Problem: Scale changes
    The map scale changes with different projections, as seen in this map.
  • 30. Multiple maps
    Problem: Should they be cataloged separately or as a set?
  • 31. Geographic subject headings
    Maps always have a geographic component to the subject(s)
    Sometimes the geographic area is the only subject
    Sometimes the geographic area is a subdivision of a topical subject
    Problem: What if the country or geographic has changed since the map was created?
  • 32. Example: MARC Fields used in Map Cataloging
    http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~dbertuca/maps/cat/sample_record.html Map Cataloger’s Toolbox
  • 33. Problems cataloging Rare and Early Maps
    Cataloging early maps to create standard, consistent records for library catalogs...involves, like all library cataloging, not simply following a set of rules but also making a series of decisions.
    Competing, and at times conflicting, factors that affect those decisions:
    The amount of information content vs. the level of physical detail of the individual map.
    The unique features of the individual map vs. matching it with the appropriate and specific cartobibliographic citation.
    Application of the general rules for cartographic cataloging vs. special rules and considerations for early material.
    Reconciling cataloging rules for early maps with those for rare books.
    Reconciling the desire for meticulous and detailed citation records with the desire to get a larger number of existing items into the catalog.
    Enhancing and clarifying the map cataloging rules, so as to ease and speed the work of the cataloger vs. allowing adequate flexibility and judgment where needed.
    Kovarsky, J. and Barber, M. (2006) Rare Map Cataloging: A Case of Special Considerations.
    The Portolan. http://www.theprimemeridian.com/RareMapCatPDF.pdf
  • 34. Troublesome units of measurement on old maps
    Heures de marche
    Miles (that aren’t statute)
    MilliariaGermanica, Hispanica, etc
    (Scale on Old Maps Powerpt)
  • 35. Conclusion
    Maps are an important part of human history and heritage. It is crucial that they are preserved and maintained for others to utilize through the ages. Librarians help preserve our culture through cataloging and preserving maps and other cartographic materials for all to utilize.
    Cataloging maps is a challenging job that makes these resources available and accessible to users. Because they are so different from traditional books, maps need special considerations and because of this, different fields in their MARC records that allow searching on such elements as: scale, geographical areas, types of maps, etc.
  • 36. The Map Room at the NY Public Library (Photo: Peter Aaron/Esto)
  • 37. Annotated Bibliography
     Map Cataloging Manual (from Library of Congress): http://www.itsmarc.com/crs/map0001.htm
    Overview of Map Cataloging, from classification to special handling.
    Map Librarian's Toolbox, Cataloging & Processing section. From the Western Association of Map Libraries (WAML). http://www.waml.org/maptools.html
    Amazing webliography of resources organized by keyword.
    Map Cataloging: Learning the Basics: http://www.stonybrook.edu/libmap/basics.pdf
    Helpful handouts from a workshop on Map Cataloging
    Map Cataloger’s Toolbox: http://library.buffalo.edu/maps/mapresources/map_cat_tools.php
    Excellent annotated list of resources of anything and everything pertaining to maps and map cataloging created by David Bartuca.
    Kovarsky, J. and Barber, M. (2006) Rare Map Cataloging: A Case of Special Considerations. The Portolanhttp://www.theprimemeridian.com/RareMapCatPDF.pdf
    Guide for how to catalog rare maps
  • 38. Texts
    Cartographic Materials: a manual of interpretation for AACR2. 2nd ed. (edited by Elizabeth U. Mangan.) American Library Association, 2003. (Available also via Cataloger’s Desktop)
    Cartographic Materials continues to be the essential companion to AACR2 for map catalogers. This classic, authoritative guide to cataloging cartographic materials has now been revised and expanded to reflect current AACR2 terminology and additional forms of cartographic materials.
    Larsgaard, Mary Lynette. Map Librarianship: an introduction. Libraries Unlimited, 1998. (3rd ed.)
    Essential for managing any spatial data collection. An extensive bibliography leads you to many other great resources. This new edition takes us into the digital age, addressing the acquisition, storage, and use of digital data.
    Andrew, Paige G. Cataloging Sheet Maps: the basics. Haworth Information Press, 2003.
    Provides the reader with step-by-step guidelines in applying cataloging rules and rule interpretations, while creating full-level and accurate bibliographic descriptions for sheet maps.
  • 39. Powerpoints
    Scale on Old Maps Powerpt.YaleUniversity Library Cataloging and Metadata Services. Accessed at: www.library.yale.edu/BeinCatM/map...files/scale_on_oldmaps.ppt
    Heiser, N., Wright, L.Introduction to Map Cataloging Powerpoint. The Accidental Map Librarian Workshop. University of Colorado, Boulder Map Library. Accessed at: http://maplibraries.pbworks.com/f/Map%20Cataloging%20Powerpoint.ppt