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Cataloging Maps(Cartographic Materials) Mary Alice Osborne IST616: Information Resources: Organization and Access Professor Barbara H. Kwasnik Assignment 3: Providing Access to “Nonprint” Documents November 23, 2010
Cartographic materials include all materials that represent the whole or part of the earth or any celestial body. Some examples include: maps, globes, atlas’, and electronic resources. For this presentation, I have chosen to focus only on the problems involved with cataloging maps. Chapter 3 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Resource (AACR2R) has the standard information on how to catalog Cartographic Materials, but I have also used “Maps and Related Cartographic Materials,” by Andrew and Larsgaard which gives a more in-depth view of cataloging challenges involving these materials and how to solve them. Cartographic Materials
Why catalog maps? maps are important sources of information cataloging provides more access points than a geographic index, especially for maps covering more than one area users are more likely to request (and use resources) that are cataloged reduces wear (from browsing) Catalogers must be able to make numerous decisions when cataloging maps and they must understand the needs of the users. Access is one of the key factors to keep in mind when cataloging these valuable resources.
Maps can present many problems for Catalogers These may include: Dating the map and/or determining what countries and boundaries would be on the map at different time periods Lack of publishing details or obscure data Who are the authors, or involved parties? Accuracy of spatial data and/or drawn data (cartography) Scale or scales Languages used Country or area names may have changed over time
Where does information come from when cataloging a map? May be taken from any part of the map, not just from the title page or it’s verso as in a book Information may be taken from the maps container or other accompanying materials
The Average library user Looks for maps by location or subject, not by author
Chief Source of Information (Heiser, et.al) Where might the Chief Source of Information be found on a map? Many places…
1. Title Problem: Maps quite often provide more than one title from which to choose, a.k.a. Parallel titles 245 – Maps may have several titles. Take 245 title from actual map. When map is folded there might be an alternate title. This is called a panel title. 246; 1;i Panel title: $a
Choice of title Problem: Sometimes it is difficult to decide what the main title of a map is, since it can be located anywhere on the “chief source”, and at times is printed more than once, in more than one location, and with different wording (grr!) (Heiser, et.al)
2. Main Entry Problems May be a personal name (e.g. the cartographer) May be a corporate name – but only if the corporate body is responsible for more than just publication or distribution of the map (see AACR2 21.1B2, category f) May be title (no primary responsible author/entity) Author added entries (both personal and corporate names) are common “Areas of difference between books and maps are many: primary identification of maps is with area rather than with authority, and maps are frequently published by a corporate (often a governmental) body. Determination of author, especially for foreign maps, is not always easy; even with U.S.-produced maps, authorship tends to be diffuse.” (Heiser, et.al)
Author Who is the Author or cartographer, or group, or corporation that produced the map?
Problems: Statements of Responsibility & Applying Main Entry Maps may be the work of one person Maps may be the work of a group of people working for a publishing agency or commercial company Individuals may not be named (Heiser, et.al)
Corporate Author Examples of maps with corporate authors:
4. Date of Publication Problem: How should a Map with no date be cataloged?
5. Publisher and Place of Publication Problems: Publisher is not mentioned anywhere on the map Distributor but not publisher is given
6. Date of Publication Problems: No date of publication Different dates on covervs. legend
7. Physical Description 300 – The physical description consists of the number of items, color (if any), material (if other than paper), mounting (if any), and size. Problems: Margins are not included in the dimensions of the map Neat lines, or the line that encloses the detail of the map may not be linear: may have irregular shapes
Mathematical data The main components of the mathematical data portion of the catalog record contain: Scale Projection Coordinates
Scale 034 – Coded cartographic material data – Data must also be entered in textual form in field 255. Scale is always given in a representational fraction. If only the verbal scale is given, it should be translated. Scale is given on maps in 3 basic formats: Bar scale Verbal scale Representative fraction
Cataloging Problems with Scale There is no scale on the map The scale of a map changes across the face of the map (for instance, the scale is larger in the middle than along the edges) More than one scale given
Problem: Scale changes The map scale changes with different projections, as seen in this map.
Multiple maps Problem: Should they be cataloged separately or as a set?
Geographic subject headings Maps always have a geographic component to the subject(s) Sometimes the geographic area is the only subject Sometimes the geographic area is a subdivision of a topical subject Problem: What if the country or geographic has changed since the map was created?
Example: MARC Fields used in Map Cataloging http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~dbertuca/maps/cat/sample_record.html Map Cataloger’s Toolbox
Problems cataloging Rare and Early Maps Cataloging early maps to create standard, consistent records for library catalogs...involves, like all library cataloging, not simply following a set of rules but also making a series of decisions. Competing, and at times conflicting, factors that affect those decisions: The amount of information content vs. the level of physical detail of the individual map. The unique features of the individual map vs. matching it with the appropriate and specific cartobibliographic citation. Application of the general rules for cartographic cataloging vs. special rules and considerations for early material. Reconciling cataloging rules for early maps with those for rare books. Reconciling the desire for meticulous and detailed citation records with the desire to get a larger number of existing items into the catalog. Enhancing and clarifying the map cataloging rules, so as to ease and speed the work of the cataloger vs. allowing adequate flexibility and judgment where needed. Kovarsky, J. and Barber, M. (2006) Rare Map Cataloging: A Case of Special Considerations. The Portolan. http://www.theprimemeridian.com/RareMapCatPDF.pdf
Troublesome units of measurement on old maps Chain Furlong Heures de marche League Lieue Miles (that aren’t statute) MilliariaGermanica, Hispanica, etc Pole Toise (Scale on Old Maps Powerpt)
Conclusion Maps are an important part of human history and heritage. It is crucial that they are preserved and maintained for others to utilize through the ages. Librarians help preserve our culture through cataloging and preserving maps and other cartographic materials for all to utilize. Cataloging maps is a challenging job that makes these resources available and accessible to users. Because they are so different from traditional books, maps need special considerations and because of this, different fields in their MARC records that allow searching on such elements as: scale, geographical areas, types of maps, etc.
The Map Room at the NY Public Library (Photo: Peter Aaron/Esto)
Annotated Bibliography Map Cataloging Manual (from Library of Congress): http://www.itsmarc.com/crs/map0001.htm Overview of Map Cataloging, from classification to special handling. Map Librarian's Toolbox, Cataloging & Processing section. From the Western Association of Map Libraries (WAML). http://www.waml.org/maptools.html Amazing webliography of resources organized by keyword. Map Cataloging: Learning the Basics: http://www.stonybrook.edu/libmap/basics.pdf Helpful handouts from a workshop on Map Cataloging Map Cataloger’s Toolbox: http://library.buffalo.edu/maps/mapresources/map_cat_tools.php Excellent annotated list of resources of anything and everything pertaining to maps and map cataloging created by David Bartuca. Kovarsky, J. and Barber, M. (2006) Rare Map Cataloging: A Case of Special Considerations. The Portolanhttp://www.theprimemeridian.com/RareMapCatPDF.pdf Guide for how to catalog rare maps
Texts Cartographic Materials: a manual of interpretation for AACR2. 2nd ed. (edited by Elizabeth U. Mangan.) American Library Association, 2003. (Available also via Cataloger’s Desktop) Cartographic Materials continues to be the essential companion to AACR2 for map catalogers. This classic, authoritative guide to cataloging cartographic materials has now been revised and expanded to reflect current AACR2 terminology and additional forms of cartographic materials. Larsgaard, Mary Lynette. Map Librarianship: an introduction. Libraries Unlimited, 1998. (3rd ed.) Essential for managing any spatial data collection. An extensive bibliography leads you to many other great resources. This new edition takes us into the digital age, addressing the acquisition, storage, and use of digital data. Andrew, Paige G. Cataloging Sheet Maps: the basics. Haworth Information Press, 2003. Provides the reader with step-by-step guidelines in applying cataloging rules and rule interpretations, while creating full-level and accurate bibliographic descriptions for sheet maps.
Powerpoints Scale on Old Maps Powerpt.YaleUniversity Library Cataloging and Metadata Services. Accessed at: www.library.yale.edu/BeinCatM/map...files/scale_on_oldmaps.ppt Heiser, N., Wright, L.Introduction to Map Cataloging Powerpoint. The Accidental Map Librarian Workshop. University of Colorado, Boulder Map Library. Accessed at: http://maplibraries.pbworks.com/f/Map%20Cataloging%20Powerpoint.ppt