Arth 2751 midterm slide list

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  • 1. Rene Laudonniere and Native American Chief at Ribault Column ca. 1570 ● 10 x 7.5 in.
  • 2. ● First painting of new world ● Work = lithograph (easier to transport) ● Column = center; noblemen = right ● Functions as map: NW on left, OW on right ● Cornucopia = brought by all; in foreground = visual dominance = offerings of natives ● Low horizon line = typical of this period – Shows vastness and expanse = We love land! ● Vibrancy + clarity, relies on symbols; fruit = fruit of land
  • 3. ● Column built in 1562 by Jean Ribault, a French navy officer, explorer, and colonizer ● In Jax, FL! Statement to claim land 4 France ● Meant to document historical event but did Le Moyne ever see it?? *About memory ● Natives naked = statement of uncivilized + kneeling = no pwr ● Le Moyne settles in England; ● documenter of settler life
  • 4. Jonathan Freake ca. 1671 3.5x3 ft ● Commissioned by sitter ● Wealthy lawyer associated with John Calvin, who thought wealth = assigned favor of God ● Not what you've done, but who you are ● Hands awk, little modeling, porcelain skin, glove = gentleman ● Buttons create balanced composition & structure within ● Lace, broach, ring = overload of wealth
  • 5. Jonathan Freake cont. ● Sense of elegance conveyed ● No wig = no British association ● Imported fashions – distinguished from Brits + wrking class ● Long hair = not puritan, but hair length = medium = balance puritan and wrking class = intersection of 3 IDs ● Flushed cheeks, direct gaze, position of confidence ● Freake portraits = identity + balance
  • 6. Elizabeth Clarke Freake and Baby Mary ca. 1671/4 3.5x3 ft. ● Baby added later (art can change with time) ● New regard 4 visual representation ● Flat, 2D surface, pushes against plane ● Attn paid to lace, decorative elements ● These pull work together, like use of color red ● Modeling, sense of 3D
  • 7. Elizabeth Clarke Freake and Baby Mary cont. ● Typical madonna + child placement/motif = conscious Xtian reference ● Gold + silver displayed; tapestry (Baroque flavor) ● “turkey-work”: gesture to Middle Eastern influences → suggestion of worldliness ● Her clothes probably from all over Europe ● These portraits set precedent of including furniture as sign of affluence (Cromwellian chair)
  • 8. Margaret Gibbs, ca. 1677 ● Un-Ided artist ● Lace = costly (attn to detail) – Red in trim and shoes ● Displayed like an adult – kids not @ play ● 17th cent. Art thinks about happenings in Europe ● Lots of empty space – makes you look at figure = Baroque influence, but not baroque (no modeling) ● Looks 2 England – lrgly medieval; flattened; attn to display of wealth ● Detail; flat; staid; controlled; distinct light; limited gesture
  • 9. Oak Chest ca. 1663-1680 By Thomas Dennis
  • 10. Oak Chest by Thomas Dennis ● Furniture, dress = material culture = manmade objects ● Jules Prown (scholar) thought manmade works reflect values of those who made them & society in which they live ● Owned by wealthy, ornate, careful detail ● High skill required (usually thru apprenticeship) ● Covered in decorative patterning = low-relief (sculptural) ● Intricate patterns ● Artisans make material culture ● Displays skill of carver, aesthetic + technical skill liked ● Blend of artistry + practicality ● Art served greater purpose than hanging in museums
  • 11. Elizabeth Paddy Wensley ca. 1670S ● 1670's = Shift in style ● Un-Ided Boston artist ● Beginnings of change: stiff, awk presentation, basic modeling...BUT fleshiness, feels more human-like, more like representation of individual ● More sophisticated use of lighting; adds gentle qualities (hint of shadow under cheek) ● Emphasis on wealth: ring, dress, lace (like Limner works) ● Artist gentle – sense of line/elegance
  • 12. Elizabeth Paddy Wensley cont. dow device: gives perspective = challenge for scape hard 2 read, but Baroque influence with sh court styles (rich color) t aware of what needs to be added to show acteristic of sitter (wants to make her pretty) e comfort among artists in New World
  • 13. Major Thomas Savage ca. 1679 ● In Boston (3.5 x 3 ft) ● Impressive lace, military man, coat of arms helps us ID him ● Savage = colonialist + soldier ● “meager” beginnings in middle class (dad = blacksmith) ● Helped found RI in 1638 ● Pic late in life → captures him at point of reflection ● He's established himself (outside = gesture to his role as military leader) ● Seascape points to his role as merchant ● 3D understanding, anatomy + color ● Thought out palette (gold woven through) Thomas Smith (1650-1690)
  • 14. Captain Thomas Smith ca. 1680 ● Self portrait; 2 x 2 ft ● Wealthy mariner (seen many styles) like window motif (present after 1670) ● Marks arrival of Baroque in America → Stylistic Shift ● Work layered, expressive → curve of face + flesh captured ● More sense of portrait than template ● Diverse color, subtle + rich ● Sense of rhythm: repetition in lace → repeats shape in his body (hair) + tassel → layers of motifs
  • 15. Captain Thomas Smith cont. ● 1. portrait 2. seascape (naval engagement = his time in navy) 3. still life (skull + poem) ● Smoke quality repeated in hair + lace ● Work = autobiographical summary of his life ● Poem = farewell from evils of world – impending death ● Skull: momento mori/vanitas ● Portrait to read like text to read ● *His vanitas shows he's in conversation with Western Art
  • 16. Fairbanks House, 1636 – Dedham, MA ● Oldest wooden frame house in America ● Effective use of wattle & daub ● Timber frame, clapboard siding ● Pitched/angled roof for weather ● In England plaster used, but not here ● Basic interiors, double-duty spaces, mostly open ● Later added on to ● Lacks symmetry; windows off center (glass teuer!) ● Interior off-center = medieval influences; low ceiling
  • 17. The Parson House June 8, 1683, Topsfield, MA ● Date = day frame raised ● Built for Rev. Capen = farmer + political leader ● The fact that town built it for him showed his status in town center ● Pitched/gabled roof = early characteristic
  • 18. The Parson House cont. ● Straight, large beam = simple ● Planks convey sense of importance ● Largely asymmetrical = public statement = propaganda ● Conscious gesture toward medieval style (comes directly from England) – Gables, sharply sloped roofs ● Prominent chimney = sign of wealth – here we have 2 chimneys, but back to back to look like 1 = Modesty → comes from Puritan vein
  • 19. Portrait of Mrs. James Pierpont (Mary Hooker) ca. 1711 ● Pierpont Limner, 2.5 x 2 ft ● Bust-length, all about her ● Artist telling us she's pretty – direct gaze = confidence ● Soft, feathery outline + brushwork – Quicker brushwork = more energy + easier to make subject look pretty – Fluid, confidence of artist ● Style of Queen Anne's Court ● Lace only enhances her – no statement of what she owns ● Minister's wife: ease & grace offered in work ● How she looks = wichtiger als who she is in society ● Hair in style of Queen Anne (= her big role of Queen)
  • 20. John van Courtlandt ca. 1731 ● Pierpont Limner ● Tree + building = interior + exterior ● Courtly gesture: hands of goodwill/confidence ● Turn of foot – don't need to hold gloves – another way to convey class ● Sense of finery: split ext. + inter. Spaces ● Individual in middle = harmony + natural abundance → deer came right up – natural abundance with material wealth + importance ● Artist figuring how to paint deer in space ● Clean composition, muted colors except clothing call attention ● Artist has little sense of anatomy
  • 21. Background... Hierarchy history + religious painting (meant to teach) portraiture/landscape (in Western art) still-life genre (everyday life) ● Americans not painting history – have none and no true religious foundation ● 1700: most colonialists of Euro descent – Mainly Brits (300K) vs. French (600) ● Influences from Britain – many artists go there and come back ● Growing merchant class – have economic + cultural power ● Class awareness – partly comes from Brits ● Transatlantic Xchange – wealthy & use $ to act like Brits ● Increased emphasis on decorum + education ● Painting rapidly develops
  • 22. Henry Darnall III ca. 1717 ● First professional portrait artist in the south Justus Englehardt Kuhn ● Patrons = upper crust in south = those who own plantations ● Kid: height of fashion ● Leaning against bow = testament to skill as hunter – we know he's good at it – hunting = sport of the rich ● Slave behind him; metal collar ● Sits behind banister = lesser ● Earliest recording of an African American in painting ● Kid = focal point
  • 23. Henry Darnall III cont. ● Slave's head much lower, gazes on master – Presentation of class + wealth ● Wondrous landscape in back – palatial, not America ● About grandeur + elegance – testament to Europe and all family has and knows ● Loose brushwork though stiff & forward facing kid ● Loose curtain + tassel = baroque, trying to push forward ● New way to show wealth – not just by lace ● Kuhn slowly falls out of favor & dies in poverty
  • 24. Gustave Hesselius ca. 1682-1755 ● Born in Sweden moved in 1711 to Philly/DL ● Studied in London, then Sweden ● Has official artistic training. In 1712 = main portrait artist in Philly ● People wanted more artist training abroad – Lots of economic contact btwn here + GB ● Art important statement – focus on fine art – Still serves a purpose, but not just documentation or comment on sitter ● Different kinds of art – gesturing in to Biblical stories + mythology ● Grand tradition of European painting – theme taken from mythology
  • 25. Bacchus and Ariadne ca. 1720 ● A little ambitious – musculature off ● Lots of elements crammed in to show off – Abundance of visual elements ● Influence of Baroque coming to painting – Variety of body forms ● Hierarchies of Western art – wants to solidify it in colonies ● Partially nude; vibrant, sensuous colors ● Figures passed out ● Mythology story: must be educated to understand ● Painted sculpture = gesture to Europe – Statement that it's fine art
  • 26. Tishcohan ca. 1735 ● Native American chief of Lenape Tribe in DL ● Figures agreed to have portraits taken – document, not for self-promotion ● They didn't have control over image ● Not in natural environment – puts them in traditional portrait format ● Direct presentation: ½ length, little elements that show who they are (blue cloth, pouch on 1) ● No truth in imagery – doesn't matter if they don't look this way ● Differentiated through blue drape and skin tone – Being sensitive to differences btwn them (skin color)
  • 27. Tischcohan “He who never blackens himself” ● Direct, forward presentation: about individual, not stereotype ● Coming for objectivity – he's recording ● Indians 2 be signers of Walking Peace treaty ● Sons of William Penn (John + Thomas) claimed they had original treaty from 1680 promising to sell land as far as man can walk ● Treaty = lie John + Thomas made indians sign it ● Portraits document treaty – not weighing in politically or socially ● Commissioned by Brit named Penn ● Pushing toward noble savage
  • 28. The Reverend Cotton Mather ca. 1728 ● Print in Wuster, MA ● Ex of mezzotint – many artists start working with it – Popular in England ● Clean, crisp lines ● Pelham born in England; makes big connections when he goes 2 US – starts as Limner – Favors mezzotint ● US artists considered 2nd tier ● Pelham = force in Copley's life ● Work mass produced; stated as printing, made print – More $ to be made
  • 29. Reverend Cotton Mather ca. 1728 cont. ● Emphasis on character of face/individuality – We could see this guy on the street ● Goes beyond set presentation of face ● Attempt @ realism, not objectivity ● Part of set of artists – saw they could make $ as artists ● Limner + Hesselius have set rules – Moves away from rules
  • 30. Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio ca. 1720 ● Considered best of 1. wave of immigrant artists – Born in Scotland ● Has access to art + supplies; has sense of materials ● 1. to set up career as artist ● Sehr wichtig in history of American art ● 1709: studied in London @ art school ● 1717-20: Grand tour in France+ Italy – studied fine art – Copied “old masters” ● John Smybert (1682-1755) in Boston
  • 31. Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio cont. ● Copy of “Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio” by Anthony van Dyck ca. 1625 ● American artists see in van Dyck rococo – more fluid + active brush ● Heavy palette, lighter brush = more flattering ● Not JUST about portraying social status – Making sitter look attractive – In copy: loose application of color ● Smyberts: firmer, blending not as smooth – see orange + yellow near red ● Emphasis on line = outline = what contains form – Outline in ears, starkness, + harshness ● This copy = advertisement, not just learning opportunity – Was way 4 artist to advertise himself ● Trying out the Baroque
  • 32. The Bermuda Group – Dean George Berkley and His Family ca. 1729
  • 33. The Bermuda Group... ● @ Yale, 69 x 93 in. ● Smybert's try at the Baroque – goes all out ● Self portrait on far left ● Smybert sets up studio in London ● Berkley wants to hire him to teach arts @ his Uni – Supposed to be in Bermuda to convert ppl to Xtianity ● School falls thru – no $ but b4 Smybert commissioned to do work ● Dean = far right, wife holds son ● 2 gentlemen = college admins + John Wainwright (Berkley's friend) ● Baroque: different poses + direction of gazes & gestures in many ways – tells you where to look – Arms give lines, all very active 4 posed figures ● Red tapestry gives weight 1. Visually: light + airy @ top solidity @ bottom (robust) tied to Wainright, weight thru color
  • 34. ● Red tapestry gives weight 1. Visually: light + airy @ top solidity @ bottom (robust) tied to Wainright, weight thru color 2. Commitment: very serious, w/ books we're learning ● Deep space: zig zag water – idyllic landscape – Understands perspective ● Balance of idyllic w/ reality of individuals (+ family portrait) – Smybert signs it ● Who has power here? – Men standing, vertical w/ columns, encase work, man touches book – Women horizontal, holds baby – Gender norms play out = revealing of society ● Womein in lighter colors = less serious, but holds gaze = her importance signified by those around her ● Smybert holds our gaze = very serious = here to work
  • 35. ● Smybert knows modeling ● Uses naturalistic colors and selects flattering palette ● Nothing meant to distract from her – Sheen of fabric = hard! ● Smybert's work starts to get plain – not aesthetically interesting
  • 36. Isaac Royall and His Family ca. 1741
  • 37. ● @ Harvard Law, 56 x 78 in. ● Isaac Royall Jr. shown ● Accomplished artist but gone by 1750s – Takes over Smybert's patronage ● Born in Long Island; mariner, son of preacher ● Self-taught status, but can paint on grand scale – Grand scale 1720-1760 – Gives weight to figures + table ● Stark lighting = harder quality – less naturalistic ● Emphasis on outline + form = colonial impulse – Reminds of early Limners ● Gender: formula followed – Man standing in robust, eye-catching form, captures visual interest, becomes viewer's resource – Women = horizontal, emphasized by table – Formulaic composition
  • 38. ● Royalls made $ off slaves + rum – strong ties to London loyalist cause – had sugar plantation ● Tree/foliage behind undeveloped = gesture to family ● Baroque-like presentation – not much drama in body positions but in gazes + tilts of head + powerful palette = vibrant ● Break from Smybert = palette ● Challenge 4 Feke = skin tone – so porcelain-like ● Insistent outline, individuality ● Feke paints youthful, ambitious, adventurous set of Boston = those up and coming ● Smybert = tride + true – painter of those already established
  • 39. Smybert vs. Feke ● Both part of Boston gang, along with Greenwood ● Smybert studio = where artists gathered + talked of aesthetics ● Both: grandeur, movement, thru eye + gesture – Solidity of form ● Energy, zigzagging ● Grandeur thru primary colors ● Group portrait attraction ● Cutting edge with Baroque elements ● Sidenote: towards 19th cent. More history painting rather than portraiture
  • 40. Feke ● Women portraits: grace, dignity, ease, charm = aristocratic values ● Women = principle of femininity – presentation of self ● Emphasis on line, understands fabrics ● Women = central, but to R = landscape ● Feke = popular + taking over; follows similar structure ● Baroque → Rococo: Serious → playful ● What americans borrow: – multiple gazes solid form + grander – naturalistic presentation of interior (not lighting, but body placement) – Purpose + message = serious ● Rococo: fun, central pleasures, lighter, brighter palette, curvy → emphasis on narrative, less moral direction ● Sensuous line – over the top – Americans don't go far w/ it
  • 41. Portrait of a Woman ca. 1748 ● Emphasis on natural abundance, femininity, repetition of flowers ● Flowers = fertility, softness, flattering, sheen of fabric ● Rococo becomes gender style in US ● For men, Feke holds “masculine present” ● Firm, solid, grand
  • 42. Brigadier General Samuel Waldo ca. 1748-50 ● Feke has limited time frame ● Formal presentation, soft baroque/hard rococo – not fully in either ● Pastel-like landscape(rococo) ● red jacket comes out @ you – Red, gold framed by burgundy – Contrasting play of color (background fades) ● Ankle = he's a gentleman ● Commissioned by city of Boston (big for Feke) = opportunity to be Boston painter ● Faithful likeness 2 individual – Not natural presentation
  • 43. ● Background tells this is Boston: natural + city qualities ● Conventional pose + baton = trope – Manmade instrument of action – sense of power – All emphasis on him ● #1 native born painter @ end of work + 1. native q/ aesthetic impact on color & changes he made on Smybert's formula
  • 44. The Greenwood – Lee Family ca. 1747 ● John Greenwood (1727-1792) ● Completes group portrait = hard + statement of his ability ● Technically interesting – includes self ● Greenwood = engraver, but not enough $ so moved to painting ● 1745 in Boston, then S. America + London – Thought London important – Get art by source ● Knew Smybert + Feke – hung out @ Smybert's studio
  • 45. The Greenwood-Lee Family cont. ● Work = bold presentation of artist ● Ambitious with lots of movement ● Little anatomical knowledge ● Domestic scene – gives sense of sitters – Women circle table = domesticity ● Dark color: sense of solidity ● Sheen of fabric ● Greenwood follows business (itinerant)
  • 46. Sea Captain Carousing in Surinam ca. 1758 St. Louis Art Museum, 38 x 75 in., Greenwood *Only example of genre painting in America
  • 47. Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam, cont. ● Genre painting: scenes of everyday life, usually mult. Narratives, complex – Big in the 19th century – Just what you see ● Bound by vignettes – different pockets of activity – move eye thru canvas – Viewer meant to enjoy activity taking place ● Eclectic group: cptns., workers, slaves – = vision of social diversity ● Image of leisure – what one does after hours – Not idealistic → trying to be naturalistic ● Men in Pub – Dutch mariners: trade rum, lumber, slaves ● Genre usually anonymous – operate through types/larger statements – Looked to William Hogarth: “A Midnight Modern Conversation” ca. 1732 ● Greenwood seems egalitarian, but slave nude – Works: popular ideas/perception – what groups usually do – meant to enjoy activity/laugh
  • 48. Isaac Winslow and His Family ca. 1755 ● Blackburn worked in sphere of Hogarth ● 2nd tier – bad in London, good in colonies ● Went back to England 1762, politics becoming big – Artists must decide loyalties ● Borrows/brings back rococo ● Light, rosy palette, feathery brushwork ● Colonial impulse = hard line ● Feathery quality = lighter touch, little marks Joseph Blackburn (1730-1778) ● Fantasy image, not documenting, puts emphasis on family ● Idea that family works and is important ● Informal: Isaac leaning – relaxed, everyone at peace ● Male-female split; men = vertical ● Public statement: in house (what do sitter + artist want to say?)
  • 49. Mary and Elizabeth Royall ca. 1757 ● Trying 2 merge European w/ colonial ● By 18th cent finally have history of painting ● Complicated composition ● So much satin = signature quality – *materiality of goods ● Drapery = grandeur (Blackburn's influence) ● Refined sense of anatomy ● Active use of color – contrast/give vibrancy – Provides movement, activity, light, theater John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
  • 50. Mary and Elizabeth Royall cont. ● Hand on shoulder = physical contact = warmth, family, ease ● Balance theatricality w/ warmth ● Dependence/emphasis on line ● Focus on detail (fur of dog, starkness of satin) – Accurate likeness: individualized, but flattering ● Complete Clarity: not about what eye does – Copley asserting aesthetic presence – controls what you see and how you see it
  • 51. The Boy with the Flying Squirrel ca. 1765 ● Boy = Henry Pelham – ½ brother ● Not commissioned – starts Copley's career as big artist – self conscious demonstration of talent ● Made to ship to London exhibit w/ big exhibition at Society of Artists – Makes art to be shown, not for $ - invested in relationship with British artists ●● Now conversation, transmission ● Big emphasis on line + drawing (framing + structure) ● Colonial = extreme clarity, line, “truth” (gestures of technical skill) ● Boy in profile (adolescence), dramatic sweep of color pushes sitter out (negotiates distance btwn viewer + sitter) ● 3D, roundness, modeling – psychological quality
  • 52. Paul Revere ca. 1768 ● Sense of informality ● Everyday guard, seated @ table, sense of familiarity ● Table: creates line btwn us + subject (impediment) ● Table: invites us 2 engage w/ subject, sit down with him ● Added 2 w/ sensory detail – want to touch table ● Sense that he's thoughtful, direct gaze = interaction ● Many connections made: – Touches face + pot = connection of mental + physical labor
  • 53. Paul Revere cont. ● Idea of pot, pot came from mind ● Draws eye between intellect, what he's made ● Reflective surfaces – good @ perspective ● Weight given to figure in part thru background ● Takes visual + physical space ● Materiality of objects: etches name on pot as maker ● Visual qualities of American art: line + detail (Puritan values find their way in to this kind of art – doesn't work w/ Copley
  • 54. Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Winslow ca. 1774 ● Husband + wife, but individuality ● Experiments w/ portraiture ● Different gazes (she = wistful, he = direct) ● She has reserved posed, counteracts his gaze ● Open palm and body = friendliness, invitation, materials, want to touch ● Mrs. shown dignified & pretty ● Color dark in left = gender presentation – Solidity + seriousness but then soft yellow ● Repeats red (makes viewer's eye work in X formation making work active)
  • 55. Watson and the Shark ca. 1778 ● 6 x 8 ft, 4 diff versions, APEX of western art ● About Watson Brook who fell off boat in Havanna Harbor ● Gift 2 orphanage, about perseverance, succeeding despite adversary ● Very personal – relationship between Copley and Watson ● Emph on Watson: only guy in water, w/ imminent threat, standard pyramidal arrgment, ppl seek to help him, naked?, shark + him = action ● Brings intense emotion ● Comment on slavery + dismemberment of British Empire ● American revolution disruptive personally + professionally ● Prof wanted to make aesthetic art convo with England – Wanted to be part of royal academy
  • 56. ● Wants 2 push into history painting, but court already had official painter ● Work meant to be hopeful = biographical ● = symbolic work in realistic style = REALISM (history painting goes to it) – Recognizable forms + elements, suggests truth ● Dramatic lung of shark 1. lower ½ of nature + man – altered visual detail 2 show importance 2. upper ½ = dramatic rescue ● Theatrical, pyramidal structure (=stability, balance), though it leans – Gives surging drama, heightens emotions ● Focus/weight @ hopeful contact: is he going to make it? ● Viewers become +savvy – coincides with rise of sensationalism – Ppl want excitement, this work feeds this ● Symbolism: loss of leg (perseverance), shark (adversary) – has reflective surface which heightens artificiality of work – loses materiality..doesn't really pull it off. Normally it seems like artist was there in history works
  • 57. ● Representative of nature + the exotic ● Caribbean port = specific of exotic locale (shark lives in colonial waters) ● *scholars don't agree on visual sources 1. Grouping with movement/action – Copley looks to Lacöon → sense of flow + movement, turn + twist – More movement than seen before – Rope coiling, connects visual elements; surging/diagonal – Figure of African descent meant 2 be white, but made black later – = comment on slave trade, black body at top = inversion of practice of overthrowing sick slaves *Copley doesn't take a position 2. Source from Prometheus by de Ribera ca. 1630 – Circulating in London, mid 18th century, moment of suspending animation, dark palette = focus on body ● *Fated Exchange: commentary on occurring contest → ppl fight over America ● Colonies being dismembered (like leg) 3. Biblical Image but no longer accepted
  • 58. The Death of General Wolfe ca. 1770 ● National Gallery Canada, 5x7ft ● History = grand themes + grand ideas = pinnacle of painting – = belief from 16th century → hard 2 do therefore important ● Painting = visual form of history, has greatest potential 2 affect viewer – Meant to impress/instruct ● Place, person/hero (to express ideals) + EVENT needed (should be dramatic!) ● Viewers meant to feel inspired by his sacrifice ● West = court painter to George III; makes career in London but born in PA ● **1. american artist to achieve international acclaim ● In NY, travels, Grand Tour (Italy 1760, London 1763) ● Royal patronage influences what he paints ● West founds ROYAL ACADEMY in London
  • 59. ● This work gets West in trouble with George III = beginning of his end ● Exhibits @ Royal Academy in 1771, widespread acclaim – ISSUE: contemporary in subject – Never before put people in contemporary clothes – Takes moment in Battle of Plains of Abraham, French and Indian War in 1759, war was precursor to Revolution – Brits vs. French fight for Quebec, Brits win ● NEOCLASSICISM: Wolfe knew @ death that Brits won, fighting all around ● Set 3 Groupings: center = drama: light on body – elegant pose, emphasis on pyramidal structure, draws eye to location ● Death scene: heightened drama → The Lamentation, 1612 Rubens – = moment of contact btwn Christ + mourners ● Wolfe = prone – has contact w/ soldiers around him ● He tried to get lots of portraits to capture sense of grief
  • 60. ● Reference to Bible = big deal, BUT contemporary history painting ● *How do you get sense of marvelous/extraordinary – no blood, only evocation of violence ● Political Undercurrents: – Reference 2 America → Native American – = creative departure, pose of contemplation, bears witness – plays role of noble savage, Passive body, unconcerned – Celebrates GB, warning to colonies (France = threat!) – Exotic landscape (like Copley), eye-witness account ● Copley + West study landscape ● Historical authority: GB's story to tell → affirms state and its power ● So many layers to political works → nothing left to chance ● Artists construct history like construct painting = “real”, “accurate”
  • 61. William Penn's Treaty with the Indians ca. 1771-2
  • 62. ● Commissioned by Thomas Penn (William's son) ● He wanted to document the founding of PA ● Set on Delaware River, settlers vs. natives – Not about integration = mtg btwn 2 different groups (ca. 1682) ● = “Treaty of Friendship” ● Natives shown in typical garb – historical accuracy of clothes? ● Native Americans presented as type ● Quakers, Merchants, Indians all = in act of settlement ● Madonna scene – says Indian existence not compromised by treaty ● All =, peace, friendship + historical document of treaty – References physical document ● “Stately Elm” = @ site @ time = way West makes image have historical accuracy
  • 63. ● *American painting, American treaty = between natives ● All about here and now ● Sense of harmony, reserve, grandeur ● Cohesive color – all level + equal → how bodies nebeneinander ● West: 1.) surging drama 2.)treaty equal + peaceful ● = Source for Copley
  • 64. The Death of Major Pierson ca. 1782-84 ● In England, date January 6th , 1781, 8x12 ft ● Very recent event (2 years prior) ● Battle of Jersey: French vs. Brits 2 secure island ● Heated tensions = shifts in Empires – fighting 4 control ● 1781: engagement assoc. with American Revolution ● Pierson died → American/British history painting ● Surging diagonal w/ blood, falling body ● Collection of soldiers catch body, showing honor, delicacy ● Color red = urgency, drama ● Lamentation reference: compositional quality; 3 Groupings: 1.) Soldiers: lined = dramatic background, drummer's hand guides view
  • 65. ● Black figure = historically accurate, avenges Pierson's death – Important visual + narrative part (not an outsider) – Integrated visually, repetition of color 2.) fleeing women + kids: higher stakes in fight – families 3.) Middle: surging diagonal, cannon moves us to ladies, L → R ● Bold colors meant to make you part of history ● 17 complete studies of this work ● Invested in detail, careful composition: feels staged, fixed, dramatic but located → Baroque quality ● Flag = pseudo-cross, propaganda (Pierson = Christ) ● *contemporary events with contemporary people can be just as valuable – * = create new pantheon of history painting – Stakes higher!!
  • 66. Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) ● From Maryland, starts art in his 20s ● Has craftsman skills, taught by John Hesselius ● Sees Smybert's works, meets Copley + West (1767-1769) ● Studies with West for 2 years in London ● Paints portraits, patriot, served in military – Made maps ● Heads = ovals = Smybert's influence ● *colonial: clarity, hard line, drawing ● Merged colonial with Rococo (tries to stray from set presentation) ● Affection shown
  • 67. Charles Willson Peale cont. ● Rococo influence in portraits = informal pose, sense of connection between individuals ● Oval head (Peale stayed with this shape, while Copley wanted accurate likeness) ● Family interested in the arts (his family portrait in academic style) – References to old influential people, ex: bust of West – Pyramidal shape, order, stability – Not Smybert, no committed gender presentation ● Family lineage of art
  • 68. General George Washington Before Princeton ca. 1779 ● PAAcademy Fine Arts, 8 x 5 ft ● Tiny, oval head, but figure in command – Sense of grandeur (=lifesize) – Historically accurate ● Commemorates victories @ Trenton + Princeton ● GW oversaw defeat of Brits & drove them out ● *1. American Government Commission – Hired by PA ● More portrait than history – Calm, relaxed (meant 2 relax viewers)
  • 69. ● Clouds: dark, smoke passing on, skies clearing ● Colonial elements add strength – Various manmade details = items transformed America's win ● Contemporary event = in the moment – Creates heros @ moment events happen (feels like document) ● Metaphor: rising American nationalism (flag shown), 4reignors lost ● Deco adds grandeur + color + drama in foreground ● Peale wants to make heros out of war – Nation defines itself through these representatives ● Emphasis on self-made individual – No sense of humility – more individualistic – Natural aristocrats ascended socially through hard work – Get sense of importance/status
  • 70. ● All else is simplified → desire of accurate likeness ● *direct gazes, neutral backgrounds to emphasize making of hero – → less emphasis on material wealth ● Peale wants to exult Benjamin West ● Sees importance in museums → invested in archives ● Wants to institutionalize American history through representation
  • 71. The Staircase Group ca. 1795 ● Deliberate convo btwn viewer + art ● Deliberately individual ● Sons shown = celebration of art in the family ● Poignant work (Titian dies later): What's its purpose? ● Emphasis on vertical = look @ stairs ● Invitation to move into work ● Portrait + trompe L'oeil (fool the eye): 17th century Dutch ● Tromp L'oeil: witty, serious, offshoot of still-life ● Game artists play with viewer bridges convo btwn artist + viewer ● Peale asserts mastery over allusion – Makes you aware of nature of painting (smart of Peale 2 have done)
  • 72. ● Grain of wood emphasized, ticket on steps (=exhibition ticket) – References moment – work on exhibition = centerpiece ● Establishes museum in Philly, open to public ● 1801 collection moves to Independence Hall ● Not limited to art, but also liked technology ● Portrait artist, history painter, still-life? ● Excavation of mastodon; from experience comes work – 1. archeological dig in US – Generational element: showed moment – cultural convo – Broader issues btwn man + nature (how does it fit into Xtian narrative?) – This dig possible through divine God,
  • 73. The Artist in His Museum ca. 1822 ● 9x6 ft, PAAcademy of Fine Arts ● Commissioned by board of trustees of museum ● Self-portrait w/ dramatic gesture of welcome – shows museum ● Has palette + brushes + bone = references to himself ● Distinctly American = turkey in 4ground – ex. of animal life in US ● Avid interest in science, art, + display ● Space/museum = democratic + intergenerational ● Dramatic + staid, looser brush on face + swag ● Light vs. dark, textures, movement + flow ● Welcomes us into space, directs us where to look
  • 74. John Trumbull (1756-1843) ● Goes to Harvard, joins Army, drew maps ● IDs himself like Peale as having nat'nl importance ● Son of wealthy merchant/ CT governor ● 1778: rents Smybert's studio, later in London with West 1784 ● Wants to paint history, but can't do it in London b/c political reasons + West already there ● Neoclassicism: influence on West, Copley, Trumbull – Based on ancient Greek + Roman sources – Emphasize aesthetic + cultural ideas ● = direct reaction to Rococo ● Before Romanticism, coincides with Enlightenment
  • 75. The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill ca. 1784-86
  • 76. ● Contemporary history work: big, noble ideas ● Trumbull saw this battle at a glance ● So dramatic/staged → Ex: surging flag ● Here = authenticity → bodies littered ● Drama shows stake here in battle (more carnage) ● Bodies strewn, variety of poses, lines veer off = chaos ● *Sublime element: dying for one's country – Thing of greatness/ importance – so big and massive – Creates pleasurable terror in you – Noble death gives sense of sublime ● Convo with West + Copley = not possible without their examples ● High moral value, Warren sacrificed himself ● *About America! Establishes national history ● = art with ideological purpose
  • 77. Enlightenment Influence on Neoclassicism 1. Human affairs ruled by reason + common good → not simply tradition/established rule 2. Activity @ foreground 3. Controlled brushwork = emphasis on contour 4. Rich, saturated, vibrant colors 5. About noble ideas = fits in w/ what America is + wants to be → America crafting what it wants to be → convo between American artists + David in France 6. Loss sense of informality – staged quality 7. Set in ancient Greece/Rome
  • 78. Declaration of Independence ca. 1818
  • 79. ● 2 copies, 1 in Capitol, 1 at Yale ● Trumbull more comfortable on small scale ● Met TJ in Paris, gave him 1. hand info on what room looked like, though had partially forgotten ● In Independence Hall in Boston – Documents important ceremony ● = 2nd Continental Congress (June 26th , 1776) ● Wanted meeting to have meaning – Includes all big players (not wholly accurate) – Creates vision of historical event ● 48/49 portraits in work, TJ in center = accurate likenesses = witnesses 2 event + tell viewer how to look at work ● Dramatic moment = signing of work
  • 80. ● Tells us who's wichtig = propaganda ● Ppl coming together, conflict resolution – Put aside individual desires for common good ● Tighter brushwork ● Repeated colors, balanced, equality – Heads aligned, no surging dramatic lines ● Became gov't portrait painter in 1810 = lots $$ ● American Rev influenced how artists trained – brought back more Euro styles – Doesn't transform American culture overall – Remnants of “folk/home” style – Greater divide btwn home taught + those who studied
  • 81. Roger Sherman ca. 1775 ● Ralph Earl from CT, self-taught, loyalist ● Roger Sherman = 1. mayor of New Haven, Founding Father ● = masterpiece of Earl, continues early American tradition ● Blunt quality – little deco – reminds of older works – Neutral palette + background ● Awkward perspective ● Staunch patriot → shown in his reserve ● Natural coloring; should be natural pose, but stiff ● Red drape = earlier, royal style ● No details that speak 2 wealth – all about man + space
  • 82. ● Itinerant limner style in bluntness of presentation ● Little embellishment, almost crude ● Though swag and red color echoed in clothes ● Obvious presentation – viewer has full access ● Not much sophistication needed in part of viewer ● Lines + lighting reveal status of artist
  • 83. Chief Justice and Mrs. Oliver Ellsworth ca 1792
  • 84. ● Ralph Earl, 6x7 ft, in Wadsworth Collection, CT ● Gesture to grand manner taking hold in American art ● Land = center (almost its own portrait) ● Female dress speaks to status ● Proportions off → chief has long torso ● Many facial details → the face was the most important for Earl ● Rug + fringe = finery that speaks to sitter ● Gender norms: books behind him, nature close to her ● Sitting @ estate, looking @ estate – = celebration of what they own ● Emphasis on outline + palette relying on “local color” – nothing startling ● Modeling on face, but not much on body
  • 85. The Westwood Children 1807 ● For a family, showed $$ ● Sons of John + Margaret – John = stagecoach mnger – Commissioned ● Shallow foreground + neutral lighting ● Neutral background forces kids at viewer – feels awkward
  • 86. Joshua Johnston (1763-1822) ● 1. African American to be established portrait painter ● 1796: gained freedom in Baltimore ● Modeling limited, anatomy limited ● Early itinerant limner tradition ● Flat background, flat use of color ● All have similar head + shape ● = composed individuals, but you're a part of the family ● Flat black dog pops out = silhouette feel ● Still life + portrait + landscape = demonstration of skill ● *associated with folk art, or nonacademic – In 19th century, folk + intellectual art split wide open
  • 87. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) ● Principle portraitist 1790s – 1825 = FEDERAL PERIOD ● Apprenticed with Scottish portraitist ● 1775: Stuart meets West, stays 5 years there ● 1790s: moved back to US, Boston in 1805 ● *early style = colonial style – Emphasis on line/linearity, figures stuck to canvas, froze in space – Little knowledge of anatomy, direct gaze, neutral background ● Exposed to West and things change – Adopts British style = looser brush, subtly in tones, concept of authority ● Only did portraits + traveled around
  • 88. Side Notes ● Trumbull + Stuart push for nationalistic art to serve republic – America still suspicious of art bc of its sensual quality – Battle/push + pull affects fates of artists – Fine, European art associated with aristocracy ● GS: invested in showing new kind of hero ● Thinks about American art as itself – an independent style
  • 89. The Skater ca. 1782 ● 8x9 ft, @ National Gallery ● Gentlemanly, relaxed crossing of legs ● Sense of lean/tilt = sophisticated movement of body w/ variety of convincing details ● Invested in texture ● Brush so light – whispy quality ● Feathery, monochromatic work ● Where is the viewer? ● Tilt to work → figure tall, horizon line low ● Gives sense that part of scene but that he's above us = his importance ● Made w/ intent of showing @ Royal Academy, not for $
  • 90. Mrs. Richard Yates ca.1793 ● 2.5 x 2 ft, National Gallery ● Standard portrait ● *tonal harmony: tans, browns, blacks ● Spotlight effect: light surrounds her, not even ● Loose brushwork of shawl, but not smooth application of paint – About effect = make pretty to eye, not accurate likeness – Renders sitters attractive ● Selects pose that downplays bad attributes ● No S-curves but through paint, color gives seriousness Gilbert Stuart
  • 91. ● Well to do, but not aristocratic ● Sewing = female activity ● *immediacy of work through loose brushwork – Doesn't look frozen ● Complexity in position of hand = delicacy w/ solid form *What will be the American art style of the New Republic? ● Desire to create independent art ID – up until 1945 – Push/pull with Europe ● Limners more American – Not touched by Euro influence – Wrestling with European undercurrent
  • 92. Gilbert Stuart GW Studies ● Best known for his works of GW – Goes to Philly ● Vaughn-type: more of right side ● Antenaeum-type: more of left side ● GS softened likeness – sense of directness ● Exchange between viewer + subject ● Not about accuracy, but about conveying hero ● Once you solidify icons, no longer about documentation
  • 93. The Lansdowne Portrait ca. 1796 ● 8x6 ft, commissioned by Lord Lansdowne ● Of GW giving farewell address ● Associated with column = stability, strength ● Black dress gives attn to face = seriousness of purpose ● Gesture of welcome + farewell (thought + reason = Enlightenment ideas) ● Rainbow = hope, fortune, passing of storm ● Next 2 table suggested weighted importance ● Cloth: regal, dramatic quality
  • 94. ● In regular clothes: humility ● Sword: gesture to time as general – Successful not thru violence but thru thought + reason ● Quintessential aristocratic portrait of new republic, but not aristocratically shown ● Dramatic use of color = stateliness
  • 95. Sarah Morton ca. 1802 ● 2x2.5 ft ● Sarah = poet, wife of politician ● GS adjusts style to get personality of sitter ● Released her from linearity defining colonial style – energetic quality ● E around painting, invested in light + dark, no hard edges ● Subtle toning harmony – Where is she? In heaven? ● Flattering, accurate likeness ● Sad quality + immediacy (quick brush) ● Subtly of shading: about paint, not drawing – Thickness of paint – not smooth
  • 96. John Vanderlyn (1775-1825) ● Wants grand manner of painting ● Art that was associated with aristocracy on the defensive ● Artists don't want to hold to European ideals they just broke from ● How do you adapt? Evolve? ● *Leads to American High Manner! ● Von NY, family invested in his art training: read + copied engraving ● American high art developing in communities + small circles ● Goes to France for education: *1. Ami to study in France – Bc of Burr and his political ideas, doesn't like GB
  • 97. ● France ca. 1800 = Neoclassical style 1. Emphasis on Line 2.Action pushed to Frontal plane – little in background 3.Sentiment on high ideals (truth, honor, justice → pull from classical sources) 4.Emphasis on anatomy – what Vanderlyn takes away ● Vanderlyn becomes supreme draftsman: good @ balance → learns from David, realizes doesn't want to be portrait painter ● Heard this with Copley – wants to do more, but Amis have little interest in such works ● Does what Copley did: history painting on recent event + includes Americans ● *Looks to recent history, then to Roman hist. Then to the nude
  • 98. The Murder of Jane McCrea, ca. 1804 ● 2x3 ft, NEOCLASSICAL ● Native amis + woman framed against frontal plane – Directs eye to narrative ● Trees + woods = dark, makes scene pop – Man in back posed to action ● *based on poem by Joel Barlow – Spent time in France until 1805, diplomat, patriot – Had dreams of grandeur, poem: “The Columbian” – Glorifies America & her progress von discovery to reovlution
  • 99. ● Barlow underwent religious conversion from Xtianity to atheism ● Retells Ami founding w/o religion, includes science ● Wanted poem to be Ami project, also thru illustration ● Based on real murder in 1777 ● Her fiance = loyalist ● We're given drama, amped by race + gender – She = double victim: white woman attacked by racial men – Hints to this thru bodice of chest = sexual threat ● Unforgiving, animalistic native ami face = departure von earlier works ● Emphasis on musculature ● Blue = innoncense, red = impending bloodshed ● Men have rich colors = symbolism (red = Brits) ● Man has blue coat = representative of Patriots
  • 100. ● According to poem, Brits paid Native Americans to suppress colonial population – Work + poem = ANTI BRITISH ● Propaganda (like all history works) uses gender + race – She's also a maiden ● Shows in Salon of 1804 – hosted by Louvre = big deal ● Lots of drama, but controlled ● In French Grand Style – Presents honor, pure emotion, containment of emotion – overall controlled ● Lighting everywhere on her body: emphasis on muscles threatening her ● Louisiana Purchase: indians stand in way of progression – justifies more aggressive policies, slowly vanish in Ami art
  • 101. Ariadne Asleep on the Island of Naxos ca. 1814
  • 102. ● Vanderlyn solidifies role as neoclassical artist ● Likes dramatic foregrounds with neutral background = seriousness ● Invested in research == wants authoritative feel to works ● Work shown @ Salon of 1814 ● Work = reworked Greek myth narrative ● Ariadne = daughter of Minos, left by Thessius ● *Theme of abandonment ● Nude study: adopts from classical sources so he can do one ● Pose becomes trope in art
  • 103. ● Action @ picture plane, lush red = drama – Line + form = 3D; modeling + shading ● Not liked by Ami audience – appreciate technical ability, but why select subject not related to America or her ideals? ● Must be educated to understand (rules out mercantile class) ● Work has neoclassical tradition ● Goes back to US and brings art to masses – Builds gallery = the Rotunda behind City Hall in NY *Vanderlyn's career shows frustration of artist trying to transplant European culture in America → can it be done or must there be a process of adaptation