Ap art history test 3


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Ap art history test 3

  1. 1. AP Art History Test 3 (Midterm)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Funerary Vase (Krater) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 750 BCE, from Dipylon Cemetary, Athens, 3 ft tall </li></ul><ul><li>This complex decoration is typical of the Geometric style proper </li></ul><ul><li>For the first time, humans are depicted as part of a narrative </li></ul><ul><li>This pot provides a detailed record of the funerary rituals -- including cremation -- for an important man </li></ul><ul><li>The lying man in the top register is about to be cremated </li></ul><ul><li>The figures with their hands on top of their heads are depicted in anguish </li></ul><ul><li>They are literally teasing out their hair with grief </li></ul><ul><li>In the bottom register, a procession is depicted </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are shown in either full-frontal or full-profile views that emphasize flat patterns and outline the shapes </li></ul><ul><li>There is no attempt to create 3-D depth </li></ul><ul><li>A deep sense of human loss is shown by the using rigidity, solemnity, and strong rhythmic accents of the carefully arranged elements </li></ul><ul><li>Greek funerary art focused on the emotional reactions of the survivors, not the fate of the dead </li></ul><ul><li>This scene contains no supernatural beings </li></ul><ul><li>The afterlife was seen as a place of mystery and obscurity that humans couldn’t define </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Vase/ Pitcher (olpe) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 600 BCE from Corinth, 11 inches tall </li></ul><ul><li>This Orientalizing style was built more around large motifs that included real and imaginary animals, abstract plant forms and human figures </li></ul><ul><li>Olpe = a wide-mouthed pitcher, which has silhouetted creatures striding in horizontal bands against a light background with stylized flower forms called rosettes </li></ul><ul><li>It’s decorated with dark shapes of lions, a serpent, and composite creatures </li></ul><ul><li>The artist incised fine details inside the silhouetted shapes with a sharp tool </li></ul><ul><li>Motif of fantastic striding animals = rhythm </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Temple of Hera </li></ul><ul><li>C. 550 BCE, Paestum, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest standing temple there, which was dedicated to Hera, the wife of Zeus </li></ul><ul><li>It is a large, rectangular, post and lintel structure with a stepped foundation supporting a peristyle -- a row of columns that surrounds the cella (single room) on all 4 sides </li></ul><ul><li>This single peristyle plan is called a peripteral temple </li></ul><ul><li>The peristyle of Hera originally supported a tall lintel area called the entablature (above capital of column) </li></ul><ul><li>The roof rested on the cornice, the slightly projecting topmost element of the entablature </li></ul><ul><li>The raking (slanted) cornices of the roof and the horizontal cornices of the entablature formed the pediment </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>This elevation design shows the early form of the Doric order, including columns with fluted shafts resting w/o bases directly on the stylobate (top step) </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments of terra-cotta eave decorations painted in bright colors have been found in the rubble of Hera </li></ul><ul><li>The columns are very robust, creating an impression of great stability and permanence, but it is rather cumbersome </li></ul><ul><li>As the shaft rises, they swell in the middle and contract again toward the top = entasis </li></ul><ul><li>This gives a sense of energy and upward lift </li></ul><ul><li>Hera has an uneven # of columns </li></ul><ul><li>The unusual 2 aisle, 2 door arrangement suggests the temple had 2 deities: either Hera & Poseidon(patron of the city) or Hera & Zeus, or maybe Hera in her two forms: as warrior & protector of city and as mother & protector of children </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Dying Warrior, C. 480 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>This is among the best preserved fragments of the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, in Aegina </li></ul><ul><li>This figure originally would have been painted and fitted with authentic bronze accessories, increasing its sense of reality </li></ul><ul><li>It fully uses the difficult framework of the pediment corner </li></ul><ul><li>The artist portrayed the soldiers’ uplifted, twisted form turning in space, capturing his agony and vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>The subtle modeling of the body shows the softness of human flesh, contrasted with the hard metallic geometry of the shield, helmet and arrow. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Kouros ( Standing Youth) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 600 BCE, made of marble, 6 feet tall </li></ul><ul><li>Figures like this were frequently life size or larger </li></ul><ul><li>They were brightly painted and sometimes bore inscriptions which told who commissioned it and why </li></ul><ul><li>They have been found in graves and sanctuaries </li></ul><ul><li>Young, athletic males symbolized fertility and family continuity - they may have been symbolic ancestor figures </li></ul><ul><li>This figure recalls the pose and proportions of Egyptian sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Greek artists did not share Egyptian obsession with permanence; they cut away all stone from around the body </li></ul><ul><li>They may be suggestive of the marble block from which they were carved, but they have a notable athletic quality unlike Egyptian statues </li></ul><ul><li>This figure has an Archaic smile, used to enliven the expression of figures. </li></ul><ul><li>The nudity of the figure removes it from a specific time, place, or social class </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Kouros ( Kroisos Kouros) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 530 BCE, marble/paint, 6’4” </li></ul><ul><li>This figure clearly shows the increasing interest of artists and their patrons in a ore lifelike rendering of the human figure </li></ul><ul><li>The pose, hair, and Archaic smile echo the earlier Kouroi style </li></ul><ul><li>The massive torso and limbs have greater anatomical accuracy, suggesting heroic strength </li></ul><ul><li>This served as a monument to a war hero and was found in a cemetery at Anavysos </li></ul><ul><li>The inscription at the base inspires the viewer to emulate Kroisos’s noble actions and heroic character </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Kore </li></ul><ul><li>C. 520 BCE, from Chios, made of marble, 21” </li></ul><ul><li>Used to be painted </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects a trend toward increasingly lifelike anatomical depiction that would peak in the fifth century BCE (400s) </li></ul><ul><li>She wears a garment called a chiton, over it, a cloak called a himation was draped diagonally </li></ul><ul><li>Her hairstyle and abundance of jewelry add to the opulent effect </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Women at a Fountain House </li></ul><ul><li>C. 520 BCE, black-figure decoration on hydria, priam painter </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter: social moment with women = genre </li></ul><ul><li>White figures = women </li></ul><ul><li>Black figures= male </li></ul><ul><li>This ceramic is perfectly balanced </li></ul><ul><li>There is a horizontal, frieze-like composition of the women across the body of the pot </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Death of Sarpedon </li></ul><ul><li>C. 515 BCE, painter: Euphronios </li></ul><ul><li>Euphronois = one of best known red-figure technique artists </li></ul><ul><li>He was praised for his study of human anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Painted on a carlyx krater </li></ul><ul><li>According to Homer’s Illiad, Sarpedon, a son of Zeus and a mortal women, was killed by the Greek warrior Patroclus while fighting for the Trojans </li></ul><ul><li>The winged figures, Death and Sleep, are carrying the dead warrior from the battlefield </li></ul><ul><li>Hermes (messenger of gods) is watching over the scene </li></ul><ul><li>He is identified by his winged hat and his staff with snakes </li></ul><ul><li>He leads the dead to the netherworld </li></ul><ul><li>Euphronios created a perfectly balanced composition of verticals and horizontals </li></ul><ul><li>The painter conveys a sense of mass and energy of the subjects, as well as fine details </li></ul><ul><li>The impression of real space around the figures was created by foreshortening body forms and limbs </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Kritios Boy </li></ul><ul><li>C. 480 BCE, excavated from the debris on the Athenian Acropolis, made of marble, 46” </li></ul><ul><li>Thought to be made by the Greek sculptor Kritios </li></ul><ul><li>The boy has a natural pose (contra posto) unlike kouroi </li></ul><ul><li>His solemn expression lacks any trace of the “Archaic smile” (this is now part of the early classic or severe style) </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the Archaic period, a new technique for hollow-casting bronze was developed </li></ul><ul><li>This created a more flexible medium and became favored among Greek sculptors </li></ul><ul><li>It more easily permitted off-balance action poses </li></ul><ul><li>After this intro, the figure in action became a popular subject </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Discus Thrower (Discobolus) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 450 BCE, lifesize marble, made by Myron, Roman copy after original bronze </li></ul><ul><li>The athlete was caught at the crucial point of his motion - </li></ul><ul><li>The breathless instant before the concentrated energy of his body will unwind to propel the discus into space </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Charioteer </li></ul><ul><li>C. 470 BCE, from Delphi in sanctuary of Apollo, 5’11” </li></ul><ul><li>Made by lost wax casting </li></ul><ul><li>Comemorates a victory by a driver in the Pythian Games </li></ul><ul><li>He seems to pout </li></ul><ul><li>His head turns slightly to the side </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidating expression is enhanced by glass eyes and sliver eyelashes </li></ul><ul><li>His features suggest an idealized conception of youthful male appearance </li></ul><ul><li>There is great realism in the sculpture </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Spear Bearer (Doryphoros) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 450 BCE, 6’11”, Roman copy of original bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Greek sculptors sought an ideal human beauty </li></ul><ul><li>From Mature Classical period = regular facial features, smooth skin, certain body proportions- became canon </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptor Polykleitos was the best-known art theorist of the classical period </li></ul><ul><li>He developed a set of rules for constructing the ideal human figure, described in The Canon </li></ul><ul><li>This statue of Achilles was meant to show his theory </li></ul><ul><li>The canon included a system of ratios between a basic unit and the length of various body parts </li></ul><ul><li>This basic unit may have been the length of the figure’s index finger </li></ul><ul><li>The canon also included guidelines for symmetria, the relationship of body parts to another </li></ul><ul><li>Contrapposto is demonstrated greatly in this figure. </li></ul><ul><li>The pattern of tension and relaxation is reveres in the arragnement of the arms </li></ul><ul><li>This dynamically balanced pose (typical of High Classic Greek art) differs from the Kritios Boy </li></ul><ul><li>The tip of the hipline is more pronounced </li></ul><ul><li>Polykleitos sought a mathematical definition of the Beautiful, aspiring to make human perfection in the tangible form of sculpture </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Parthenon </li></ul><ul><li>C. 447-438 BCE, Acropolis, Athens </li></ul><ul><li>The building was begun by Kallikrates then halted when the Persians sacked the acropolis </li></ul><ul><li>Pericles decided to rebuild the Parthenon was started to create a visual expression of Athenian values and civic pride that would glorify his city and bolster its status as capital of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Pericles appointed Iktinos as the new architect </li></ul><ul><li>It was a symbol of Athenian aspirations and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Phidias was the sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>It was a temple dedicated to Athena (goddess of Wisdom) </li></ul><ul><li>It is an icon for democratic values and independent thought </li></ul><ul><li>It was a perfected, ideal Doric temple with ionic cella that housed statue of Athena </li></ul><ul><li>It has been a Christian Church, an Islamic mosque, a Turkish facility, etc . </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Parthenon </li></ul><ul><li>In the eighteenth century, the building came to exemplify human and humane values </li></ul><ul><li>It became a symbol of honesty, heroism, and civic virtue, of highest ideals in art and politics </li></ul><ul><li>It has perfect proportions in a ration 4:9 </li></ul><ul><li>The sculptural decoration conveys a number of political themes: triumph of democratic and Greek city-states over Persia’s imperial forces, triumph of an enlightened Greek civilization over despotism and barbarism </li></ul><ul><li>Pediments were filled with sculpture in the round </li></ul><ul><li>The west pediment shows the contest between Athena and Poseidon. The east shows Athena’s birth </li></ul><ul><li>The reliefs in the Doric friezes depicted legendary battles </li></ul><ul><li>Civic pride: wisdom, democracy, culture, wealth </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Porch of the Maidens (Caryatid Porch), Erechtheion </li></ul><ul><li>C. 430-405 BCE, Acropolis, Athens </li></ul><ul><li>The asymmetrical plan and several levels reflect buildings multiple functions in housing many different shrines and conform to the sharply sloping terrain </li></ul><ul><li>This site encloses what the Athenians believed to be a sacred rock, bearing the marks of the trident. </li></ul><ul><li>This porch was on the south side of the Erechtheion </li></ul><ul><li>Six stately caryatids with simple Doric capitals support an ionic entablature made of bands of carved molding </li></ul><ul><li>The figures demonstrate contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>There is a sense of closure, symmetry, and rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>The vertical fall of their dresses resembles the fluting of a column shaft and provides a sense of stability, whereas the bent leg gives an impression of relaxed grace and effortless support </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Temple of Athena Nike </li></ul><ul><li>C. 425 BCE, Acropolis, Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Built by Kallicrates </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic order temple built on an amphiprostyle plan, that is, with a porch at each end </li></ul><ul><li>The porch facing out over the city is blind, with no entrance to the cella </li></ul><ul><li>The temple has been rebuilt since Turkish occupation of Greece in 1600s </li></ul><ul><li>Its diminutive size and refined Ionic decoration are in marked contrast to the massive Doric Propylaia adjacent to it </li></ul><ul><li>It used to be surrounded by a parapet, or low wall, faced with sculptured panels depicting Athena presiding over her winged attendants called Victories as they prepare for a celebration </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Nike (Victory) Adjusting Her Sandal </li></ul><ul><li>C. 410 BCE, 42” </li></ul><ul><li>Survived from the parapet at the Temple of Athena (Nike) </li></ul><ul><li>The figure bends forward gracefully, causing her ample chiton to slip off one shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Her large wings effectively balance this unstable pose </li></ul><ul><li>The textile covering her appears delicate and light -- one of the most discreetly erotic images in ancient art </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Grave Stele of Hegeso </li></ul><ul><li>C. 400 BCE, marble, 6’ </li></ul><ul><li>The classical stelai represent departures or domestic scenes that very often feature women </li></ul><ul><li>Women as depicted in these tombstones held a respected position in the family </li></ul><ul><li>This stele depicts a beautifully dressed woman seated in an elegant chair </li></ul><ul><li>She selects jewels from a box </li></ul><ul><li>The composition is entirely inward turning </li></ul><ul><li>The simplicity of the maid’s tunic and hair contrasts with the luxurious dress and partially veiled flowing hair of Hegeso </li></ul><ul><li>The sculptor has carved both women as part of the living spectators’ space in front of a simple temple=fronted gravestone </li></ul><ul><li>The artist doesn't invade the private world of the women </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Hermes and the Infant Dionysus </li></ul><ul><li>C. 325 BCE, marble with remnants of red paint on lips and hair, Praxiteles </li></ul><ul><li>Roman copy? </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture stood in Temple of Hera at Olympia </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in Temple Sanctuary of Hear and Zeus </li></ul><ul><li>This figure has a smaller head than previous sculptures and its off-balance s-curve pose contrasts earlier works </li></ul><ul><li>A sensuous play of light was created over the figure’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Soft muscles; playful </li></ul><ul><li>There is also a humanized treatment of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Two gods caught in a moment of absorbed companionship </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The Scraper (Apoxyomenos) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 325 BCE, Roman copy, marble, 7’, Lysippos </li></ul><ul><li>Lysippos was a transitional figure for he lived in the world of Alex the Great </li></ul><ul><li>His figures reflect a different set of proportions than previously before </li></ul><ul><li>For this work, he chose a typical Classical subject </li></ul><ul><li>He depicted a young man methodically cleaning himself, but his thoughts are far from that </li></ul><ul><li>This figure is tall & slender with a small head </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects a different canon of proportions and the figure’s weight is more evenly distributed between the 2 legs </li></ul><ul><li>He legs are also in a wider stance to counterbalance the outstretched arms </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Apollo Belvedere </li></ul><ul><li>In Vatican before 1509 </li></ul><ul><li>Contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>Light and delicate </li></ul><ul><li>Soft muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Not intense - no pain or suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Tomb of King Mausolos </li></ul><ul><li>C. 350 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Built in Halikarnassos </li></ul><ul><li>= Mausoleum </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of King Mausolos </li></ul><ul><li>C. 350 BCE, from tomb of Mausolos </li></ul><ul><li>In Belvedere </li></ul><ul><li>Shows individualism </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Dying Gaul Trumpeter </li></ul><ul><li>C. 220 BCE, roman copy, life-size, from Pergamon </li></ul><ul><li>Pergamon was located in western Asia Minor (Turkey) </li></ul><ul><li>Included in the sculpture of the Temple of Aphaia </li></ul><ul><li>The entire monument this piece comes from commemorates the victory over the Gauls </li></ul><ul><li>It extols the dignity and heroism of the defeated enemies </li></ul><ul><li>The figures were mounted on a large pedestal </li></ul><ul><li>The wiry unkempt hair and the trumpeter’s twisted neck ring identify them as “barbarians” </li></ul><ul><li>The artist sought to arose the viewer’s admiration and pity for his subjects </li></ul><ul><li>The trumpeter’s deliberate attempt to rise elicits a specific emotional response in the viewer, known as expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>It was to become a characteristic of Hellenistic art </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Altar from Pergamon </li></ul><ul><li>C. 175-150 BCE, from Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Original complex was a single-story structure with an Ionic colonnade raised on a high podium reached by a monumental staircase </li></ul><ul><li>The running frieze decoration, probably executed during the reign of Eumenes II, depicts the battle between the gods and the Giants - a mythical struggle the Greeks used as a metaphor for Pergamon’s victory over the Gauls </li></ul><ul><li>The frieze figures break out of their architectural space </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Nike (Victory) of Samonthrace </li></ul><ul><li>C. 190 BCE, marble, 8’, found in Samonthrace </li></ul><ul><li>This figure was used as a war memorial </li></ul><ul><li>The forward momentum of her body is balanced by the powerful backward thrust of her huge wings </li></ul><ul><li>The large open movements of he figure, the strong contrasts of light and dark on the deeply sculpted forms, and the contrasting textures typify Hellenistic art </li></ul><ul><li>Although most Hellenistic pieces were “huge”, “enormous” and “larger-than-life”, artists of the time also created fine works on a small scale </li></ul><ul><li>The grace, dignity, and energy of the figure can also be found in a bronze 8” tall </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Laocoon and His Sons </li></ul><ul><li>C. 2nd or 1st BCE, marble 8’, copy?, found in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>The complex sculptural composition illustrates an episode from the Trojan War </li></ul><ul><li>The Trojan’s priest, Laocoon warned them not to take the giant wooden horse inside their walls </li></ul><ul><li>The gods who supported the Greeks in the war retaliated by sending serpents from the sea to destroy him and his sons </li></ul><ul><li>There are struggling figures, anguished faces, intricate diagonal movements, and skillful unification of diverse forces in a complex composition </li></ul><ul><li>Although sculpted in the round, the 3 figures appear as very high relief and are more like the relief sculpture from the altar at Peramon </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Belvedere Torso </li></ul><ul><li>C. 150 BCE, marble </li></ul><ul><li>Probably Hercules </li></ul><ul><li>Huge muscles, twisting = torsion </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo) </li></ul><ul><li>C. 150 BCE, marble, 7’ </li></ul><ul><li>Shows renewed interest in style of 4th century </li></ul><ul><li>Found on island of Melos by French </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to recall Aphrodite of Praxiteles </li></ul><ul><li>Twisting stance and strong projection of the knee are typical of Hellensitic art </li></ul><ul><li>The drapery also has rich 3D quality </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Old Woman </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1 century BCE, marble, 49”, Roman copy </li></ul><ul><li>Some think she represents an aging dissolute follower of Dionysus on her way to make an offering </li></ul><ul><li>Not a timeless youth </li></ul><ul><li>Shows old age </li></ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Genre…? </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos </li></ul><ul><li>C. 310 BCE, Roman copy of Greek original painting </li></ul><ul><li>Shows growing taste for dramatic narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Shows violent action, gestures and radical foreshortening, all devised to make the viewer’s response to a dramatic situation </li></ul><ul><li>Chiaroscuro, and illusionistic devices are used </li></ul><ul><li>Shows turmoil of war </li></ul>