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  • 1. AP Art History Test 2
  • 2.
    • Palette of Narmer
    • C. 3000 BCE; a slab of mudstone; found in temple of Horus
    • The first king, Narmer (Dynasty 1) has his name depicted in pictographs (picture writing) in a small square at the top = fish and chisel
    • Carved in low relief on both sides with scenes and identifying inscriptions
    • It was probably had a ceremonial function - may have been votive offering; it was much larger than other common objects with the same form
    • Images of conquest proclaim Narmer to be great unifier, protector, & leader of Egyptians. Hierarchic scale signals status of ppl in stratified society
    • He wears the White Crown of Upper Egypt; a ceremonial bull’s tail hangs from his waist band = strength
    • Barefoot = preordained victory over evil
  • 3.
    • The god Horus - a falcon w/ human hands- holds rope around person’s neck next to papyrus - grew along lower Nile
    • Shows Lower Egypt has been tamed
    • Other side: Narmer wears Red Crown of Lower Egypt -- shows he now rules both lands
    • Cats’ intertwining necks = reference to union of the 2 lands
    • Bull in bttm register shows strength -- maybe king?
    • Images affirm absolute pwr of Narmer’s firm rule over unified Egypt
    • Provides early examples of way Egyptian artists solved the problem of depicting the human form in the 2-D arts of relief sculpture and painting
  • 4.
    • Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser(Zoser)
    • Built by Imhotep, c. 2600 BCE, made of limestone, found in Saqqara, 204 feet
    • Imhotep was prime minister for King Djoser. First architect in history known by name
    • He stacked mastabas to protect the tomb & as a stairway to the stars & to the sun god Ra
    • This structure employs the most elemental structural techniques and the purest geometric forms
  • 5.
    • Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt
    • C. 2500 BCE found in Saqqara
    • Painted limestone relief, appx. 46” high
    • Found in large mastaba of a Dynasty 5 government official named Ti -- he was a commoner who had achieved great power at court and amassed enough $ to build a home for his immortal spirit
    • Painter used lots of styles
    • River is depicted as if seen from above, animals seen in profile
    • Ti is shown in the traditional twisted pose, while the actual hunters, being of lesser rank & engaged in more strenuous activities, are shown more realistically; Hierarchic scale is used
    • Scenes showing a ruler hunting wild animals showed the pwr to maintain order &balance
    • Killing hippos was an official duty of court members.
    • They were believed as friends of Seth, the god of darkness
    • Tomb descriptions showed valor of deceased & triumph of good over evil.
  • 6.
    • Great Pyramids at Gizeh (Giza)
    • C. 2500 BCE, built during Dynasty 4: Menkaure, Khafre, & Khufu
    • 4 sides could have represented slanting rays of the sun
    • Greeks impressed by these - “pyramid” = Greek
    • Pyramids referred to by early Egyptians as, “Horizon of Khufu”, “Great is Kharfra” & “Divine is Menkaura”
    • Khufu’s is the oldest and largest; Menkaura’s had a polished red granite base
    • The pyramids were covered with a limestone veneer
    • The site was planned to follow the sun’s east-west path
    • A funerary temple was next to each pyramid & was connected to a valley temple on Nile Bank
    • Granite for building was quarried near, or on site
    • The pyramids were oriented to the points of the compass & may have incorporated other symbolic astronomical calculations
    • They reflect the desire of a trio of kings to attain immotality & the strenght of the Egypitins’ belief that a dead ruler continued to affect the well-being of the state and his ppl
  • 7.
    • Menkaura and a Queen
    • C. 2500 BCE discovered in Menkaura’s valley temple, Giza, Menkaura’s wife, Khamerernbety, made of graywacke
    • Displays dignity, calm, and permanence
    • The couple’s are separate figures, yet close in size, form a single unit, and are tied together by the stone out of which they emerge
    • Further united by symbolic gestures of embrace
    • King depicted with Egyptian ideal as an athletic, youthful figure, stands in Egyptian balanced pose with one foot in front of the other, arms at sides, and fists clenched
    • The statue was never polished, indicating that this work may have been undertaken only a few years before Menkaura’s death
    • Red paint traces are still found on the sculptor
    • Very block-like; retains human body with hard-edged geometry
  • 8.
    • Seated Scribe
    • C. 2500 BCE, painted limestone with rock crystal inlaid eyes, from mastaba at Saqqara, early Dynasty 5
    • Such works were more lively and less formal that royal portraits
    • Found in tomb of vizier named Kai
    • His sedentary vocation has made his body soft and flabby
    • Pupils are slightly off-center in the irises, giving the illusion of being in motion, and seeking eye contact.
    • Other early Dynasty 5 statues found there have a similar round head and face, alert expression, and cap of close-cropped hair
    • Scribes were very important. They had special knowledge and wrote sacred words
  • 9.
    • Rock-cut tombs
    • C. 1900-1800 BCE, Dynasty 12, Beni Hasan (east bank of Nile)
    • Rock-cut tombs: burial places hollowed out of the faces of cliffs
    • Each tomb was like a single complex piece of sculpture carved away from the same rock
    • A typical Beni Hasan tomb included an entrance portico, a main hall, and a shrine with a burial chamber under the offering chapel
    • Walls in tomb were commonly painted
    • Khnumhotep had a tomb here. Murals used symmetrical composition with panels of figures and inscriptions laid out on a horizontal-vertical grid focused on the niche with its ka statue
    • This was the first step away from large burial place pyramids.
  • 10.
    • Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut
    • C. 1475 BCE, on the west bank of the Nile in Deir el-Bahri
    • Built by the female pharaoh, Hatshepsut, (Dynasty 18)
    • Senenmut, her closest advisor was instrumental in carrying out this building plan
    • It was not intended to be her tomb. She was supposed to be buried in the Valley of the Kings, this was meant to be her funerary temple
    • It is oriented toward the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak on the east bank of the Nile
    • Temple follows axial plan -- all of its separate elements are symmetrically arranged along a dominant center line
    • There were shrines to Anubis, Hathor, relief scenes and inscriptions depicting her expedition to Punt
    • There was a hypostyle hall w/ chapels dedicated to the gods Amun and Ra-Ho-rathky = the power of the sun at dawn and dusk
    • Deep in the cliff was the temple’s innermost sanctuary
    • Projects imposing image of authority, and a remarkable union of nature and architecture
  • 11.
    • Akhenaten and His Family
    • C. 1350 BCE, painted limestone relief, found in Tell el-Amarna
    • Akhenaten aka Amenhotep IV - he transformed the political,spiritual, and cultural life of Egypt
    • Moved capital from Thebes to Akhenaten
    • Founded religion honoring life-giving sun deity, Aten
    • He emphasized “living in maat” = divine truth
    • Artists emphasized his unusual physical characteristics:
    • Long thin arms & legs, a protruding stomach, swelling thighs, a thin neck, elongated skull
    • He urged his artists to portray the royal family in informal situations
    • This sunken relief shows Akhenated and Queen Nefertiti with their 3 daughters
    • Shows new openess and a new figural style
    • Plants on Queen’s chair show unified Egypt
    • Couple receives blessings of Aten whose rays hold ankhs to their noses = “breath of life”
    • Artist showed loving concern of parents in a way never seen before
  • 12.
    • Queen Tiy
    • C. 1350 BCE Dynasty 18, mother of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)
    • It existed in two versions
    • Originally it may have been made for the cult of her ded husband, Amenhotep III
    • She was identified with the funerary goddesses Isis and Nephthys
    • She wore a silver headress with gold cobras and jewelry
    • Later, when her son came to power, the portrait was altered
    • A brown cap with glass beads was placed over the funeral headress
    • The sculpture was 1/3 lifesize
  • 13.
    • Funerary mask of Tutankhamun
    • C. 1336-1327 BCE Valley of Kings, Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 18
    • He returned to traditional religious beliefs and moved capital back to Thebes
    • His body lay inside 3 coffins that identified him with Osiris, the god of the dead
    • The inner most coffin was the richest, made out of pure gold
    • King holds crook and flail = symbols of Osiris and were traditional royal emblems
    • His unusually full lips and thin-bridged nose hint at the continued influence of the Amarna period style and its dedication to actual appearances
  • 14.
    • Great Temple of Amun at Karnak
    • C. 1500-1100 BCE
    • Worship of Theban triad of deitie -- Amun, his wife Mut, their son Khons had spread throughout the country
    • Gods were a major focus of royal art patronage, as were tombs and temples erected to glorify kings themselves
    • Access to heart of Great Temple, a sanctuary containing the statue of Amun, was through a courtyard, hypostyle hall, and a number of smaller halls and courts
    • There were massive gateways called pylons, that set off each of these separate elements
    • There were colorful reliefs everywhere
    • Only kings and priests were allowed to enter the sanctuary
    • The hypostyle hall had a clerestory, a long row of window openings in the higher sections of the side walls
  • 15.
    • Temples of Rameses II
    • C. 1250 BCE, in Abu Simbel, Nubia; Dynasty 19
    • On east side of river, not in situ
    • Ramses II was a bold military commander and political strategist
    • Temples proclaim his military and diplomatic success
    • Two temples were constructed
    • The larger, for himself and Egyptian gods Amun, Ra, and Ptah
    • Four huge statues of Rameses flank the entrance
    • Inside the temple, 8 statues of the god Osiris w/ the face of the god-king Ramses further proclaim his divinity
    • The other temple was dedicated to his wife Nefertari and Hathor the goddess of fertility, love, joy, and music
    • The 2 temples together honoring the official gods of Egypt and his dynasty were oriented on axes that crossed in the middle of the Nile
    • On the most important day of the Egyptian calendar, the first rays of sun shot through the temple and illuminate statues
  • 16.
    • Judgment before Osiris
    • The dead underwent a “last judgment”
    • Tests are presided by Osiris, god of underworld and supervised by Anubis, the overseer of funerals and cemeteries
    • Dead were first questioned, then their hearts were weighed against a feather, the symbol of Maat, the goddess of truth
    • Family members commissioned papyrus scrolls to help the dead survive these tests
    • A monster known as Ammit “eater of the dead” awaits eagerly
    • Horus, god of sky presents him to Osiris
    • Continuous narrative
  • 17.
    • Figure of a Woman
    • C. 2500-2000 BCE marble Cycladic Island art (Neolithic and late Bronze Age)
    • 13-25 inches
    • They were often found lying on graves and their tilted back heads and feet suggest they were intended to lie on their backs as if asleep or dead
    • They have simple contours not far removed from the marble slabs out of which they were carved
    • They originally had painted facial features, hair and ornaments
    • The majority are women
  • 18.
    • Palace Complex - “Palace of Minos”
    • C. 2000-1300 BE, Knossos, Crete
    • Majority has been reconstructed
    • Made of rubble and mud bricks
    • Interior elements made of wood
    • Multi-storied, flat-roofed and with many columns
    • Designed to maximize light, air, and adaptability
    • Minoan builders sensitive to natural settings, structures often focus on special landscape features such as the sacred Mount Ida
    • Organized mathematical grid
  • 19.
    • Leaping Bull
    • “ Toreador Fresco” C. 1500 BCE from Knossos, 24 inches high
    • One of the most famous and best preserved paintings
    • This panel is one of a group of paintings with bulls
    • Minoan art: graceful, wavelike, liveliness, used different ways to designate gender differences - sometimes by color
    • The action may represent an initiation or fertility ritual
    • The bull’s pose is not true to life
    • Variegated ovals frame the action
  • 20.
    • Landscape (Spring Fresco)
    • C. 1500 BCE, wall painting from Akrotiri, Thera Cyclades
    • A pure landscape of hills, rocks, and flowers
    • Unlike anything ever seen in acient art
    • Artist unifeies rhythmic flow of the rolling landscape, the stylized patterning imposed on the natural forms, and the decorative use of bight colors alternating with darker neutral tones maybe as shadow
    • This picture was very accurate
    • The impression is one of organic life and growth, a celebration of the natural world
    • It captures zesty joy of life -- different from Egyptian cool and static
  • 21.
    • Octopus Flask
    • C. 1500 BCE from Crete, ceramic, 11 in.
    • Done in Marine style because of its depiction of sea life
    • Celebrates Crete’s sea power, then at its height
    • The decoration reinforces the solidity of its surface
    • Painter captured the grace and energy of natural forms while presenting them as a stylized design in harmony with vessel’s shape
  • 22.
    • Lion Gate
    • C. 1300-1200 BCE; limestone, Mycenae relief height 9 feet
    • Mycenae = home of the leader of the Greek army that conquered city of Troy
    • Monumental gateway to citadel is reminder of city’s warlike past
    • Gate came after surrounding walls were built
    • Formed of post and lintel megaliths, but purpose and style of gate is very different from other megalithic structures
    • The basic architecture had a “relieving arch” = corbel
    • Heads of lions made separately
    • Minoan column in middle
  • 23.
    • Treasury of Atreus
    • C.1300-1200 BCE, Mycenae
    • Found just outside of Mycenae
    • A very impressive tomb
    • Was a corbel dome
    • Uninterrupted for more than a thousand years
    • Circular plan
    • Gold death masks found inside