Ap art history test 1
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    Ap art history test 1 Ap art history test 1 Presentation Transcript

    • AP Art History Test 1
      • Woman from Willendorf
      • Found in Austria, c. 22,000 BCE
      • Fertility figure
      • Proportional changes for childbearing
      • Small scale; People = migratory
    • Paleolithic
      • Hall of Bulls
      • Found in Lascaux Caves, France, c. 15,000 BCE
      • Limestone
      • Contour lines, creates mass & rhythm
      • Most animals alive
      • Less than 1% humans
      • Stonehenge
      • Discovered in Salisbury Plain, England c. 2700-1500 BCE
      • People had permanent food supply; no longer migratory
      • Had a funeral component
      • Some stones are from Wales
      • It had at least 4 major building phases
      • Stonehenge is site specific for the summer solstice June 21
      • Circle is 97’ in diameter
      • Uses post and lintel
            • Ziggurat of Ur
      • C.2100 BCE
      • Structures proclaimed the wealth, prestige, and stability of a city’s rulers and glorified its protective gods.
      • They functioned symbollically as brgidges between he earth and the heaens - a meeting place for humans and their gods.
      • Only priests were allowed in the Ziggurat
      • This ziggurat was dedicated to the moon god Nanna
      • The mud-brick structure was elevated by design, not as the result of successive rebuildings.
      • Uruk Vase
      • C. 3000 BCE; modern day Iraq; made of alabaster
      • Near Eastern sculptors told their stories by organizing picture space into registers or bands
      • Its lower registers show the natural world, beginning with plants and water
      • Above them on the solid groundline, rams and ewes alternate
      • In the middle register, are nude men carrying baskets of food stuff
      • In the top register Inanna is accepting an offering from a naked priest
      • The scene is usually interpreted as the ritual marriage between the goddess and a human during the fall New Year’s Festival
      • Hieratic scale is shown as Nanna dominates the scene
          • Votive Figures
      • C. 2700 from Modern day Iraq
      • Images dedicated to the gods
      • They represent an early example of an ancient Near Eastern relgious practice: the placement ina shrine of simple, small statues of individual worshipers before a larger, more elaborate image of a god.
      • Each sculpture served as a stand-in, at perpetual attention, making eye contact, and chanting its donor’s praises through eternity.
      • Sculptors followed the conventions of Sumerian art: representing forms with simplified faces and bodies and dress that emphasized the cylindrical shapes.
      • The Great Lyre with Bull’s Head
      • C. 2500 Was found in the tomb of King Meskalamdug of Ur.
      • The bearded bull is intensely lifelike despite the blue beard
      • The lyre is made of wood, gold, silver, lapis, bitumen, and shell
      • On the panel below the head are four horizontal registers depicting a banquet in the realm of the dead.
      • Some of the harp imagery may have been inspired by the Epic of Gilgamesh
      • Because the lyre was used in funeral rites, its imagery probably depicts the fantastic realm of the dead, offerings to the goddess of the underworld, or a funeral banquet
            • Victory Stele of Naram-Sin
      • C. 2250 BCE from Susa (Iran) made of sandstone
      • The concept of imperial authority was carved in this stone slab, commemorating a military victory of Naramsin, Sargon’s grandson
      • It is an early example of art created to celebrate the achievements of an individual ruler
      • Horizontal registers were replaced with wavy groundlines.
      • The images stand on their own with no explanatory inscription, but the godlike king is easily recognizable.
      • He is watched over by 3 solar deities and wears the horned crown. He stands at the center of the scene and is the largest.
              • Stele of Hammurabi
      • C. 1780 from Susa (Iran) made of basalt; 7 feet 28 inches.
      • One of Hammurabi’s greatest accomplishments was the first systematic codification of his people’s rights, duties, and punishments for wrondoing.
      • This stele speaks to us both as a work of art that depicts a legendary event and as a historical document that records a conversation about justice between god and man.
      • The one sitting is Shamash, the sun god and god of justice.
      • Most of the stele was intended to ensure uniform treatment of people throughout his kingdom.
      • Punishment was based on wealth, class, and gender of the parties
      • This was the world’s most ancient full law code
            • Lamassu
      • C. 883-859 BCE found in Nimrud (Iraq) now in the Met, NY
      • These guardians figures flanked the major portals in Assurnasirpal II’s city
      • They were also used in the support of the gateway entrance to the city.
      • Art was an expression of military power
      • Assyrians decorated their palaces with scenes of victorious battles, presentations of tribute to the king, combat between men and beasts, and religious imagery
      • The Assyrian empire had a long and spread out reign
      • Assurnasirpal II Killing of Lions
      • C. 850 BCE, from palace of Assurnasirpal II in Nimrud (Iraq)
      • This image probably depicts a ceremonial hunt, in which the king, protected by men with sword and shields rode back and forth killing animals as they were released into an enclosed area
      • This piece marks a shift in Mesopotamian art away from a sense of timelessness and toward visual narrative
      • Unlike earlier works, the man is not part of nature, standing among animals as their equal, but has assued dominion over nature
      • Assurnasirpal and His Queen in the Garden
      • C. 647 BCE from the palace at Nineveh (Iraq) made of alabaster
      • This tranquil domestic scene is actually a victory celebration
      • The theme is royal power it signifies political strength and power
      • Much Assyrian art is relief carving
      • Ishtar Gate
      • C. 575 BCE from Babyon (Iraq) made of glazed brick
      • This gate was the ceremonial entrance to Babylon
      • This gate was a symbol of Babylonian power
      • It was guarded by four crenellated towers and was decorated with tiers of mushhushshu, horned dragons, which were sacred to Maruk, the city’s patron god.
      • In the panel fragments, lions walk beneath stylized palm trees
      • Royal Audience Hall (apadana) of Darius I and Xerxes I
      • C. 500 BCE located in Persepolis, Iran
      • This imperial complex was set on a raised platform and laid out on a rectangular grid
      • It was accessible only from a single ramp made of wide shallow steps
      • This apadana was set above the rest of the complex on a second terrace
      • It had open porches on 3 sides and a square hall large enough to hold several thousand people
      • On its walls are ranks of warriors that seem ready to defend the palace, while on the staircase, lions attack bulls at each side of the Persian generals
      • These animal combats emphasize the ferocity of the leaders and their men
      • The building looks Mesopotamian with its powerful lions, rooms full of columns
      • Themes: diversity of empire, military control/power
      • Other reliefs throughout the city depict displays of allegiance or economic prosperity
      • Persians had a high level of technical and artistic sophistication