Ap art history term 3 test 5

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Ap art history term 3 test 5

  1. 1. AP Art History Test 5 Term 3
  2. 2. <ul><li>Fallingwater </li></ul><ul><li>1937, Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal massing (prairie school) </li></ul><ul><li>Cantilever </li></ul><ul><li>Cast concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbon fenestration </li></ul><ul><li>Site specific </li></ul><ul><li>Organicism </li></ul><ul><li>Hearth </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: Japanese, Arts and Crafts, modern technology </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Edgar Kaufmann, a department store owner, to replace a summer cottage </li></ul><ul><li>Declares war on the modern industrial city </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Bauhaus Building </li></ul><ul><li>1925-26, Walter Gropius, Dessau, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>“ workhouse” = modern engineering, curtain walls (no load bearing features) </li></ul><ul><li>Functionality, craftsmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Counterpart to the total and rational planning envisioned by the de Stijl group </li></ul><ul><li>He admired the spirit of medieval building guilds </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to revive and commit that spirit to the reconciliation of modern art and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Frankly acknowledges the reinforced concrete, steel, and glass of which it is built </li></ul><ul><li>Used asymmetrical balancing to convey dynamic quality of life </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>German Pavilion </li></ul><ul><li>1929, Mies Van der Rohe </li></ul><ul><li>International Exposition, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>He was director of the Bauhaus </li></ul><ul><li>“ Less is more.” </li></ul><ul><li>Great passion = subtle perfection of structure, proportion, and detail </li></ul><ul><li>Relied on domino construction system developed by Le Corbusier </li></ul><ul><li>Very simple </li></ul><ul><li>No references to the past </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Villa Savoye </li></ul><ul><li>1930, Le Corbusier, France </li></ul><ul><li>Big in purism, emphasizing purity of geometric form </li></ul><ul><li>Hated the crowded, noisy, chaotic cities </li></ul><ul><li>Envisioned a city of uniform style, laid out on a grid </li></ul><ul><li>Building strictly functional </li></ul><ul><li>Nature wouldn’t be neglected </li></ul><ul><li>Icon of international style </li></ul><ul><li>Culminated the domino construction system </li></ul><ul><li>Curtain walls on the exterior to provide freedom of design </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbon windows </li></ul><ul><li>Designed as a weekend retreat </li></ul><ul><li>“ machine for living” </li></ul><ul><li>Brutalism: raw process by which it was made is shown </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Schroeder House </li></ul><ul><li>1925, Gerrit Rietveld, Utrecht, The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of beauty: a sensual or subjective one and a higher rational, objective kind </li></ul><ul><li>Example of International style </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Mondrian’s principle of a dynamic equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Radically asymmetrical exterior composed of interlocking gray an white planes </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by wealthy widow </li></ul><ul><li>House = ascetic experience </li></ul><ul><li>Walls slide </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Man, Controller of the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>1934, Diego Rivera </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Rockefeller Family </li></ul><ul><li>In the lobby of the RCA Building </li></ul><ul><li>He was a communist and included Lenin’s face </li></ul><ul><li>The Rockefellers canceled his commission and had the mural destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Recreated in Mexico city </li></ul><ul><li>Man controls the universe through manipulation of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin on the right, capitalists on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalist world cursed by militarism and labor unrest </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Guernica </li></ul><ul><li>1937, Picasso, Paris Universal Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>= synthetic cubism </li></ul><ul><li>Surrealism: horror </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of war throughout time </li></ul><ul><li>Timeless look at war </li></ul><ul><li>Made during the Spanish Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Painted in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>= a stark, hallucinatory nightmare that became a powerful symbol of the brutality of war </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on the victims </li></ul><ul><li>Screaming horse = Spanish Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Bull = Franco or Spain </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Vanna Venturi House </li></ul><ul><li>1961-64, Robert Venturi, Chestnut Hill, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for his mother </li></ul><ul><li>Plays with complexity and confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to past: Wright and classical </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings in Mannerism </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity, paradox </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected the abstract purity of International Style </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated elements drawn fro vernacular sources </li></ul><ul><li>“ Less is a bore.” </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Building = simple and complex </li></ul><ul><li>Circles, triangles, rectangles </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Guggenheim Museum </li></ul><ul><li>1993-97, Frank Gehry, Bilbao, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Used vernacular forms and cheap materials </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a organic, sculptural style </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles a living organism </li></ul><ul><li>Pays homage to Wright’s famous one in New York and attempts to outdo it in size and effect </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Portrait of a German Officer </li></ul><ul><li>1914, Marsden Hartley </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibited at the Armory Show </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer of American modernism </li></ul><ul><li>Merged cubism from Paris with expressionism of Kandinsky in Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Tightly arranged composition of boldly colored shapes and patterns, interspersed with numbers, letters, military imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks symbolically of Karl von Freyburg </li></ul><ul><li>Black creates a funeral undertone </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Migrant Mother, Nipomo, CA </li></ul><ul><li>1936, Dorothea Lange </li></ul><ul><li>She was a leading RA/FSA photographer </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures Florence Thompson </li></ul><ul><li>Captures fears of an entire population of disenfranchised people </li></ul><ul><li>Image of a generation </li></ul><ul><li>Using photography as a moral, reform sense to raise awareness </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Aspects of Negro Life </li></ul><ul><li>1934, Aaron Douglas </li></ul><ul><li>Developed an abstracted style influenced by African art as well as Art Deco </li></ul><ul><li>Used schematic figures, silhouetted in profile with eyes rendered frontally like Egyptian art </li></ul><ul><li>Limited palette </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric bands suggesting musical rhythms or spiritual emanations </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for the 135th Street branch of the New York Public library under the sponsorship of the Public Works of Art Project </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to awaken in African Americans, a sense of their place in history </li></ul><ul><li>At the right, blacks celebrate the Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Migration of the Negro </li></ul><ul><li>1940-41, Jacob Lawrence </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Locke and Douglass </li></ul><ul><li>Devoted early work to depiction of black history </li></ul><ul><li>Recounted through narrative painting in dozens of small panels, each with a text </li></ul><ul><li>Made of 60 panels </li></ul><ul><li>Chronicled the great 20th century exodus of blacks from the rural south the urban North </li></ul><ul><li>Boldly abstracted style suggests influence of both cubism and black folk art </li></ul>

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