Ap art history term 3 test 1

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Ap art history term 3 test 1

  1. 1. AP Art History Term 3 Test 1
  2. 2. <ul><li>Return from Cythera </li></ul><ul><li>1717, Jean-Antoine Watteau </li></ul><ul><li>Official examination work for admission to membership in Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>= Fete galante or elegant outdoor entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>He created a new type of painting </li></ul><ul><li>It depicts a dream world in which nicely dressed couples depart for or leave the mythical island of love </li></ul><ul><li>Idyllic vision with overtones of meloncholy </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Signboard of Gersaint </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1721, Watteau </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for the art dealer, Gersaint, and his shop </li></ul><ul><li>He painted this at the end of his life </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings from Venetian and Netherlandish schools shown </li></ul><ul><li>The gallery visitors were elegant people and create an atmosphere of aristocratic sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of Louis XIV shown - may be reference to Gersaint’s shop and suggests the passage of time </li></ul><ul><li>Many elements that act as memento mori or reminders of mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Vanitas emblems like the straw also shown </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Triumph of Venus </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1740, Francois Boucher </li></ul><ul><li>Entered workshop of engraver </li></ul><ul><li>Hired to reproduce Watteau’s paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Studied at French Academy in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Madame de Pompadour = his main patron </li></ul><ul><li>Decorated many royal residencies at Versailles and Fontainebleau </li></ul><ul><li>Chief inspector at Gobelines Tapestry Manufactory </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for his mythological scenes in pastoral settings </li></ul><ul><li>First painter to Louis XV </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Meeting from The Love of the Shepherds </li></ul><ul><li>1771-73, Jean-Honore Fragonard </li></ul><ul><li>Studied under Chardin and Boucher </li></ul><ul><li>Won the Prix de Rome and entered into Royal French Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Created 14 works for Louis XV’s last mistress, Madame du Barry to decorate her Chateau </li></ul><ul><li>Shows secret encounter btwn young man and his sweetheart </li></ul><ul><li>He used rapid brushwork </li></ul><ul><li>Madame du Barry rejected the works as old-fashioned & commissioned another set in a Neo-classical style </li></ul><ul><li>Rococo was ending </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Boy with a Top </li></ul><ul><li>Jean-Simeon Chardin </li></ul><ul><li>Shows Rousseau’s view of Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by doing </li></ul><ul><li>Frames themes of Enlightenment </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Portrait of Maria Antoinette with Her Children </li></ul><ul><li>1787, Marie-Louise-Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrun </li></ul><ul><li>Leading portraitist </li></ul><ul><li>Was Queen Marie Antoinette’s favorite painter </li></ul><ul><li>Portrayed the Queen with her children in conformity with the Enlightenment theme of the “good mother” </li></ul><ul><li>Queen = kindly, stabilizing presence for her kids was meant to counterbalance her selfish public image </li></ul><ul><li>Alludes to allegory of Abundance, suggesting peace and prosperity of society under the reign of Louis XVI </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Oath of the Horatii </li></ul><ul><li>1784-85, Jacques-Louis David </li></ul><ul><li>He was the leading French Neoclassical painter who dominated French art during the Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>He won the Prix de Rome </li></ul><ul><li>His work extolled the antique virtues of stoicism, masculinity, and patriotism (= anti-Rococo) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects the taste and values of Louis XVI who was sympathetic to the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>The king believed art should improve public morals </li></ul><ul><li>D’Angiviller = King’s minister of arts who banned indecent nudity from the Salon </li></ul><ul><li>He commissioned a series of educational paintings of French history, this work was one </li></ul><ul><li>3 sons represent Rome against the Curatii </li></ul><ul><li>Women show emotional commitment to family ties </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson in republican citizenship </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Death of Marat </li></ul><ul><li>1793, David </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by the Jacobins in tribute to one of their slain leaders, Jean-Paul Marat </li></ul><ul><li>David was a deputy to the National Convention and was named propaganda minister </li></ul><ul><li>He was supportive of the Reign of Terror and Robespierre </li></ul><ul><li>He played down the drama and showed its quiet, still aftermath </li></ul><ul><li>Combined reductive Neoclassical style with a Caravaggesque naturalism </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Cupid and Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>1787-93, Antonio Canova </li></ul><ul><li>He was the leading Neoclassical sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Worked under the guidance of the Scottish painter Gavin Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized in grand public monuments and erotic mythological subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates the love story of Cupid, Venus’ son, and Psyche, a beautiful mortal who aroused the goddess’ jealousy </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter gives Psyche immortality </li></ul><ul><li>He chose the most emotional and tender part of the story </li></ul><ul><li>He combined a Romantic interest in emotion with a more typically Neoclassical appeal to the combined senses of sight and touch </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Marriage Contract from Marriage a la Mode </li></ul><ul><li>1743-45, William Hogarth </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly inspired by satire </li></ul><ul><li>Trained as a portrait painter and thought art should contribute to improvement of society </li></ul><ul><li>Subject inspired by Joseph Addison’s Spectator, which promoted the concept of marriage based on love </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the disastrous result of a union not based on love </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage contract of Lord Squanderfield </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces </li></ul><ul><li>1765, Sir Joshua Reynolds </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized in portraiture </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Italy, settled in London </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciated classical history of painting </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed first president of the Royal Academy </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote the 15 Discourses to the Royal Academy, which derived his theories on art </li></ul><ul><li>He tried to elevate portraiture to the level of history painting </li></ul><ul><li>Bunbury plays the part of a Roman priestess making a sacrifice to the personifications of female beauty, the 3 Graces </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan </li></ul><ul><li>1785-87, Thomas Gainsborough </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the professional singer seated informally outside </li></ul><ul><li>The sloping view + the tree frame are borrowed straight from Van Dyck </li></ul><ul><li>He modernized the formula thru the lighter, Rococo palette and by integrating the woman into the landscape </li></ul><ul><li>He identifies her with the landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Her hair matches the tree foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Manifests a value of the Enlightenment: the emphasis on nature and the natural as sources of goodness and beauty </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Chiswick House </li></ul><ul><li>1724-29, Richard Boyle, Lord Burlington </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated a return to the austerity and simplicity found in the architecture of Andrea Palladio </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Boyle </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2 entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Main entrance = Roman temple front </li></ul><ul><li>Great evocation of Palladio’s design in Villa Rotunda </li></ul><ul><li>Gardens and interior by William Kent </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>An Experiment on a Bird in the Air-Pump </li></ul><ul><li>1768, Joseph Wright </li></ul><ul><li>Shows Enlightenment concern with developments in the natural sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Trained as a portrait painter </li></ul><ul><li>Belonged to Lunar Society, a group of industrialists and progressive nobles </li></ul><ul><li>He painted a series of “entertaining” scenes to popularize science </li></ul><ul><li>The lighting suggests science brings light into a world of darkness and ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>It also adds a spiritual dimension, for during the Baroque, such lighting was used for religious scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Here science replaces religion as the great light and hope of humanity </li></ul><ul><li>This theme is also shown in the devout expressions of some observers </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Brighton Pavilion </li></ul><ul><li>John Nash </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of classical Mughal, Islamic, Chinese - called “Indian Gothic” </li></ul><ul><li>Created for George IV </li></ul><ul><li>Free, playful </li></ul><ul><li>Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite of neoclassicism </li></ul><ul><li>Iron incorporated </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures </li></ul><ul><li>1785, Angelica Kauffman </li></ul><ul><li>Friends with Joshua Reynolds </li></ul><ul><li>One of 2 women named among the founding members of the Royal Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Embarked on an independent career as a history painter </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for an English patron after returning to Italy </li></ul><ul><li>The story takes place in the 2nd century BCE during the Republican era of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>A woman visitor shows Cornelia her jewels and in response, Cornelia shows her 2 sons </li></ul><ul><li>She exemplifies the “good mother” </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects often depicted to teach lessons in virtue </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The Death of General Wolfe </li></ul><ul><li>1770, Benjamin West </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled to Rome and became a student of Mengs </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in London and specialized in neoclassical paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Founding member of the Royal Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Men shown in modern dress rather than ancient garb </li></ul><ul><li>Event from 7 Years War: Battle of Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle btwn Britain and France for control of various overseas land </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical triangular composition </li></ul><ul><li>Indian = exotic interest and emblem of natural </li></ul><ul><li>Postures meant to suggest a kind of Lamentation over the dead Christ </li></ul><ul><li>The emotional intensity helped launch the Romantic movement in British painting </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Samuel Adams </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1770-72, John Singleton Copley </li></ul><ul><li>Adams is conservatively dressed and looks sternly out at the viewer, who occupies the place of Thomas Hutchinson (royal gov.) </li></ul><ul><li>Adams was a member of the Massachusetts legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Adam points to the charter and seal granted to MA by King William and Queen Mary </li></ul><ul><li>In his right hand, he grasps a petition prepared by the aggrieved citizens of Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid realism </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of immediacy </li></ul><ul><li>His stance conveys the moral force of his demands, which are impelled not by emotion, but by reason </li></ul><ul><li>The charter insists on the rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>The columns behind him connote republican virtue and rationality </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Watson and the Shark </li></ul><ul><li>1778, Copley </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassical triangular composition </li></ul><ul><li>Watson commissioned the piece </li></ul><ul><li>He was involved in the slave trade and was attacked by a shark </li></ul><ul><li>He is in the pose of a warrior from ancient art </li></ul><ul><li>Exoticism: occurs in India </li></ul><ul><li>Sublime: terrifying and exhilarating </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics of disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Collision of forces </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Monticello </li></ul><ul><li>1769-82, Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, VA </li></ul><ul><li>TJ’s VA residence </li></ul><ul><li>He was a self-taught architect who shared the British aristocratic taste for Palladio </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigned Monticello many times </li></ul><ul><li>Building began based on a design reminiscent of Villa Rotunda </li></ul><ul><li>Next built in a French manner </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity and combination of temple front and dome - very close to Chiswick House </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>George Washington </li></ul><ul><li>1788-92, Jean-Antoine Houdon </li></ul><ul><li>Portraiture was his specialty </li></ul><ul><li>Won the Prix de Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to neoclassical style </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by VA state legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Combined naturalism with the new classicism that many were beginning to identify with republican politics </li></ul><ul><li>The serene expression and relaxed contrapposto derive from sculpted images of classical athlete </li></ul><ul><li>The support acts as a symbol of authority </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Brandenburg Gate </li></ul><ul><li>1788-91, </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm II to represent peace </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Karl Gotthard Langhans, the Court Superintendent of Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated into Berlin Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Today stands as a symbol of reunification of the 2 sides of Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>The model for design was the Propylaea in Athens, the monumental entrance to the acropolis </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to represent the access to the most important city of the Prussian kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Classic age of architecture in Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Crowned with a quadriga depicting the goddess of victory “who brings peace” </li></ul><ul><li>Personifications of virtues like friendship and statesmanship are shown, along with symbols of arts and sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Reliefs with exploits of Hercules allude to the time of wars and the following time of reconstruction </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Grande Odalisque </li></ul><ul><li>1814, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres </li></ul><ul><li>Taught by David </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Raphael rather than antique art </li></ul><ul><li>Emulated precise drawing, formal idealizition, classical components, and graceful lyricism </li></ul><ul><li>Won the Prix de Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Served as director of the French Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Odalisque = female slave or concubine in a sultan’s harem </li></ul><ul><li>Cool gaze of women levels at her master </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to fluid line and elegant postures </li></ul><ul><li>Treated in a highly personal, almost Mannerist fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Her long back, wide hips, and her small boneless feet are anatomically incorrect, but aesthetically compelling </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Napoleon at the Plague House at Jaffa </li></ul><ul><li>1804, Antoine-Jean Gros </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in David’s studio </li></ul><ul><li>Competed with him for commissions from Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced elements of Romanticism in his work </li></ul><ul><li>Became official chronicler of Napoleon’s military campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>An idealized account of an actual incident </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon and his healthy men are shown visiting the sick and dying who were housed in a converted mosque in the Palestinian town of Jaffa </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by the Oath of Horatii </li></ul><ul><li>Overall effect = Romantic (dramatic lighting, wealth of emotionally stimulating elements, *action meant to incite veneration, not public virtue) </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon shown like a Christ-like figure healing a soldier </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Raft of the Medusa </li></ul><ul><li>1818-1819, Theodore Gericault </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies organized on crossed diagonals </li></ul><ul><li>Rising diagonal shows their rising hopes </li></ul><ul><li>The diagonal that begins in the lower right directs our attention to the huge wave </li></ul><ul><li>The men remain suspended between salvation and death </li></ul><ul><li>The “hopeful” diagonal ends in the figure of a black man, Jean Charles, and may have political meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Gericault suggests metaphorically that freedom for all of humanity will only occur when the most oppressed member of society is emancipated </li></ul><ul><li>Culmination of extensive study and research </li></ul><ul><li>He built up the composition figure by figure </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t depict the actual physical condition of the survivors of the raft </li></ul><ul><li>He gave his men athletic bodies and vigorous poses, evoking the work of Michelangelo and Rubens </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks to us as humanity against nature, hope against despair, life against death </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Scenes from the Massacre at Chios </li></ul><ul><li>1822-24, Eugene Delacroix </li></ul><ul><li>Colleague of Gericault </li></ul><ul><li>Depicted victims and antiheroes </li></ul><ul><li>The Turkish fleet stopped at the peaceful Greek island of Chios and took revenge by killing many of the inhabitants and selling the rest into slavery </li></ul><ul><li>This occurred during the Greeks’ struggle for independence against the Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Based the painting on journalistic reports, eyewitness accounts, and study of Greek and Turkish costumes </li></ul><ul><li>Image of savage violence and utter hopelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Made seductive through its rich display of handsome bodies and colorful costumes </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Liberty Leading the People: July 28, 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>Delacroix </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrated the day during the 1830 Revolution that the people rose and fought for their liberty </li></ul><ul><li>He used the painting as a political poster for the revolution </li></ul><ul><li>He was a member of the National Guard, and placed himself as the main wearing the top hat </li></ul><ul><li>Shows great range of human emotion from heroism to angry despair that is a central characteristic of French Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of movement and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks with the tradition and applies brilliant and shocking traces of pure pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty rushes over the piled debris of barricades, by then a traditional signifier of Parisian rebellion </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Departure of the Volunteers of 1792 (The Marseillaise) </li></ul><ul><li>1833-36, Francois Rude </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned to decorate the main arcade of the triumphal arch on the Champs-Elysees to commemorate the volunteer army that had halted a Prussian invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Beneath the violent exhortations of the winged figure of Liberty, the volunteers surged forward, some nude, some in classical armor </li></ul><ul><li>Some neoclassical elements, but main effect = Romantic </li></ul><ul><li>Stirred patriotism of French spectators and became known as The Marseillaise </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Grand Opera House </li></ul><ul><li>1861-1874, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Charles Garnier </li></ul><ul><li>Used iron as only an internal support </li></ul><ul><li>A focal point of a controversial urban redevelopment plan begun under Napoleon III by Georges-Eugene Haussman </li></ul><ul><li>Garnier’s design selected in a competition </li></ul><ul><li>Massive façade, featuring a row of paired columns above an arcade </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily ornamented </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque version of the 17th century wing of the Louvre, an association meant to suggest the continuity of French greatness and to compare Napoleon III with Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>Building’s form intended to celebrate the devotion to wealth and pleasure of that period </li></ul><ul><li>Inside had neoclassical Baroque sculptures </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, No. 43 from Los Caprichos </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1798, Francisco Goya </li></ul><ul><li>He chiefly created formal portraits and Rococo genre pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Velazques and Rembrandt to develop a more Romantic style </li></ul><ul><li>Shows a slumbering personification of Reason, behind whom lurk dark creatures of the night </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Los Caprichos, a folio of 80 etchings </li></ul><ul><li>Created after the reinstitution of the Inquisition in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>The collection of 80 show the follies of Spanish life that Goya and his friends considered huge </li></ul><ul><li>He hoped they would reawaken reason </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The Family of Charles IV </li></ul><ul><li>1800, Goya </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledges the influence of Velazquez’s Las Meninas by placing the painter behind the easel on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic rather than idealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Some view it as a cruel expose of the sitters as common and inept </li></ul><ul><li>He was the principal court painter </li></ul><ul><li>The candid representation was refreshingly modern </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>The Third of Mary 1808 </li></ul><ul><li>1814, Goya </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on victims and antiheroes, the most prominent of which is the Christ-like figure in white </li></ul><ul><li>An indictment of the faceless and mechanical forces of war itself, blindly destroying defenseless humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred when France under Napoleon conquered Spain and planned to kill the royal family </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish populace rose up and a day of bloody street fighting ensued </li></ul>

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