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Ap art history term 3 test 1

Ap art history term 3 test 1






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    Ap art history term 3 test 1 Ap art history term 3 test 1 Presentation Transcript

    • AP Art History Term 3 Test 1
      • Return from Cythera
      • 1717, Jean-Antoine Watteau
      • Official examination work for admission to membership in Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture
      • = Fete galante or elegant outdoor entertainment
      • He created a new type of painting
      • It depicts a dream world in which nicely dressed couples depart for or leave the mythical island of love
      • Idyllic vision with overtones of meloncholy
      • The Signboard of Gersaint
      • C. 1721, Watteau
      • Painted for the art dealer, Gersaint, and his shop
      • He painted this at the end of his life
      • Paintings from Venetian and Netherlandish schools shown
      • The gallery visitors were elegant people and create an atmosphere of aristocratic sophistication
      • Portrait of Louis XIV shown - may be reference to Gersaint’s shop and suggests the passage of time
      • Many elements that act as memento mori or reminders of mortality
      • Vanitas emblems like the straw also shown
      • Triumph of Venus
      • C. 1740, Francois Boucher
      • Entered workshop of engraver
      • Hired to reproduce Watteau’s paintings
      • Studied at French Academy in Rome
      • Madame de Pompadour = his main patron
      • Decorated many royal residencies at Versailles and Fontainebleau
      • Chief inspector at Gobelines Tapestry Manufactory
      • Best known for his mythological scenes in pastoral settings
      • First painter to Louis XV
      • The Meeting from The Love of the Shepherds
      • 1771-73, Jean-Honore Fragonard
      • Studied under Chardin and Boucher
      • Won the Prix de Rome and entered into Royal French Academy
      • Created 14 works for Louis XV’s last mistress, Madame du Barry to decorate her Chateau
      • Shows secret encounter btwn young man and his sweetheart
      • He used rapid brushwork
      • Madame du Barry rejected the works as old-fashioned & commissioned another set in a Neo-classical style
      • Rococo was ending
      • Boy with a Top
      • Jean-Simeon Chardin
      • Shows Rousseau’s view of Enlightenment
      • Empiricism
      • Learning by doing
      • Frames themes of Enlightenment
      • Portrait of Maria Antoinette with Her Children
      • 1787, Marie-Louise-Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrun
      • Leading portraitist
      • Was Queen Marie Antoinette’s favorite painter
      • Portrayed the Queen with her children in conformity with the Enlightenment theme of the “good mother”
      • Queen = kindly, stabilizing presence for her kids was meant to counterbalance her selfish public image
      • Alludes to allegory of Abundance, suggesting peace and prosperity of society under the reign of Louis XVI
      • Oath of the Horatii
      • 1784-85, Jacques-Louis David
      • He was the leading French Neoclassical painter who dominated French art during the Revolution
      • He won the Prix de Rome
      • His work extolled the antique virtues of stoicism, masculinity, and patriotism (= anti-Rococo)
      • Reflects the taste and values of Louis XVI who was sympathetic to the Enlightenment
      • The king believed art should improve public morals
      • D’Angiviller = King’s minister of arts who banned indecent nudity from the Salon
      • He commissioned a series of educational paintings of French history, this work was one
      • 3 sons represent Rome against the Curatii
      • Women show emotional commitment to family ties
      • Lesson in republican citizenship
      • Death of Marat
      • 1793, David
      • Commissioned by the Jacobins in tribute to one of their slain leaders, Jean-Paul Marat
      • David was a deputy to the National Convention and was named propaganda minister
      • He was supportive of the Reign of Terror and Robespierre
      • He played down the drama and showed its quiet, still aftermath
      • Combined reductive Neoclassical style with a Caravaggesque naturalism
      • Cupid and Psyche
      • 1787-93, Antonio Canova
      • He was the leading Neoclassical sculptor
      • Worked under the guidance of the Scottish painter Gavin Hamilton
      • Specialized in grand public monuments and erotic mythological subjects
      • Illustrates the love story of Cupid, Venus’ son, and Psyche, a beautiful mortal who aroused the goddess’ jealousy
      • Jupiter gives Psyche immortality
      • He chose the most emotional and tender part of the story
      • He combined a Romantic interest in emotion with a more typically Neoclassical appeal to the combined senses of sight and touch
      • The Marriage Contract from Marriage a la Mode
      • 1743-45, William Hogarth
      • Greatly inspired by satire
      • Trained as a portrait painter and thought art should contribute to improvement of society
      • Subject inspired by Joseph Addison’s Spectator, which promoted the concept of marriage based on love
      • Shows the disastrous result of a union not based on love
      • Marriage contract of Lord Squanderfield
      • Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces
      • 1765, Sir Joshua Reynolds
      • Specialized in portraiture
      • Studied in Italy, settled in London
      • Appreciated classical history of painting
      • Appointed first president of the Royal Academy
      • He wrote the 15 Discourses to the Royal Academy, which derived his theories on art
      • He tried to elevate portraiture to the level of history painting
      • Bunbury plays the part of a Roman priestess making a sacrifice to the personifications of female beauty, the 3 Graces
      • Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan
      • 1785-87, Thomas Gainsborough
      • Shows the professional singer seated informally outside
      • The sloping view + the tree frame are borrowed straight from Van Dyck
      • He modernized the formula thru the lighter, Rococo palette and by integrating the woman into the landscape
      • He identifies her with the landscape
      • Her hair matches the tree foliage
      • Manifests a value of the Enlightenment: the emphasis on nature and the natural as sources of goodness and beauty
      • Chiswick House
      • 1724-29, Richard Boyle, Lord Burlington
      • Advocated a return to the austerity and simplicity found in the architecture of Andrea Palladio
      • Designed by Boyle
      • Only 2 entrances
      • Main entrance = Roman temple front
      • Great evocation of Palladio’s design in Villa Rotunda
      • Gardens and interior by William Kent
      • An Experiment on a Bird in the Air-Pump
      • 1768, Joseph Wright
      • Shows Enlightenment concern with developments in the natural sciences
      • Trained as a portrait painter
      • Belonged to Lunar Society, a group of industrialists and progressive nobles
      • He painted a series of “entertaining” scenes to popularize science
      • The lighting suggests science brings light into a world of darkness and ignorance
      • It also adds a spiritual dimension, for during the Baroque, such lighting was used for religious scenes
      • Here science replaces religion as the great light and hope of humanity
      • This theme is also shown in the devout expressions of some observers
      • Brighton Pavilion
      • John Nash
      • Synthesis of classical Mughal, Islamic, Chinese - called “Indian Gothic”
      • Created for George IV
      • Free, playful
      • Romanticism
      • Opposite of neoclassicism
      • Iron incorporated
      • Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures
      • 1785, Angelica Kauffman
      • Friends with Joshua Reynolds
      • One of 2 women named among the founding members of the Royal Academy
      • Embarked on an independent career as a history painter
      • Painted for an English patron after returning to Italy
      • The story takes place in the 2nd century BCE during the Republican era of Rome
      • A woman visitor shows Cornelia her jewels and in response, Cornelia shows her 2 sons
      • She exemplifies the “good mother”
      • Subjects often depicted to teach lessons in virtue
      • The Death of General Wolfe
      • 1770, Benjamin West
      • Traveled to Rome and became a student of Mengs
      • Lived in London and specialized in neoclassical paintings
      • Founding member of the Royal Academy
      • Men shown in modern dress rather than ancient garb
      • Event from 7 Years War: Battle of Quebec
      • Struggle btwn Britain and France for control of various overseas land
      • Asymmetrical triangular composition
      • Indian = exotic interest and emblem of natural
      • Postures meant to suggest a kind of Lamentation over the dead Christ
      • The emotional intensity helped launch the Romantic movement in British painting
      • Samuel Adams
      • C. 1770-72, John Singleton Copley
      • Adams is conservatively dressed and looks sternly out at the viewer, who occupies the place of Thomas Hutchinson (royal gov.)
      • Adams was a member of the Massachusetts legislature
      • Adam points to the charter and seal granted to MA by King William and Queen Mary
      • In his right hand, he grasps a petition prepared by the aggrieved citizens of Boston
      • Vivid realism
      • Sense of immediacy
      • His stance conveys the moral force of his demands, which are impelled not by emotion, but by reason
      • The charter insists on the rule of law
      • The columns behind him connote republican virtue and rationality
      • Watson and the Shark
      • 1778, Copley
      • Neoclassical triangular composition
      • Watson commissioned the piece
      • He was involved in the slave trade and was attacked by a shark
      • He is in the pose of a warrior from ancient art
      • Exoticism: occurs in India
      • Sublime: terrifying and exhilarating
      • Aesthetics of disaster
      • Collision of forces
      • Monticello
      • 1769-82, Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, VA
      • TJ’s VA residence
      • He was a self-taught architect who shared the British aristocratic taste for Palladio
      • Redesigned Monticello many times
      • Building began based on a design reminiscent of Villa Rotunda
      • Next built in a French manner
      • Simplicity and combination of temple front and dome - very close to Chiswick House
      • George Washington
      • 1788-92, Jean-Antoine Houdon
      • Portraiture was his specialty
      • Won the Prix de Rome
      • Committed to neoclassical style
      • Commissioned by VA state legislature
      • Combined naturalism with the new classicism that many were beginning to identify with republican politics
      • The serene expression and relaxed contrapposto derive from sculpted images of classical athlete
      • The support acts as a symbol of authority
      • Brandenburg Gate
      • 1788-91,
      • Commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm II to represent peace
      • Designed by Karl Gotthard Langhans, the Court Superintendent of Buildings
      • Incorporated into Berlin Wall
      • Today stands as a symbol of reunification of the 2 sides of Berlin
      • The model for design was the Propylaea in Athens, the monumental entrance to the acropolis
      • Meant to represent the access to the most important city of the Prussian kingdom
      • Founded the Classic age of architecture in Berlin
      • Crowned with a quadriga depicting the goddess of victory “who brings peace”
      • Personifications of virtues like friendship and statesmanship are shown, along with symbols of arts and sciences
      • Reliefs with exploits of Hercules allude to the time of wars and the following time of reconstruction
      • Grande Odalisque
      • 1814, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
      • Taught by David
      • Inspired by Raphael rather than antique art
      • Emulated precise drawing, formal idealizition, classical components, and graceful lyricism
      • Won the Prix de Rome
      • Served as director of the French Academy
      • Odalisque = female slave or concubine in a sultan’s harem
      • Cool gaze of women levels at her master
      • Commitment to fluid line and elegant postures
      • Treated in a highly personal, almost Mannerist fashion
      • Her long back, wide hips, and her small boneless feet are anatomically incorrect, but aesthetically compelling
      • Napoleon at the Plague House at Jaffa
      • 1804, Antoine-Jean Gros
      • Worked in David’s studio
      • Competed with him for commissions from Napoleon
      • Introduced elements of Romanticism in his work
      • Became official chronicler of Napoleon’s military campaigns
      • An idealized account of an actual incident
      • Napoleon and his healthy men are shown visiting the sick and dying who were housed in a converted mosque in the Palestinian town of Jaffa
      • Inspired by the Oath of Horatii
      • Overall effect = Romantic (dramatic lighting, wealth of emotionally stimulating elements, *action meant to incite veneration, not public virtue)
      • Napoleon shown like a Christ-like figure healing a soldier
      • Raft of the Medusa
      • 1818-1819, Theodore Gericault
      • Bodies organized on crossed diagonals
      • Rising diagonal shows their rising hopes
      • The diagonal that begins in the lower right directs our attention to the huge wave
      • The men remain suspended between salvation and death
      • The “hopeful” diagonal ends in the figure of a black man, Jean Charles, and may have political meaning
      • Gericault suggests metaphorically that freedom for all of humanity will only occur when the most oppressed member of society is emancipated
      • Culmination of extensive study and research
      • He built up the composition figure by figure
      • He didn’t depict the actual physical condition of the survivors of the raft
      • He gave his men athletic bodies and vigorous poses, evoking the work of Michelangelo and Rubens
      • Speaks to us as humanity against nature, hope against despair, life against death
      • Scenes from the Massacre at Chios
      • 1822-24, Eugene Delacroix
      • Colleague of Gericault
      • Depicted victims and antiheroes
      • The Turkish fleet stopped at the peaceful Greek island of Chios and took revenge by killing many of the inhabitants and selling the rest into slavery
      • This occurred during the Greeks’ struggle for independence against the Turks
      • Based the painting on journalistic reports, eyewitness accounts, and study of Greek and Turkish costumes
      • Image of savage violence and utter hopelessness
      • Made seductive through its rich display of handsome bodies and colorful costumes
      • Liberty Leading the People: July 28, 1830
      • Delacroix
      • Celebrated the day during the 1830 Revolution that the people rose and fought for their liberty
      • He used the painting as a political poster for the revolution
      • He was a member of the National Guard, and placed himself as the main wearing the top hat
      • Shows great range of human emotion from heroism to angry despair that is a central characteristic of French Romanticism
      • Sense of movement and energy
      • Breaks with the tradition and applies brilliant and shocking traces of pure pigment
      • Liberty rushes over the piled debris of barricades, by then a traditional signifier of Parisian rebellion
      • Departure of the Volunteers of 1792 (The Marseillaise)
      • 1833-36, Francois Rude
      • Commissioned to decorate the main arcade of the triumphal arch on the Champs-Elysees to commemorate the volunteer army that had halted a Prussian invasion
      • Beneath the violent exhortations of the winged figure of Liberty, the volunteers surged forward, some nude, some in classical armor
      • Some neoclassical elements, but main effect = Romantic
      • Stirred patriotism of French spectators and became known as The Marseillaise
      • Grand Opera House
      • 1861-1874, Paris
      • Designed by Charles Garnier
      • Used iron as only an internal support
      • A focal point of a controversial urban redevelopment plan begun under Napoleon III by Georges-Eugene Haussman
      • Garnier’s design selected in a competition
      • Massive façade, featuring a row of paired columns above an arcade
      • Heavily ornamented
      • Baroque version of the 17th century wing of the Louvre, an association meant to suggest the continuity of French greatness and to compare Napoleon III with Louis XIV
      • Building’s form intended to celebrate the devotion to wealth and pleasure of that period
      • Inside had neoclassical Baroque sculptures
      • The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, No. 43 from Los Caprichos
      • C. 1798, Francisco Goya
      • He chiefly created formal portraits and Rococo genre pictures
      • Influenced by Velazques and Rembrandt to develop a more Romantic style
      • Shows a slumbering personification of Reason, behind whom lurk dark creatures of the night
      • Part of Los Caprichos, a folio of 80 etchings
      • Created after the reinstitution of the Inquisition in Spain
      • The collection of 80 show the follies of Spanish life that Goya and his friends considered huge
      • He hoped they would reawaken reason
      • The Family of Charles IV
      • 1800, Goya
      • Acknowledges the influence of Velazquez’s Las Meninas by placing the painter behind the easel on the left
      • Realistic rather than idealistic
      • Some view it as a cruel expose of the sitters as common and inept
      • He was the principal court painter
      • The candid representation was refreshingly modern
      • The Third of Mary 1808
      • 1814, Goya
      • Focuses on victims and antiheroes, the most prominent of which is the Christ-like figure in white
      • An indictment of the faceless and mechanical forces of war itself, blindly destroying defenseless humanity
      • Occurred when France under Napoleon conquered Spain and planned to kill the royal family
      • The Spanish populace rose up and a day of bloody street fighting ensued