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Ap art history term 2 test 3
 

Ap art history term 2 test 3

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    Ap art history term 2 test 3 Ap art history term 2 test 3 Presentation Transcript

    • AP Art History Test 3
      • Entombment
      • 1525-28, Jacopo da Pontormo, Santa Felicita, Florence
      • Created as an altarpiece
      • Ambiguous composition, which enhances the visionary quality of the painting
      • Little sense of location or place
      • Emotional atmosphere expressed in odd poses and drastic shifts in scale
      • Great use of secondary colors and contrasting colors
      • No dead center
      • Moves in illogical way
      • Madonna with the Long Neck
      • C. 1535, Parmigianino, Uffizi
      • Takes the renaissance art and bends and contorts it
      • Child assumes pose of pieta
      • Shatters perspective- no middle ground
      • He was influenced by Correggio and studied under Raphael and Michelangelo
      • St. Jerome is in the background
      • This work challenges the viewer’s intellect while it exerts its strange appeal to aesthetic sensibility
      • Portrait of a Young Man
      • 1530’s; Bronzino
      • Court painter for Medici
      • Best known for his portraits in the courtly Mannerist style
      • He rendered costumes and settings that created a cold and formal effect
      • The self-contained demeanor of his subjects conveys their haughty personalities
      • This work demonstrates his characteristic portrayal of his subjects as intelligent, aloof, elegant, and self-assured
      • The subject plays with a book. Suggesting his scholarly interests
      • His stare creates an unsettling effect
      • Last Judgment
      • 1534-1541; Michelangelo, fresco on the altar wall of Sistine Chapel
      • This was the first major commission of Pope Paul III
      • The figures are not clearly defined, but are writhing, rising, and falling
      • The Virgin is shrinking, which shows a change from Gothic tradition
      • Michelangelo painted his own self as the peeled skin held by St. Bartholomew
      • Conservative clergy criticized the work for its nudity
      • It was interpreted as a grim and constant reminder of the celebrants of the Mass -- the pope and his cardinals
      • Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill)
      • 1537, Rome, Michelangelo
      • It was his biggest project
      • He was the architect of St. Peter’s
      • Intention of palazzo was to show triumphant Catholicism
      • Roman Forum is behind it -- from the Roman past comes the Catholic, Roman present
      • The urban design links the present, past and future
      • Marcus Aurelius sculpture here
      • Best embodiment of aspirations of counter-reformation
      • Self Portrait
      • 1552, Sofonisba Anguissola, oil on parchment
      • She wasn’t the daughter of an artist
      • Michelangelo was very friendly to her and they exchanged paintings
      • She painted herself holding a medallion with a border spelling out her name and home town
      • Her sisters names appear in the middle
      • Shows enthusiasm for classics in Renaissance Italy
      • She later became the court painter for the queen of Spain
      • Abduction of the Sabine Women
      • C. 1583, Giovanni da Bologna, Loggia dei Lanzi, Piazza della Signoria, Florence
      • Bologna was a French artist who became very popular among Italians
      • This work is flame-like in its multiple vantage points
      • Interior Courtyard of the Palazzo del Te
      • 1525-1535, Guilo Romano, Mantua
      • Romano was a Roman architect and follower of Raphael
      • It served as the Gonzaga family’s pleasure retreat
      • Built for Federigo Gonzaga
      • Shows mannerist influence
      • Rules bent on classical
      • Classical columns altered on purpose
      • Huge keystone
      • Big moving blocks
      • Voussoirs decorative
      • Inside is contemporary with the birth of Opera
      • Façade of Il Gesu
      • C. 1575- 1584, Giacomo della Porta
      • Main Jesuit Church - Loyola didn’t live long enough to see its beginning
      • Cardinal Alessandro Farnese donated funds to the project
      • Della Porta succeeded Vignola (the chief architect) in finishing the dome and the façade
      • Has a wide, barrel-vaulted nave, shallow connected side chapels, but not aisles, short transepts
      • Façade emphasized central portal with its classical pilasters, engaged columns and pediments
      • The design has great verticality and centrality
      • It abandoned the early Renaissance grid of classical pilasters and entablatures
      • Has rhythmic flow, challenging Ren. flatness
      • Saint Francis in Ecstasy
      • C. 1470’s, Giovanni Bellini
      • Work demonstrates Bellini’s intense investigation and recording of nature associated with early Renaissance
      • Illustrates his command of an almost Flemish realism
      • St. Francis stands in communion with nature
      • His hands show the stigmata
      • Old and new testament themes united to associate Francis with Moses and Christ
      • Tree = burning bush, grapevine + stigmata = Christ’s sacrifice
      • Details, luminous colors, symbolic elements = Flemish
      • Golden light = Venetian
      • Almost poetic
      • Preaching of divine in nature and his ecstasy of receiving stigmata
      • True landscape painting begins
      • Pastoral Symphony (Fete Champetre)
      • C. 1508, Giorgione (and Titian?)
      • He introduced enigmatic pastoral themes, sensuous nude figures, and an appreciation of nature in landscape painting
      • He probably studied with Bellini
      • Da Vinci also probably inspired him
      • The fertile landscape seems to be the true subject
      • Like poetry, the painting evokes a mood, a golden age of love and innocence seen in ancient Roman pastoral poetry
      • Had profound influence on later painters
      • Naked women = muses - inspirational and model of beauty
      • “ Fete” = party
      • Pesaro Madonna
      • 1519-26, Titian, side-aisle altarpiece, Santa Maria Glorioso dei Frari, Venice
      • He studied under Gentile and Giovanni Bellini
      • Made official painter to the Republic of Venice
      • Commissioned by the commander of the papal fleet - Jacopo Pesaro - that had defeated the Turks
      • Asymmetrical setting, with Virgin and child on a high throne and arranged saints and the Pesaro family at the sides
      • St. Peter is shown in the center
      • Use of primary colors
      • Famous for his mastery of light and color
      • the composition is well balanced, but on diagonals
      • Venus of Urbino
      • C. 1538, Titian, (Uffizi)
      • Painted for the duke of Urbino
      • Titian was inspired by flesh-and-blood beauty as by any source from mythology or the history of art
      • The dog is a symbol of fidelity
      • There is a domestic quality
      • She looks real and like classical sculpture
      • Mapped out in space, foreground, middle ground, background
      • Often referred back to
      • High court lady - prostitute
      • Christ in the House of Levi
      • 1573, Paolo Veronese
      • He created elaborate architectural settings and costumes, often unconnected with the main subject
      • Painted for the Dominican Monastery of Santi Giovanni e Paolo
      • The huge size of the work allowed Veronese to include the sort of anecdotal vignettes beloved by the Venetians
      • Jesus is at the center
      • Church officials of Venice were shocked by this painting
      • He was called before the Inquisition to to explain his reasons for some of the odd details
      • His reply showed great artistic autonomy
      • He simply changed the name of the work from the Last Supper to this title
      • Last Supper
      • 1594, Tintoretto, Venice
      • His style developed from and exaggerated the techniques of Titian
      • His goal was to combine Titian’s colors with Michelangelo’s drawing
      • Painted for the choir of the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, which was designed by Palladio
      • High horizon vanishing point
      • Great individuality
      • The figures turn and move in a continuous serpentine line that unites the apostles, servants and angels
      • 2 light sources: one real, one supernatural
      • Mood of intense spirituality, enhanced by deep colors
      • Reflects both Byzantine art and Mannerist aesthetic
      • Interpretation has changed to the institution of the Eucharist
      • Villa Rotunda
      • C. 1566-70, Andrea Palladio, near Vicenza, Italy
      • Designed as a retreat for relaxation
      • He placed an Ionic order porch on each face of the building
      • It was inspired by another rotunda, the Roman Pantheon
      • It was purchased by the Capra family and also became known as Villa Capra
      • Great geometric clarity
      • A circle inscribed in a small square inside a larger square
      • The central dome on a domestic building was a daring innovation that secularized the dome
      • West façade of San Giorgio Maggiore
      • 1560s, Palladio, Venice
      • His work was characterized by harmonious symmetry and a rejection of ornamentation
      • He was a stone mason
      • He changes domestic architecture
      • It has a renaissance façade, and a traditional basilica-plan elevation
      • He created the illusion of 2 temple fronts of different heights and widths
      • Colossal columns support an entablature and pediment that front the narrower clerestory level of the church
      • He kept Alberti’s motif of the triumphal arch entrance
      • This is part of a monastery
      • 2 temple facades, harsh juxtaposition
      • The Burial of Count Orgaz
      • 1586, El Greco, San Tome, Toledo, Spain
      • Trained as a Byzantine icon painter
      • Work shows a mix of Byzantine icon + late Renaissance
      • Entered Titian’s shop, but he must have studied under Tintoretto and Veronese
      • His style reflected Venetian artists’ rich colors and loose brushwork
      • It expressed the intense spirituality of mystics
      • Commissioned by Orgaz family
      • Local aristocracy are shown as well as religious notables
      • His own son is shown
      • St. Stephen & Augustine shown
      • Inverted Latin cross composition
      • Paints almost only religious scenes
      • He separated heaven and earth by elongation of heavenly figures and light
      • View of Toledo
      • C. 1610, El Greco
      • Painted later in his life
      • A cityscape transformed into a mystical illusion
      • His precisely accurate portrayal of Toledo’s geography and architecture seems to have been overridden by his desire to convey his emotional response to the city
      • Burst of heavenly light
      • Small figures everywhere
      • Shatters reality
      • Bacchus
      • 1595, Caravaggio, Florence
      • Looks classical
      • Equilibrium between real and unreal
      • Great foreshortening
      • Look that its not real - theatricality
      • Distinctive lighting = tenebrism
      • The Calling of St. Matthew
      • C.1600, Caravaggio, Rome
      • This was his first public commission, for Contarelli Chapel in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi
      • Depicts Jesus calling Levi, the tax collector, to join his apostles
      • Jesus is nearly hidden by Peter
      • For his naturalism, he used antique and Renaissance sources
      • Jesus’ outstretched arm recalls the Creation of Adam by Michelangelo
      • Little symbolism - beginnings of modernism
      • Judith with the Head of Holofernes
      • C. 1625, Artemisia Gentileschi
      • She was a follower of Caravaggio
      • She helped spread his style beyond Rome
      • She worked under her father
      • In Florence, she worked for the grand duke of Tuscany and was elected to the Florentine Academy of Design
      • She used Baroque naturalism and tenebrist effects, dramatically showing Judith still holding the bloody sword
      • She often painted heroic abused women
      • Mostly darkness, she pulls the light source into the canvas
      • Ceiling Fresco, Palazzo Farnese
      • 1600, Annibale Carracci
      • This was the major monument of the early Baroque classicism
      • Painted for the Farnese family to celebrate a wedding
      • This was the gallery of their immense Roman palace
      • Commissioned by Cardinal Odarico Farnese
      • He started an art school with his brother in Bologna
      • Tribute to earthly love, expressed in mythological scenes
      • Its center piece is a joyous procession celebrating the wine god Bacchus’ love for Ariadne
      • He created the illusion of framed paintings, stone sculpture, bronze medallions and ignudi
      • All was inspired by Michelangelo
      • Looks like Raphael
      • Aurora
      • 1615, Guido Reni, Rome
      • He studied briefly at the Acarracci academy
      • This work decorated the ceiling at Palazzo Rospigliosi-Palavacini
      • It emulates the illusionistic framed mythological scenes on the Farnese ceiling
      • Apollo is shown driving the sun chariot, escorted by Cupid and the Seasons, led by the flying figure of Aurora, goddess of the dawn
      • Idealized forms, seem to have been derived from an antique relief
      • Harmonious rhythms of gesture and drapery and intense color
      • Triumph of the Name of Jesus
      • 1672-1685, Giovanni Battista Gaulli,
      • Student of Bernini - absorbed his taste for drama and multimedia effets
      • Viewer meant to be swept up in drama
      • Fills the vault of Il Gesu
      • Combines sculpture and painting to eliminate the presence of architecture
      • The whole composition is focused off-center on the letter IHS the monogram of Jesus and the insignia of the Jesuits
      • The subject is the Last Judgment
      • David
      • C. 1623, Gianlorenzo Bernini, life size
      • Made for a nephew of Pope Paul V
      • It introduced a new type of 3D composition that intrudes on the viewer’s space
      • The figure is ready to launch the lethal rock
      • It is all tension and determination
      • Energetic, twisting figure includes the surrounding space as part of the composition by implying the presence of an unseen adversary
      • New immediacy and inclusion in art
      • Bernini becomes the sculptor for the pope
      • Baldacchino
      • 1624-33, Bernini, St. Peter’s
      • Commissioned by Pope Urban VIII
      • This work exemplifies the Baroque artists’ desire to combine architecture and sculpture so that works no longer fit into a single category or medium
      • The twisted columns symbolize the union of Old and New Testaments
      • Composite columns were used
      • The cast bronze looks like fabric
      • Many symbolic elements mark the site of the tomb of St. Peter and serve as a monument to Urban VIII and his family, the Barberini
      • The Ecstasy of St. Theresa of Avila
      • C. 1645-52, Bernini, life size
      • This work was for the decoration of the chapel of the Cornaro family in the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria
      • Theatrical setting for a scene depicting Teresa’s vision of the angel of the Lord
      • The Cornaro family kneels on either side of the piece
      • Represents a vision described by the Spanish mystic in which an angel pierced her body, transporting her to a state of religious ecstasy
      • Complex theatrical interplay of various levels of illusion
      • Invites the viewer to identify with Teresa’s emotion
      • Skilled at capturing different textures in marble
      • Fountain of the Four Rivers
      • 1648-51, Bernini, marble, Rome
      • The Piazzo Navona was under the influence of Pope Innocent X and his family
      • Bernini eventually got the commission of the new fountain
      • In the center is a rocky hill covered with vegetation and animals
      • 4 great rivers of the world flow out, each representing a continent and personified by a colossal figure
      • Roman imitation of an Egyptian obelisk, topped by a dove (emblem of Pope’s fam.)
      • The obelisk was a technical marvel
      • Façade of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
      • 1665, Francesco Borromini, Rome
      • Built by the Trinitarian monks who hired Borromini
      • He worked under Bernini
      • This was his 1st independent commission
      • Elongated central plain
      • Worked from an overriding geometric scheme, the ideal, domed, central-plan church
      • The front was an undulating, sculpture-filled screen
      • Punctuated with large columns and deep niches that create dramatic effects of light and shadow
      • a giant cartouche is held up by angels
      • Colonnade of St. Peter’s
      • 1657, Bernini, Rome
      • His design frames the 2 enormous curved porticoes or covered walkways supported by doric columns
      • Bernini spoke about them as representing the “motherly arms of the Church” reaching out to the world
      • St. Serapion
      • 1628, Francisco de Zurburan
      • Horrifying depiction of martyrdom
      • Represented with understated control
      • Worked in Seville
      • Closely associated with monastic orders
      • Serapion was a member of the 13th century Mercedarians, a Spanish order founded to rescue the Christian prisoners of the Spanish Moors
      • He sacrificed himself in exchange for Christian captives
      • Intense realism
      • Silent and drained of color
      • Embodies Spanish art
      • Water Carrier of Seville
      • C. 1619, Diego Velazquez
      • Came from the Caravaggesque school of Seville
      • Entered Seville’s painters’ guild
      • Influenced by tenebrism and naturalism
      • The model in this work was a well-known Sevillian water seller
      • He arranged the elements with almost mathematical rigor
      • skilled at rendering sculptural volumes and contrasting textures illuminated by dramatic light
      • The Surrender at Breda
      • C. 1635, Velazquez
      • He moved to Madrid and became the court painter to King Philip IV
      • He was profoundly influenced by Italian painting
      • He treated the theme of triumph and conquest in an entirely new way, unlike traditional gloating military propaganda
      • The duke of Alba, the Spanish governor, had defeated the Dutch at Breda
      • The Dutch commander, Justin of Nassau, hands over the keys of Breda to the Spanish commander Ambrosio Spinola
      • Represents a courtly ideal of gentlemanly conduct
      • Displays his ability to arrange a large number of figures into an effective narrative composition
      • Great realism
      • Quick movement of painting
      • Suggests spontaneity of light
      • The Maids of Honor (Las Meninas)
      • 1656, Velazquez
      • Huge work - nearly 10 ft. tall
      • Draw the viewer directly into its action
      • Viewer standing in the space occupied by King Philip and his queen
      • The central focus is on the couple’s 5 year old daughter, the infanta (princess) Margarita
      • He used a minimum of underdrawing
      • Built up his forms with layers of loosely applied paint
      • Technique captures appearance of light on surfaces
      • He proclaimed the dignity and importance of painting as one of the liberal arts - shown by his own portrait in this work