Ap art history midterm term 2

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Ap art history midterm term 2

  1. 1. AP Art History Midterm Term 2
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Last Supper </li></ul><ul><li>1495-98, da Vinci, Milan, tempera and oil </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Duke Ludovico Sforza’s request </li></ul><ul><li>Painted in the refectory, or dining hall of the Monastery Santa Maria delle Grazie </li></ul><ul><li>The tapestries and coffered ceiling seem to extend the painting </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus and the apostles are seated parallel to the picture plane </li></ul><ul><li>The vanishing point lies behind Jesus’ head </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid composition </li></ul><ul><li>Disciples grouped in 3’s </li></ul><ul><li>The scene captures the moment when Jesus tells them that one will betray him </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolically shows Jesus’ coming sacrifice and the institution of the ritual of the Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Judas, John, and Peter form a triad </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval tradition of numerical symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>He eliminated the halo </li></ul><ul><li>Careful geometry, perspective lines, stability, timelessness, calm, classical sculpture </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Vitruvian Man </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1490, ink, Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Da Vinci sought precise details of anatomy and geometric basis of perfect proportions </li></ul><ul><li>He equated the ideal man with both circle and square </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram for the ideal male figure </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and the Young John the Baptist </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1500, da Vinci, charcoal on paper, done in Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Full scale model = cartoon </li></ul><ul><li>Mary sits on the knee of Anne and holds Christ, who strains to reach for his cousin, John </li></ul><ul><li>He created the illusion of high relief by modeling figures with chiaroscuro </li></ul><ul><li>There is a circular movement rather than a central focus </li></ul><ul><li>This retains the individual importance of each figure and makes each o them an integral part of the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Figures have tender expressions </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Mona Lisa </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1503, da Vinci, oil on wood panel </li></ul><ul><li>The subject may have been Lisa Gherardini del Giocondo, the wife of a prominent merchant in Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Solid pyramidal form </li></ul><ul><li>Desolate grandeur of mountains reinforces the paintings mysterious atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Very enigmatic expression </li></ul><ul><li>Her gaze looks out at the viewer </li></ul><ul><li>There is an implied challenge with her direct stare and an apparent serenity with inner strength </li></ul><ul><li>Da Vinci covered his works with a thin, lightly tinted varnish which resulted in a smoky overall haze = sfumato </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Pieta </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1500, Saint Peter’s, Vatican, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Taught by Ghirlandaio by whom he learned fresco painting and drawings of classical monuments </li></ul><ul><li>Joined the Medici family </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced greatly by Savonrola </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by a French cardinal and installed as a tomb monument in Old St. Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>Pieta = Gothic tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Shows forever mother and child </li></ul><ul><li>Only work he ever signed </li></ul><ul><li>He traveled btwn Rome and Florence </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>David </li></ul><ul><li>1501-04, Galleria dell’ Academia, Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Originally meant to be placed atop a buttress of the Florence Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Later it was planned to go next to the seat of Florence’s government </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies athletic ideal of antiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional power of its expression and concentrated = entirely new </li></ul><ul><li>The male nude implies heroic or even divine qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Shows power of right over might = perfect emblem for Florentines who recently fought Milan, Siena, and Pisa </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Spear Bearer </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Sistine Ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>1508-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Julius II </li></ul><ul><li>His initial order was trompe l’oeil coffers </li></ul><ul><li>Later he wanted the 12 apostles to be painted in the spandrels </li></ul><ul><li>He was later given free reign do paint whatever he wanted </li></ul><ul><li>Illusionistic marble architecture establishes a framework </li></ul><ul><li>Pilasters display little nude boys = putti </li></ul><ul><li>Old Testament prophets and classical sibyls (female prophets - foretold Jesus’ birth) scenes run down the middle </li></ul><ul><li>God’s earliest acts of creation are told closest to the altar </li></ul><ul><li>Beheading scenes in corners </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Moses </li></ul><ul><li>1513-1515, Tomb of Julius II, S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>This was Michelangelo's first papal sculpture commission </li></ul><ul><li>The only sculpture from the original design to be incorporated in the final monument </li></ul><ul><li>Moses is inspired by Laocoon and His Sons </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2 base figures were carved (?) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Tomb of Guiliano de’ Medici </li></ul><ul><li>1519-34, Medici Chapel (New Sacristy), Church of San Lorenzo, Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo became chief architect for Medici family projects at the Church of San Lorenzo </li></ul><ul><li>The older men’s tombs were never built </li></ul><ul><li>Younger relatives were placed on opposite side walls of the New Sacristy (the Old Sacristy by Brunelleschi, is at the other end) </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the monuments consists of an idealized portrait of the deceased </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female figures on the sarchophagi show times of day </li></ul><ul><li>San Lorenzo was built by Brunelleschi </li></ul><ul><li>Looks classical but feels compressed </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like exterior architecture inside </li></ul><ul><li>Guiliano represents the active life - his allegorical figures are day and night </li></ul><ul><li>Lorenzo represents Contemplative life - his figures = dawn and evening </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Small Cowper Madonna </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1505, Raphael, oil on wood panel </li></ul><ul><li>Native of Urbino </li></ul><ul><li>Studied with Perugino </li></ul><ul><li>Work named for a modern owner </li></ul><ul><li>He must have studied da Vinci’s work to achieve such simple grandeur </li></ul><ul><li>Solid forms </li></ul><ul><li>The domed Church of San Bernardino is in the background - = church in Urbino </li></ul><ul><li>Known for his Madonna and Childs </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as the culmination of the Renaissance in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Bathed in great light </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in Flemish art </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>School of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>1510-1511, fresco in the Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican </li></ul><ul><li>Part of 4 branches of knowledge: religion, philosophy, poetry, law </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizes the ideals of the Renaissance papacy in its harmoniously arranged forms and rational space and calm dignity of its figures </li></ul><ul><li>Plato and Aristotle are silhouetted against the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Plato holds a book and gestures towards the heavens as the ultimate source of philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle, emphasizes the importance of gathering empirical knowledge from the material world </li></ul><ul><li>The niches show earthly wisdom + platonic thought </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Leo X with Cardinals Guilio de Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1518, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Raphael became director of all archaeological and architectural projects in Rome under Leo X </li></ul><ul><li>This portrait depicts Leo X as a great book collector </li></ul><ul><li>Leo’s driving ambition was the advancement of the Medici family </li></ul><ul><li>Clement VII and a Medici Cardinal also shown </li></ul><ul><li>This painting shows van Eyck’s great influence on Raphael </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies renaissance ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular, solid figure </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Tempietto </li></ul><ul><li>1502-10, Church of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, martryium </li></ul><ul><li>Bramante typified the new ideal classical style </li></ul><ul><li>He led the new Renaissance style in architecture </li></ul><ul><li>He was attached to the Sforza court in Milan, but he eventually went to Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Small shrine over spot in Rome where the apostle Peter was believed to have been crucified </li></ul><ul><li>He created a renaissance interpretation of the principles of Vitruvius </li></ul><ul><li>Recalls early Christian shrines and ancient Roman temples </li></ul><ul><li>Deep wall niches create contrasts of light and shadow </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Plan for the New Saint Peter’s </li></ul><ul><li>1506, Bramante </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned by Julius II </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed as chief architect </li></ul><ul><li>The plan = a Greek cross in a square </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles traditional Byzantine domed churches and the central dome was inspired by the Pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>Raphael replaced Bramante when he died as papal architect </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Isenheim Altarpiece </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1510-15, Grunewald, chapel of the hospital of St. Anthony, Isenheim, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in the cort of archbishop of Mainz </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates intensity of religious feeling that motivated the religious reform movement that would sweep Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Created to protect the shrine by Niklaus Hagenauer at the Abbey of St. Anthony </li></ul><ul><li>Commemorates the abbey’s patron saint = Anthony of Egypt or Anthony Abbot </li></ul><ul><li>St. Sebastian and St. Anthony are shown in lifesize proportions b/c they’re associated w/ the plague </li></ul><ul><li>He showed the most horrific details of the tortured Christ </li></ul><ul><li>The lamb alludes to the Christian rites of baptism and the Eucharist & to Christ as the lamb of God </li></ul><ul><li>When opened, it shows Christian events of joy -- Annunciation, Nativity, Resurrection </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Unlike Italian Ren., his aim = strike the heart, not the mind & evoke sympathy, not an intellectual idea </li></ul><ul><li>Great religious symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Showed range of ethnic types and differently aged angels </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic and narrative imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Grunewald actively supported peasants </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Self-Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1500, oil on wood panel, Albrecht D ürer </li></ul><ul><li>Shows himself as an idealized, even Christ-like figure in a severely frontal pose, meeting the viewer’s eyes like an icon </li></ul><ul><li>His hair and robe creates a triangle, the timeless symbol of unity </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Fall of Man </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1504, Albrecht Durer, engraving </li></ul><ul><li>He had an interest in Italian art and theoretical investigation </li></ul><ul><li>This is his first documented use of a canon of ideal human proportions based on Roman copies of Greek sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>The plants have great naturalistic detail </li></ul><ul><li>The landscape has symbolic content </li></ul><ul><li>The four human temperaments are symbolized by the animals </li></ul><ul><li>The mouse symbolizes Satan </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Melencolia I </li></ul><ul><li>1514, Engraving, Durer </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects the self-doubt that beset Durer after he returned from Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Created a superhuman figure caught in mental turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by math and drawing implements </li></ul><ul><li>Artist = craftsman and intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic of night with bat </li></ul><ul><li>The sad person was thought to live under the influence of black bile </li></ul><ul><li>Durer seems to brood on the futility of art and the fleeting nature of human life </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshadows affects of religious turmoil, social upheaval, and civil war soon to sweep northern Europe </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Four Apostles </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1526, oil on panel, Durer </li></ul><ul><li>These inscribed panels professed Durer’s belief in Lutheranism </li></ul><ul><li>The paintings show John, Peter, Mark and Paul in an arrangement that suggests the rise of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter is o the left and holds up his key to the Church, but seems to shrink behind John, Luther’s favorite evangelist </li></ul><ul><li>Mark hides behind Paul, whose teachings were admired by Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Long inscriptions at the base warn the viewer not to be led astray by “false prophets” </li></ul><ul><li>Excerpts from the Letters of Peter, John, and Paul, and the Gospel of Mark are included from Luther’s German translation of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>This piece was presented to the city of Nuremberg </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>By Hans Holbein the Younger, oil on panel </li></ul><ul><li>Holbein was introduced to the Dutch scholar Erasmus to the humanist circle around the statesman Thomas More </li></ul><ul><li>He was appointed court painter to Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Henry envied Francis I and attempted to outdo him in every way, imitated French fashions </li></ul><ul><li>Shows his likeness and power </li></ul><ul><li>Painted for his wedding to Anne of Cleaves </li></ul><ul><li>Shows Northern Renaissance tradition </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Francis I </li></ul><ul><li>1525, Jean Clouet, tempera and oil on panel </li></ul><ul><li>Clouet became the principal court painter </li></ul><ul><li>He softened Francis’s distinctive features but didn’t completely idealize them </li></ul><ul><li>Great color and sense of elegance </li></ul><ul><li>Very flat </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Chateau of Chenonceau </li></ul><ul><li>1513-21, Touraine, France </li></ul><ul><li>French Renaissance built on Italian taste </li></ul><ul><li>Italians hired for French court </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like Italian renaissance palazzo without decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Has Gothic detail with simple classical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Italian palazzo = simple, horizontal, rustication on edges and doors </li></ul><ul><li>French is more decorated </li></ul><ul><li>Built on Cher river </li></ul><ul><li>Medici built gallery on bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Retains steep decorative elements </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>West Wing of the Cour Carre </li></ul><ul><li>Palais du Louvre, Paris, begun 1546 </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Lescot (architect) and Jean Goujon (sculptor) </li></ul><ul><li>Building incorporated Renaissance ideals of balance and regularity with classical architecture details and rich sculptural decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Turrets with pointed roofs gave way to rounded arches </li></ul><ul><li>Classical pilasters and entablatures replaced Gothic buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>The rectangular windows + sumptuous decoration = french </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Wall Decorations, Palace at Fontainebleau </li></ul><ul><li>1540’s, Primaticcio </li></ul><ul><li>This was Francis’s primary residence </li></ul><ul><li>This was a redecoration of Anne’s - Francis’s mistress- room </li></ul><ul><li>Combined woodworking, stucco relief, and fresco painting in a complex, but lighthearted and graceful interior design </li></ul><ul><li>Lithe nymphs are playfully sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Many mythological figures and Roman architectural ornament </li></ul><ul><li>Very joyous </li></ul><ul><li>This Italian phase of the palace decoration established a tradition of Mannerism in painting and interior design that spread to other centers </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Garden of Earthly Delights </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1506-15, Hieronymus Bosch, oil on wood panel </li></ul><ul><li>Piece associated with medieval art </li></ul><ul><li>Overall subject is sin -- the Christian belief in human beings’ natural state of sinfulness and their inability to save themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Only damned shown on right </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to caution that damnation is the natural outcome of a life lived in folly </li></ul><ul><li>Adam and Eve on the left- watched over by an owl which symbolizes both wisdom and folly </li></ul><ul><li>He was obsessed with unnatural unions in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Central panel = parable on human salvation…? </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Return of the Hunters </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1565, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, oil on panel </li></ul><ul><li>Paints in style of Bosch </li></ul><ul><li>Painted every day people </li></ul><ul><li>Incredible panoramic </li></ul><ul><li>Close to Limbourg Brother’s winter scape </li></ul><ul><li>He had a mannerist heritage </li></ul><ul><li>The main subject is often deliberately hidden </li></ul><ul><li>He was a great landscape painter </li></ul><ul><li>This is one of a cycle of 6 panels, each showing two months of the year </li></ul><ul><li>They were frequently commissioned as decorations for elegant Netherlandish homes </li></ul><ul><li>He has captured the damp cold winter atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>The hunters appear neutral and realistic </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of a middle ground is typically Mannerist </li></ul><ul><li>3 yrs after it was painted the struggle of the northern provinces for independence from Spain began </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Self-Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>1548, Caterina van Hemessen, oil on wood </li></ul><ul><li>She learned to paint from her father </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet realism and skilled rendering have roots in the classical Renaissance style </li></ul><ul><li>She identified her subject and the subject’s age in the background and signed and dated the work </li></ul><ul><li>She spent her early career in Antwerp </li></ul><ul><li>She was a favored court artist to Mary of Hungary </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Princess Elizabeth </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1559, Levina Bening Teerlinc, oil on panel </li></ul><ul><li>Teerlinc was the highest-paid painter in the English court </li></ul><ul><li>She is assumed to have painted mainly miniature portraits or scenes on vellum </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized features </li></ul><ul><li>The book displays Elizabeth’s love of learning </li></ul>

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