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Ap a rt history term 3 test 2


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  • 1. AP Art History Term 3 Test 2
  • 2.
    • The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, No. 43 from Los Caprichos
    • C. 1798, Francisco Goya
    • He chiefly created formal portraits and Rococo genre pictures
    • Influenced by Velazques and Rembrandt to develop a more Romantic style
    • Shows a slumbering personification of Reason, behind whom lurk dark creatures of the night
    • Part of Los Caprichos, a folio of 80 etchings
    • Created after the reinstitution of the Inquisition in Spain
    • The collection of 80 show the follies of Spanish life that Goya and his friends considered huge
    • He hoped they would reawaken reason
  • 3.
    • The Family of Charles IV
    • 1800, Goya
    • Acknowledges the influence of Velazquez’s Las Meninas by placing the painter behind the easel on the left
    • Realistic rather than idealistic
    • Some view it as a cruel expose of the sitters as common and inept
    • He was the principal court painter
    • The candid representation was refreshingly modern
  • 4.
    • The Third of Mary 1808
    • 1814, Goya
    • Focuses on victims and antiheroes, the most prominent of which is the Christ-like figure in white
    • An indictment of the faceless and mechanical forces of war itself, blindly destroying defenseless humanity
    • Occurred when France under Napoleon conquered Spain and planned to kill the royal family
    • The Spanish populace rose up and a day of bloody street fighting ensued
  • 5.
    • Elohim Creating Adam
    • 1795, William Blake
    • Combines printing with painting and drawing
    • Taught by Reynolds
    • Advocate of unfettered imagination
    • Deeply concerned with problem of good & evil
    • One work out of a series of 12 prints
    • Sculpturesque volumes and muscular physiques of figures reveal the influence of Michelangelo
    • Invites direct comparison to Creation of Adam
    • Creation presented in negative terms
    • A giant worm, symbolizing matter, encircles Adam who lays on the ground like the Crucified Christ
    • Elohim (God) appears desperate
    • The creation is tragic because it submits the spiritual human to the fallen state of material existence
    • Challenges the viewer to recognize his fallen nature
  • 6.
    • The Haywain
    • 1821, John Constable
    • Friends with Wordsworth
    • Planar authenticity
    • Where he grew up
    • British countryside
    • This work was awarded a gold medal by Charles X and was presented in the Royal Academy
  • 7.
    • The Burning of the House of Lords and Commons
    • Joseph Mallord William Turner, Oct. 16th, 1843
    • Shows the sublime
    • Almost apocalyptic
    • He witnessed the event and recorded what he saw in quick sketches that became the basis for this work
    • The exaggerated scale and plunging perspective of Westminster Bridge intensify the drama of the scene
    • Turner stood from across the Thames River
    • He emphasizes the helplessness of mankind in the face of nature's power
    • The fire’s terrifying force embodies the Romantic fascination with the sublime
    • His work inspired later French impressionists
  • 8.
    • Houses of Parliament
    • Begun 1835, Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin
    • One of the most famous Gothic revival buildings
    • This design created in a competition to replace the Parliament’s Westminster Palace
    • Built in the English Perpendicular Gothic style, consistent with the neighboring Westminster Abbey
    • Barry created the basic plan
    • For Pugin, Gothic was not a style but a principle
  • 9.
    • The Oxbow
    • 1836, Thomas Cole
    • Great Romantic landscape painter
    • This work resulted from an extensive sketching trip, and was painted for exhibition at the National Academy of Design in NY
    • Considered one of his “view” paintings
    • View from the top of Mount Holyoke onto the Connecticut River
    • Such ancient geological formations constituted America’s “antiquities”
    • He contrasts the 2 sides of American landscape: its dense wilderness and its congenial pastoral valleys
    • The storm suggests that the wild will give way to the civilized
  • 10.
    • Forever Free
    • 1867, Edmonia Lewis
    • She went to Oberland
    • Had a career in Boston, but all of her artistic career was in Rome
    • She made sculptures for wealthy whites
    • Shows language of neoclassicism
    • Used for a political and social theme
    • Represents the emancipation of African-American slaves after the Civil War
    • She tries to break stereotypes of black women with this work
  • 11.
    • The Great Wave
    • 1831, Katsushika Hokusai
    • From series, Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji
    • This work has inspired countless imitations and parodies
    • Mt. Fuji, sacred to Japan is at the point of disaster
    • It resembles a wave with its shape and snowy cap
    • From the Edo Period
  • 12.
    • Fireworks by the Ryogokubashi Bridge
    • 1858, Ando Hiroshige,
    • From the series, One Hundred Views of Edo
  • 13.
    • The Gleaners
    • 1857, Jean-Francois Millet
    • Great French rural naturalist
    • He focused peasant life
    • He supported the Revolution, and earned a state commission that allowed him to move from Paris to the village of Barbizon
    • His art was devoted to the difficulties and simple pleasures among rural existence
    • Warm colors and hazy atmosphere = soothing
    • Scene is one of great poverty
    • His intentions were quite conservative
    • He saw the fate of humanity
    • Neither a revolutionary nor a reformer but a fatalist who found the peasant’s acceptance of the human condition exemplary
  • 14.
    • The Third-Class Carraige
    • 1862, Honore Daumier
    • Known primarily as a lithographer
    • At first focused on antimonarchial cartoons, then focused more on social and cultural themes
    • He sympathized with the working class people
    • Often depicted urban scenes
    • He places the viewer in the poor section of the bus
    • Great sense of intimacy and unity among these people
    • They are physically and mentally separated from the upper and middle class passengers
  • 15.
    • The Stone Breakers
    • 1849, Gustave Courbet
    • Destroyed during WWII
    • Inspired by the events of 1848 to turn his attention to poor and ordinary people
    • He completely supported the Rev.
    • “ most complete expression of poverty”
    • Actually saw 2 men breaking stones
    • Faces hidden so viewer has a hard time identifying with them
    • Expression of conservative fatalism akin to Millet’s
    • Considered the first socialist picture ever painted
    • Depiction of injustice
    • Testified to Courbet’s respect for ordinary people
  • 16.
    • A Burial at Ornans
    • 1849, Courbet
    • Focuses on another scene of ordinary life: the funeral of an unnamed bourgeois citizen
    • Attacked by conservative critics who objected to its presentation of a mundane funeral on a scale reserved for major historical events
    • No conventional compositional standards like pyramid
    • Shows a more democratic arrangement
    • Political convictions are evident in the individual attention he accords the ordinary citizens
    • Many shown were Courbet’s friends and family members
  • 17.
    • Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass)
    • 1863, Edouard Manet
    • Modern version of a famous Venetian Renaissance painting, the Pastoral Concert
    • Some see it as a portrayal of modern alienation for the figures in Manet’s painting fail to connect with one another psychologically
    • Her gaze makes us conscious of our role s outside observers
    • Rejection of warm colors, and flat, sharply outlined figures
    • Figures not integrated with their natural surroundings but stand out as if seated before a painted backdrop
    • Victorine Meurent often modeled for Manet
    • All metaphors gone
  • 18.
    • Olympia
    • 1863, Manet
    • Title alludes to a socially ambitious prostitute
    • Based on a Venetian Renaissance source, Titian’s Venus of Urbino, which Manet had copied in Florence
    • Appears to pay homage to Titian’s in its subject mater
    • However, Manet made his the antithesis of the Titian
    • Manet’s is angular and flattened
    • Manet’s appears coldly indifferent to the male spectator
    • Our relationship with Olympia is underscored by the reaction of her cat, which arches its back
    • O lympia stares down at us indicating that she is in a position of power
    • Manet subverted the tradition of the accommodating female nude
  • 19.
    • Snap the Whip
    • 1872, Winslow Homer
    • Evokes the innocence of childhood and the imagined charms of a preindustrial America for an audience that was increasingly urbanized
    • He thought unadorned realism was the more appropriate style for democratic values
    • Began his career as a freelance illustrator for periodicals like Harper’s Weekly
  • 20.
    • The Gross Clinic
    • 1875, Thomas Eakins
    • Great American realist
    • Celebrated the human mind
    • Trained at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and in Paris
    • Specialized in frank portraits and scenes of everyday life which generated little popular interest
    • Severly criticized and was refused exhibition space
    • Shows Dr. Samuel David Gross performing an operation with young medical students
    • Dramatic use of light inspired by Rembrandt not meant to stir emotions but to make a point: Amid the darkness of ignorance and fear, modern science shines the light of knowledge
    • Eakins includes a self portrait, testimony to his personal knowledge of the subject
  • 21.
    • The Resurrection of Lazarus
    • Henry O. Tanner
    • He believed biblical storied could illustrate the struggles and hopes of contemporary African Americans
    • Many black preachers connected this story’s theme of redemption and rebirth with the Emancipation Proclamation
    • Received favorable reception at the Paris Salon
    • Purchased by the museum for living artists
    • Shows the moment following the miracle
    • Limited palette = reminiscent of Rembrandt
    • Unifies the witnesses watching the miracle
  • 22.
    • Central Park
    • 1858-1880, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux
    • 843 acre tract purchased by the city
    • A competition was held for its design as Central Park
    • Architect Calvert Vaux drew up a design
    • Park superintendent Olmsted drew routes for carriages and pedestrians
    • Contains some formal elements
    • Followed English tradition by designing it in a naturalistic manner based on irregularities
    • Divided into 2
    • South more for sports
    • North more of a nature preserve
  • 23.
    • The Hireling Shepherd
    • 1851, William Holman Hunt
    • Combined didacticism and naturalism
    • Painted landscape portions of the composition outdoors
    • Depicts a farmhand neglecting his duties to flirt with a woman and try to discuss a moth
    • Some of his employers sheep are wandering into an adjacent field
    • He meant to satirize pastors who waste time discussing irrelevant theological questions rather than tend their flock
    • Moral lesson on perils of temptation
    • Woman = later day Eve
  • 24.
    • Crystal Palace
    • 1850-51, Sir John Paxton
    • Created for the London Great Exhibition
    • Featured a structural skeleton of cast iron
    • Largest space ever enclosed up to that time
    • The central transept meant to echo imperial Roman architecture
    • Technological marvel
    • Considered a work of engineering rather than architecture
    • Destroyed in a fire in 1936
  • 25.
    • Brooklyn Bridge
    • 1867-83, John Augustus and Washington Augustus Roebling
    • Most famous early steel bridge
    • Roebling was a German born engineer who invented twisted-wire cable
    • Appointed chief engineer of this bridge
    • His son completed the project
    • No decorative adornment
    • Granite towers that feature projecting cornices over pointed-arch openings allude to Gothic cathedrals and to Roman triumphal arches
    • Arches celebrate triumphs of modern engineers
  • 26.
    • Eiffel Tower
    • 1887-1889, Gustave Eiffel
    • Conservative artists were violently opposed to the tower
    • At the time it was the tallest structure in the world
    • Was to be the main attraction of the Universal Exposition in 1889
    • Because it did not conceal its construction, detractors saw is as an ugly work of engineering
    • Embodies the 19th century belief in the progress and ultimate perfection of civilization through science and technology