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African Geography
 

African Geography

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The Geography of Africa prepared by 3 Liedna

The Geography of Africa prepared by 3 Liedna

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    African Geography African Geography Presentation Transcript

    • Profile Africa’s Geography 3 Liedna Agius de Soldanis School Victoria, Gozo, MALTA
    • African Map                                                                                                                   
    • GEOGRAPHY: Africa
      • To the north lies Sahara , the largest desert in the world.
      • Equatorial area is covered by tropical rain forests.
      • Further south there are areas of grassy flat highlands giving way to coastal plains.
      • Major mountain ranges include Atlas in the north and Ruwenzri on the Uganda-Zaire border.
      • Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest mountain, is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. To the east is the Great Rift Valley containing several huge lakes.
      • Some of the world’s longest rivers drain the continent, including the Nile, Niger, Zaire, and Zambezi.
    • North Africa                                     
    • North Africa
      • Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, Egypt Western Sahara North Africa reflects the influence of many invaders, both European and Arab, giving the region Islamic flavor and a common Arabic language .
      • Morocco and Tunisia exploit their culture and landscape for tourism, while Libya and Algeria aid their development through the use of oil and gas, despite political unrest. Egypt, with its Nile-watered agricultural land and industrial base, is the most populous nation. The Atlas Mountains run from Morocco to Tunisia more than 1,200 miles (1,931 km).
    • South Africa
    • South Africa
      • Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe The European influence began with slave trade and quickened later in 19th century, when the discovery of a huge mineral wealth secured South Africa’s economic dominance. The struggle against the white minority led to conflict in Namibia, Zimbabwe, and the former Portuguese territories of Angola and Mozambique.
      • South Africa’s apartheid laws, which denied basic human rights to more than 75% of the people, led to international SOUTH Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe The European influence began with slave trade and quickened later in 19th century, when the discovery of a huge mineral wealth secured South Africa’s economic dominance. The struggle against the white minority led to conflict in Namibia, Zimbabwe, and the former Portuguese territories of Angola and Mozambique.
      • South Africa’s apartheid laws, which denied basic human rights to more than 75% of the people, led to international exclusion until 1994, when the democratic elections began a new era of racial justice.
      • At Victoria Falls, the Zambezi River has cut out a spectacular gorge. A wide range of crops, such as tea, cotton, sisal, tobacco, grapes, citrus fruits, corn, cassava, legumes, and potatoes, are grown here, some with the help of irrigation systems, such as the Orange River Project, which supplements the irregular rainfall.
    • Central Africa
    • Central Africa
      • Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Democratic Republic of), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome & Principe. The great rain forest basin of the Congo River embraces most of the Central Africa. Late in the 19th century, Europeans colonized the region. The tribal kingdoms were split between France, Belgium, Portugal and Spain. Many who belong to a small growing urban population speak French, along with hundreds of dialects. Crops for export include cocoa, coffee, and rubber. Cattle farming is limited to areas free of the tsetse fly, and fish from the rivers are protein sources. Timber provides export revenues for several countries, although concern about the uncontrolled logging is growing.
    • East Africa
    • East Africa
      • Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda. East Africa falls into two distinct cultural regions. Sudan and the “Horn” nations have been influenced by the Middle East. Ethiopia was the home of one of the earliest Christian civilizations. Sudan reflects both Muslim and Christian influences. The southern countries share a cultural affinity with sub-Saharan nations. Some Africa’s most densely populated countries lie in this region, which puts pressure on fragile environments . Kenya developed an industrial base, while other East African economies rely on agriculture.
      • The magnificent National Parks of Kenya and Tanzania provide essential refuges for many rare animals. Tourism flows in the cash needed to sustain these conservation efforts. The Lake Victoria is the world’s second largest lake in the terms of surface 26,828 sq miles (69,484 sq km). Around it, the rich volcanic soils support coffee, tea, cotton, sugar cane and vegetables. Lake Tanganyika is 16,400 ft (5,000 m) in depth and lies 8,202 ft (2,500 m) above the sea level. An extinct volcano, Kilimanjaro, is Africa’s highest mountain 19,340 ft (5,895 m). In the dry regions, camels are common, elsewhere herds of cattle, sheep, and goats. Tsetse Fly limits human settlement and agriculture in much of this region.
    • West Africa
      • Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
      • West Africa is a very diverse region. It has desert landscapes and also the tropical rain forests of the more humid south. The mainly Muslim populations of the Saharan countries have a variety of local languages and cultures. The rich natural resources of this area were exploited by Europeans.
      • Most of the slaves came from this region, causing serious depopulation. Former leading colonial powers, Britain and France, have influenced the languages and institutions of the countries they once governed.
      • Virgin rain forest, which once covered much of the West African coast, has been drastically reduced by logging and agriculture. The southern regions’ tropical rain forest grows some of the world’s most prized hardwood trees, such as mahogany and iroko. The Niger River flows 2,600 miles (4,181 km) and supports rich fish stocks.
    • Discover more on Africa’s Geography Capitals You must be connected to the Internet! Regions Countries Rivers Click above sections and explore the African Continent!
    • African Wildlife
    • African Wildlife
      • When people think of Africa, they often picture lions and elephants roaming freely over huge grasslands .
      • Although the continent is indeed home to many species of exotic animals, decades of logging, sport hunting, poaching, civil wars, pollution, and other human interference have taken their toll on the wildlife.
      • African and foreign countries looking for oil, diamonds, and other resources have destroyed both animals and their habitats.
      • Africa had 70,000 black rhinos in the1970s, and ended up with about 3,000 in the 1980s. Their near extinction illustrates the danger to African fauna that exists. Many African governments have made an attempt to conserve the natural flora and fauna, or plants and animals, of their grasslands and forests. Some countries, concerned for tourism, the environment, and the extinction of animals, have set aside large pieces of land as protected wildlife parks.
    • PARKS
      • The extinction of the remaining species of plants and animals that exist in Africa would have a tragic impact on humankind. Fortunately, some attempts at slowing the massive destruction of natural creatures and their habit are occurring. In Niger, for example, the Ténére National Nature Reserve is home to cheetahs, jackals, hyenas, gazelles, and other animals. The Ndoki National Park is located between Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
      • Forest elephants, gorillas, and chimpanzees live in this vast forest. Logging and poachers threaten the ancient trees and endangered species in this forest. The Serengeti National Park in Tanzania extends to the Masai Mara reserve in Kenya. The Serengeti is a vast grassland which is home to zebras, antelopes, buffalo, lions, elephants, and many other animals. In the early 1900s, European sport hunters almost hunted these animals to extinction. Even today, visitors on safari to photograph these animals cause them anxiety .
    • ENDANGERED SPECIES
      • Nature relies on delicate balances of plant and animal life to remain healthy. When one part of that equation is altered, our flora and fauna can be put in danger. Although change is a natural part of our evolving world, changes that occur at a pace that is too rapid has a disastrous effect on individual species of plants and animals.
      • Habitat loss at an unprecedented pace is the primary cause of the endangerment of species in Africa. As the rainforests are logged for wood and exploited for other natural resources, hundreds of species are put in danger of existing no more.
      • Many animals also suffer due to overexploitation or poaching.
    •  
    •  
      • Other factors include disease and pollution. If a species has not developed a natural protection against certain diseases, it can have an effect on that specie. For example, rabies and canine distemper viruses are destroying carnivore populations in East Africa. As more and more people realize that the loss of any of our plants or animals impacts our own quality of life on this planet, efforts to conserve endangered species grow stronger. Visit our resources section to learn how you can help conserve Africa’s wildlife.
    • CONSERVATION
      • Although the African continent is home to many species of exotic animals and plants, decades of logging, sport hunting, poaching, civil wars, pollution, and other human interferences have taken their toll on the wildlife. African and foreign countries looking for oil, diamonds, and other resources have destroyed both animals and their habitats.
      • One of the main causes of the rapid destruction of the rainforest is that people clear land to make room for housing and farming. Nations also also allow the logging of the forests, since the sale of timber can provide revenue that can help finance schools and hospitals. Scientists and activists around the globe are working to conserve the African rainforest. To learn about how you can help, please visit the resources page.
    • Sahara Desert
      • Numerous types of reptiles - including frogs, toads, and crocodiles - can be found within the Sahara's lakes and pools of water, while lizards, chameleons, skinks, and cobras are to be found among the dunes and rocks. Among the reptiles in the Sahara's rivers and pools can be found snails, brine and algae shrimp, plus other types of crustaceans.
      • The Sahara Desert covers over 3.5 million square miles and has only 2.5 million inhabitants - roughly 1 person per square mile (0.4 sq km)- which is one of the lowest population densities on earth. Wherever abundant food and water sources occur, one will find relatively large masses of people and wildlife. On the whole, the Sahara is one of the harshest environments known to man.
      The People
      • Many researchers have gone into the Sahara looking for clues as to how long ago humans began inhabiting the desert. According to archeologists, the Sahara was much more densely populated thousands of years ago when the desert's climate was not as harsh as it is today. Fossils, rock art, stone artifacts, bone harpoons, shells and many other items have been found in areas which today are considered too hot and dry to inhabit. This suggests that these areas were quite habitable thousands of years ago, but that the climate of the Sahara has since changed drastically. The artifacts found were located near remains of giraffe, elephant, buffalo, antelopes, rhinoceros, and warthog, as well as the remains of fish, crocodiles, hippopotamuses and other aquatic animals which suggests that thousands of years ago water was quite abundant in the Sahara.
      • The majority of the people living in the Sahara Desert are nomads, which means that these people continuously move from region to region in search of better living conditions. It is believed that the first nomadic peoples came to this region after domestic animals were introduced to the Sahara 7,000 years ago. Researchers believe that sheep and goats were introduced to the Sahara region by the Caspain culture of northern Africa.
      • Evidence suggests that the Sahara accumulated diverse groups which quickly formed dense populations throughout the region. The majority of the groups lived separately, but depended on each other for trade. External trade developed gradually and the mobility of the nomads certainly contributed to the growing success of trade with other countries and continents. For example, Mauritania contained valuable copper resources and as a result, this copper was traded to the Bronze Age Civilizations of the Mediterranean.
    • Mount Kilimanjaro
      • Shira was first volcano to become extinct, followed by Mawenzi. Kibo remains active as a dormant active volcano . A strong smell of sulphur still emanates from the inner ash pit.
      • In 1889, German geographer Hans Meyer and Austrian mountain climber Ludwig Purtscheller were the first to reach the summit of Kilimanjaro.
      • There are many disputed theories on the origin of the name, so it remains a mystery.
      History
      • While Kilimanjaro obviously doesn’t have the highest elevation of any mountain in the world, it is the tallest freestanding mountain rise in the world , rising 15,100 feet (4,600 meters) from its base. Kilimanjaro is the tallest mountain in Africa
      Trivia
      • Mount Kilimanjaro is situated entirely within the borders of Tanzania, although it is situated close to the border of Kenya.
      • It is situated 3 degrees, or about 340 km, south of the Equator.
      Location
      • Kilimanjaro comprises three distinct volcanic cones:
      • Kibo 19,340 feet (5,895 meters)
      • Mawenzi 16,896 feet (5,149 meters)
      • Shira 13,000 feet (3,962 meters)
    • Most of the area Kilimanjaro is defined by the Kilimanjaro National Park , which is a UNESCO World Heritage site .
    •  
    • African Places & Their Images
    • AFRICA
    • Algeria
    • Angola
    • Benin
    • Botswana
    • Burkinaina Faso
    • Burundi
    • Cape Verde
    • Cameroon
    • Central African Republic
    • Chad
    • Comoros
    • Congo-Brazzaville
    • Congo-Kinshasa
    • Costa do Marfil
    • Djibouti
    • Egypt
    • Equatorial Gunea
    • Eritrea
    • Etiopia
    • Gabon
    • Gambia
    • Ghana
    • Guinea
    • Guinea Bissau
    • Ivory Coast
    • Lesotho
    • Liberia
    • Libya
    • Madagascar
    • Malawi
    • Mali
    • Marroco
    • Mauritius
    • Mauritius
    • Mozambique
    • Namibia
    • Niger
    • Nigeria
    • Kenya
    • Ruanda
    • Sao Tome and Príncipe
    • Senegal
    • Seychelles
    • Sierra Leona
    • Somalia
    • South Africa
    • Sudan
    • Swaziland
    • Tanzania
    • Togo
    • Tunisia
    • Uganda
    • Western Sahara
    • Zambia
    • Zimbabwe
    • The End! Thanks for your attention!