Linguistic and Applied linguistic contribution to English Teaching


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Linguistic and Applied linguistic contribution to English Teaching

  1. 1. Linguistics and applied linguistics
  2. 2. What is linguistics ? It’s the scientific study of language
  3. 3. Linguistics as a field divided into       Theoretical linguistics Applied linguistics Descriptive linguistics Historical linguistics Geographical linguistics Comparative linguistics
  4. 4. Theoretical Linguistics Phonetics and Phonology Morphology and Syntax Semantics and pragmatics
  5. 5.  Phonetics: the study of the physical properties of sounds of human language.  Phonology: the study of sounds as discrete, abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning.  Morphology: the study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified.  Syntax: the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences .  Semantics: the study of the meaning of words.  Pragmatics: the study of meaning in contex.
  6. 6. What is applied linguistics?  “Applied linguistics is simply the process of formulating possible solutions to specific problems using linguistic theory” Politzer (1972).  “Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary area, a combination of linguistics with psychology, pedagogy, mathematics and so forth” Pap (1972).  The application of linguistic knowledge to some object is an activity. It’s not a theoretical study. It makes use of the findings of theoretical studies. The applied linguist is a consumer, or user, not a producer of theories. Corder (1973).
  7. 7. Applied Linguistics  It’s a subarea of linguistics which is concerned with the applications of linguistic principles or theories to certain practical matters.  It’s a interdisciplinary field of study which investigates and offers solutions to language-related problems.  It describe how language is used, learned and taught.
  8. 8. Applied linguistics and language teaching  Theories about the nature of human language are not restricted to language teacher.  It would be a mistake to associate applied linguistics exclusively with language teaching.  Other people who are engaged in practical activities which involve language in a central role for whom a knowledge of its nature could be of use in dealing with problems which arise in their work:
  9. 9. Applied linguistics and Language Teaching  Speech therapist, literary critic, communications engineer, for example.  We do not uniquely associate applied linguistics with any single one of these activities. Whilst applied linguistics and language teaching may be closely associated, they are not one and the same activity. (Corder)
  10. 10. Applied linguistics and Language Teaching  The application of linguistic knowledge to some object—or applied linguistics, as its name implies—is an activity.  It is not a theoretical study. It makes use of the findings of theoretical studies.  The applied linguist is a consumer, or user, not a producer, of theories. If we use the term 'theory' as it is used in science, then there is no such thing as a 'theory of language teaching' or a 'theory of speech therapy' or a 'theory of literary criticism'.
  11. 11. Applied linguistics and Language Teaching  Language teaching is also an activity, but teaching language is not the same activity as applied linguistics.  However, if we interpret language teaching in the very broadest sense, to include all the planning and decision-making which takes place outside the classroom, then there may be an element of applied linguistics in all language teaching.  Just as there may be an element of applied linguistics in all speech therapy or all literary criticism.
  12. 12. Language Teaching operation Political:whether,what L, whom to teach Linguistic, : what to teach, when to Sociolinguistic: teach,how much to teach Psycholinguistic: how students learn Pedagogic :motivation, attitudes
  13. 13. The linguistic contribution in language teaching and learning   I am frankly, rather sceptical about the significance, for the teaching of languages, of such insights and understanding as have been attained in linguistics and psychology… it’s difficult to believe that either linguistics or psychology has achieved a level of theoretical understanding that might enable it to support a technology of language teaching. (Chomsky 1966b;p.43) Teachers, in particular, have a responsibility to make sure (the linguists’) ideas and proposals are evaluated on their merits and not passively accepted on grounds of authority, real or presumed. The field of language teaching is no exception. It’s possible-even likely- that principles of psychology and linguistics and research in these disciplines, may supply sueful insights to the language teacher. But this must be demonstrated and cannot be presumed. It is the language teacher himself who must validate or refute any specific proposal. (P.45).
  14. 14. Competence and performance  Chomsky claimed that the objectives of the linguistic study of language have always implicitly been the characterization of the internalized code or set of rules used by a speaker-hearer when he uses his language, and not a description of the utterance produced by speakers of a language.  Linguists don’t study what people do when they speak and understand language, but seek rather to discover the rules underlying this performance. This is what Chomsky calls “Competence”.  Performance is the actual use of knowledge in utterances.
  15. 15. Competence and performance  competence involves “knowing” the language and performance involves “doing” something with the language.  Is it important to know the difference?  How can we apply them to the Classroom ?
  16. 16. The Main subfields of applied linguistics  Language Acquisition  Teaching and learning foreign languages  Improving teaching methodology  Improving syllabuses  Language assessment: the assessment and evaluation of language achievement and proficiency, both in first and additional languages, and for both general and specific purposes.
  17. 17. The Main subfields of applied linguistics  Translation and interpretation: the issues of equivalence between SL and TL, and the practices of translating written text and interpreting spoken language.  Machine translation  Lexicography: methods and techniques for creating dictionaries.  Forensic linguistics : how linguistic knowledge is used in crime investigation and finding evidence  Psycholinguistics: the study of the psychological factors which can enable students to acquire and understand the language well.
  18. 18. The Main subfields of applied linguistics  Literary stylistics: the study of the relationship between linguistic choices and effects in literature.  Critical Discourse Analysis: the study of the relationship between linguistic choices and effects in persuasive uses of language, of how these indoctrinate or manipulate (for example, in marketing and politics), and the counteracting of this through analysis.
  19. 19. References  S. pit corder(1973),Introducing applied linguistics, Hazeli Watson & Viney Ltd; Britain.  Chomsky, N. (1966b), linguistic Theory,North East Conference on the Teaching of Foreign languages.