Ob Hrd Performance Mgment And Councling   Pratik Negi
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Ob Hrd Performance Mgment And Councling   Pratik Negi Ob Hrd Performance Mgment And Councling Pratik Negi Presentation Transcript

  • Presentation On -- Performance Management & Counseling
    BY 1. Pratik K S Negi
    2. Ratan singh
    3. Pulkit Acharaya
    4. Ravi Dhakad
  • Performance management
    What is performance management – Performance management refers to the ongoing process of setting goals, self-assessment, manager assessment, peer-assessment (also called 360 assessment), coaching, development planning, and evaluation.
    Why performance Management --- If your organization is to sustain its competitive advantage, it needs employees who are productive and willing to continually learn and adapt as their roles change along with the organization, Then managing there performance becomes a integral part.
    How performance Management --- It includes taking frequent measures as work occurs and responding to small steps forward (many mini-measures (goals) with as much dedication as to final goals achieved). PM is a leading indicator of performance because it drives a system or organization toward desired future goals and provide solid management and performer steps along the way through daily behavior patterns of every employee.
  • Counseling In relation to
    performance management
    What is Counseling– Counseling is a one on one, many to one. Conversation procedure by which a issue which majorly deals with the performance of a employee in the organization is discussed.
    Why Counseling required --- If a performer is constantly giving good results and suddenly gives a performance that is not expected. Or an employee that has been a low profile performance has to be given such feedback sessions become integral part for there improvements.
    How Counseling can be incorporated --- It’s the basic form of feedback and performance management that is useful for many organization. its considered as one of the basic tools for the performance management guidelines. But this technique cant work singlehandedly.
  • Preview about performance management
    • Performance Management (PM) are derived from the science of behavior analysis
    (also known as the psychology of learning).
    • The tools of performance management are Compensation, appraisal, selection,
    retention, competencies, and so on). Those are important elements of a
    well-designed workplace, but most often they are systems, processes, and
    procedures designed without knowledge of behavior.
    • PM approach is used most often in the workplace but applies wherever people
    interact—schools, churches, community meetings, sports teams, health setting,
    governmental agencies, and even political settings
    • PM processes will teach managers and supervisors—all leaders—how to bring
    out the best in people, including themselves, through a set of clear steps that
    appear easy on the surface, but do require a grounding in the principles of learning.
    • A key aspect of performance management is performance measurement.
  • performance management the steps
    Steps taken for grounding in the principles of learning { to take best out of people}
    1) pinpoint (again, both results and needed behaviors)
    2) measure (frequently)
    3) feedback (post so that others can see success steps or track in
    other ways so that data becomes the core of decision making
    4) cons equate (using systematic processes; whenever possible
    5) evaluate (continuous improvement on how to get better at
    bringing out the best in everyone)
  • Benefits of Performance Management
    Direct financial gains
    • Grow sales
    • Reduce costs
    • Stop project overruns
    • Aligns the organization directly behind the CEO's goals
    • Decreases the time it takes to create strategic or operational changes by
    communicating the changes through a new set of goals
    Motivated workforce
    • Optimizes incentive plans to specific goals for over achievement,
    not just business as usual
    • Improves employee engagement because everyone understands how they are
    directly contributing to the organizations high level goals
    • Create transparency in achievement of goals
    • High confidence in bonus payment process
    • Professional development programs are better aligned directly to achieving
    business level goals
  • Benefits of Performance Management (contd…)
    Improved management control
    • Flexible, responsive to management needs
    • Displays data relationships
    • Helps audit / comply with legislative requirements
    • Simplifies communication of strategic goals scenario planning
    • Provides well documented and communicated process documentation
    Counseling its affect and impact on Performance Management
    Employee counseling helps in following
    • employee moral building
    • employee performance increased
    • employee continues improvement and meeting criteria and range
    • employee retention and less iteration
    • removal of grudges and issues
  • Case discussion -- IS PAST PERFORMANCE A GOOD PREDICTOR OF FUTURE POTENTIAL?
    A Study of the relationships between Competency Assessment through
    • Assessment Centers
    • 360 Degree Tools
    • Assessment centre and 360 degree tool their usage
    • Both used as development tools
    • 3 organizations are taken In all these organizations competency mapping
    was done and the common competencies identified using behavior indicators.
    • Tools were developed to assess the competencies. The competencies were
    assessed for each candidate by external assessors in an assessment
    centre.
    • They were also assessed by their seniors, juniors and colleagues on the
    same competency model on specially designed tools to measure the very
    competencies measured by the assessment centre.
    • The findings seem to be valid irrespective of the nature of competencies
    assessed and across various categories of employee.
  • Assessment Centers
    • Assessment centre is a comprehensive, standardized procedure in which multiple assessment techniques such as situational exercises and job simulation (business games, discussions, reports and presentations) are used to evaluate individual employees for a variety of manpower decisions.
    • An Assessment centre consists of a standardized evaluation of behavior based on multiple inputs
    • Several trained observers and techniques are used.
    • Judgments about behavior are made by these specially trained observers.
    • At the end of the assessment the assessors get together share their data which is scientifically recorded on a set of evaluation forms
    • They come to a consensus on the assessments of each candidate. Most frequently the approach has been applied to individuals being considered for selection, promotion, placement or special training
  • History of Assessment Centers
    Assessment Centers methodology are known to have been used or at least recommended to be used by kings at least 1500 years ago in India as
    mentioned in Kautilya’s Arthasshastra.
    Accessing a candidate on the norms of
    1) observation
    2) performance
    3) Appraisal
    4) assessment by those who know him
    5) interviewing and other forms of testing etc
  • How are Assessment Centers different now from the past?
    • After liberalization in the '90s that interest in assessment centers renewed
    • Many organizations have started setting up their assessment centers. natural response to the need to ensure competent people manning strategic
    positions.
    Companies that are trying out include
    1) RPG Group
    2) Escorts
    3) TISCO
    4) Aditya Birla Group
    6) Eicher, Cadburys ,and Castrol
    7) Glaxo , Grindwell and Norton
    8) ONGC , Mahindra and SAIL and others
  • Competencies that are to be measured are determined by each organization by using methods such as
    1) job analysis
    2) managerial aptitude profile surveys
    3) Identifying competencies in the star performer
    Assessment techniques
    1) business simulations
    2) questionnaires
    3) group discussions
    4) role plays
    6) interviews
    7) case study
    8) individual presentations, etc
  • Assessors
    Internal assessors
    External assessors
    Assessors training is catered by
    Academy of HRD (Hyderabad)
    SHL (UK)
    Assessment centers
    GE
    SUN
    AT & T
    NORTEL
    CISCO & Motorola.
  • There are certain issues with respect to assessment centre that presently persist Asian organizations, such as
    • Organizational commitment in terms of time & resources
    • Involvement of line managers
    • Feedback to participants
    • Data security
    • Complexity of Implementation
    • Clear behavioural description of competencies
    • Availability of assessors
    • Assessor training and Validity of exercises
    • Inter-rater reliability and Appropriateness of selection tools
  • Assessment Centers: Current Status
    • Competition with MNCs and locals with better
    --Organizational design.
    --Technology.
    --More competitive people.
    --Rationalized organizational Structure.
    • Prepare more and more middle and senior managers
    • Retirement and resignation issue
    • For an effective and efficient the mangers have pressure
    • Increased pressure on Organizations to perform and set standards
    • Competent mangers for strategic posts
  • Assessment Centers: Roles
    • Completely objective decisions
    • help in making employee promotions and placement decisions more scientific
    • contributions are more in creating a competence culture rather than mere best-fit decisions
    • Continuous competence building is a better aim rather than short- term objective promotion decisions.
    • Complexities in sensitivities in using assessment centers, the term ADCs to mean Assessment and Development Centers has become common in India
  • Validity and reliability
    • Thornton and Byham (1982) reviewed 29 studies of the validity of Acs
    they found more support for the assessment centre method than for the other
    selection methodologies
    • 1985 Thornton and his associates processed at Colorado State University
    220 validity coefficients from 50 studies using a statistical approach called
    Meta analysis
    • Meta-analysis of 50 assessment center studies, containing 107 validity
    coefficients, demonstrated that Acs showed strong predictive validity.
    • Gaugler, Rosenthal, Thornton, & Bentson, 1987). In their study, Validity
    coefficients show the strength of the relationship between assessment
    center scores and other methods for assessing performance.
    • The coefficients of correlation were 0.36 with Ratings of General
    Performance, 0.53 With Ratings of General Potential; 0.33 With Ratings on Dimension; 0.35 With Performance in Training; 0.36 With Career Advancement.
  • Example -- Northern Telecom
    Step 1--To find candidates’ readiness for promotion into management and to diagnose their developmental needs
    Step 2-- DDI worked with Northern Telecom to identify relevant job dimensions and a variety of assessment techniques and provided participants with detailed reports about their performance on the dimensions
    Step 3-- To validate the assessment center scores, performance criteria data were collected from participants’ peers.
    Step 4– The data indicated the correlations to range from 0.22 to 0.38 which was considered as high by DDI.
    They obtained a correlation coefficient of
    0.24 * on Customer Service Orientation,
    0.22 on Influence;
    0.30* on Innovation,
    0.34*on Job Fit a Multiple R of 0.38.
    on a sample of N = 61. (Source: DDI White Paper on Validity of DDI Assessment Centers, Undated)
    Conclusion-- There is consistent research showing that assessment centers are unbiased in their predictions of future performance. These studies considered the candidate’s age, race, gender and found the predictions by assessment centre methodology are equally valid for all candidates
  • What is 360 Degree Feedback?
    The (360 degree) feedback process involves collecting perceptions about a person’s behavior and the impact of that behavior from the person’s boss or bosses, direct reports, colleagues, fellow members of project teams, internal and external customers, and supplier
    Other names for 360 degree feedback
    multi-rater feedback
    multi-source feedback
    full-circle appraisal
    group performance review
    • 360 degree why is popular
    -- Bias issue.
    -- focus on internal and external customer.
    -- Emphasizing on smaller dimension of performance
    -- Multiple assessment is the need of the hour
  • Procedure
    • The assessment is made on a questionnaire specially designed to measure behaviors considered as critical for performance.
    • The appraisal is done anonymously by others and the assessment is collected by an external agent (consultant) or specially designated internal agent (for example the HRD Department).
    • The assessment is consolidated; feedback profiles are prepared and given to the participant after a workshop or directly by his boss or the HRD department in a performance review discussion session.
    • its potency as a competency identification and development tool, it is important to understand the process and its dynamics.
    • Almost every Fortune 500 Company is using this in some form or the other. In this system, the candidate is assessed periodically (once in a year and some times even half yearly) by a number of assessors including his boss, immediate subordinates, colleagues, internal customers and external customers.
  • Additional advantages offered by 360 Assessments are:
    • It is more objective than a one person assessment of traits and qualities.
    • It adds objectivity and supplements the traditional appraisal system.
    • It provides normally more acceptable feedback to employee.
    • It can serve all the purposes served by the traditional appraisal system like identifying the developmental needs, reward management, performance development etc.
    • It helps focus on internal customer satisfaction.
    • It has the potential of pointing out the supervisory biases in the traditional appraisal systems.
    • It is a good tool for enhancing customer service and quality of inputs and service to internal customers.
    • It provides scope for the candidate to get multiple inputs to improve his role, performance, styles and ideas and enhances the acceptability of the individual.
    • It is more participative and enhances the quality of HR decisions
  • Impact of 360 degree feedback – example (TVRLS)
    • The line of inquiry was based on the aspect of gathering information regarding the impact of the workshop on people, changes observed as a result of the workshop, actions adopted towards change, further support required if any
    • Study covered 32 managers who had participated in the workshop. They
    were assessed through personal interviews and discussions on 1 to 1 basis
    TVRLS reports says
    Two months after the workshop, participants were still carrying the report and workbook within easy reach for reference and reinforcement purposes
     32 managers interviewed, 24 of them had shared the data and report including the action plans with respective bosses, peers and subordinates.
    The CEO of a multinational company, after going through the workshop, emailed the results of his profile and feedback to all employees
     A good number of the 32 managers had initiated the practice of maintaining diaries to record their action plans and activities done during the day or week towards the plans
  • some Observations on 360 Degree Feedback and its Effectiveness
    • "360 degree feedback won’t fix a system that doesn’t work”
    • Professionally developed assessment tools identify skills sets or competencies
    required for success in a specific role
    • the exercise of receiving 360 degree feedback will be academic, at best—and
    frustrating and demoralizing, at worst
    • it is first used as a developmental tool for several years, if the practice is to be
    effective
    • Another factor in 360 readiness's is whether those who will be rated see the
    process as constructive, not attacking--that is, is the organization using the 360
    process to help people improve
    • in some cases, choose to play a different role in the organization) or is it using the
    process to justify removing people or otherwise making punitive actions?
  • Purpose of This Study
     While a lot is written about 360 Degree Feedback and ADCs there is very little
    empirical studies in India on the effectiveness of both these tools and the extent
    to which they have predictive ability
    360 DF deals with past performance and ADCs with future potential
    360 Degree feedback is limited by the context in which the person is
    operating. In ADC the expert assessors are supposed to create simulated situations
    where the real competencies of the candidate get tested
     Hence some of the organizations started using ADCs for promotions and development
    of potential for future jobs and 360 DF for development of leadership potential
    on the current job.
    The hypothesis may be that both the 360 DF and ADCs measure the same thing
    and should be correlated irrespective of contexts
  • Methodology
    Analysis presented here is from three organizations that were interested in conducting ----- Assessment and Development Centers.
    All three organizations wanted the ADCs as development tools. They felt the need to assess their senior and middle level managers for developing their
    future potential as leaders and managers to handle higher level and more complex jobs
    decided to supplement the ADC data with the 360 degree feedback data
    While the ADC measured the extent to which they would demonstrate or exhibit competencies needed to perform some of the senior level jobs
    The respective organizations have conducted their competency mapping exercises and a list of competencies needed for the effective performance of the roles for which the candidates are being assessed.
    These organizations were in the business of designing, manufacturing, assembling, marketing various electronic components for engines, automobiles and other industries.
  • Validity and reliability questioned
    The ADC exercises were designed on the basis of competency mapping and
    vetting exercise by the consultants.
    The role incumbents were interviewed and the competency list is validated by the role holders and their seniors
    This assessment tools are designed based on the validated framework. The critical incidents are also collected during the interviews so as to design the tools using those critical incident
    Apart from that certain hypothetical situations are used in the exercises to give a standard situation to all the participants Working with hypothetical standard operating procedures (SOP), for instance, allows all candidates to have the same advantage.
    Allowing the same starting point, same SOPs, puts each candidate at even starting point. Using hypothetical situation brings in that of fairness and equity.
  • The tools used for the ADCs were among the followings:
    1. Leaderless Group Discussion (LGD)
    2. Business or Vision Presentation
    3. In-Baskets
    4. Business/Management Game
    5. BBII (Biographic Behavior Incident Interview)
    6. Case Analysis
    7. Psychometric Tests
    Assessment output
    The assessment was done over a period of one or two days followed by individual
    feedback by the assessor
    Actual exercises only the behavior is recorded and no final interpretations are arrived.
    Once all the exercises are over, each of the assessors is required to classify
    the behavior observed into dimensions as per the predefined list of competencies
    Taking the participant’s performance in all the exercises and interview reports
    , the participant is then rated on the competency using five point scale and reason for it
    • Once the rating has been given the assessors discuss the ratings.
    • Quality and job analysis is undertaken then
  • For the same 3 organizations have been compared from diff area’s On
    the parameters of ADC and 360 degree
    Conclusion- for company1 (Hydraulic Components Organization (HCO):
    All the coefficients of correlation between 360 Degree measures and the ADC measures are positive for each of the seven competencies measured. They ranged from 0.11 (on interpersonal skills and team work) to 0.29 (strategic thinking).
    The 360 measures are moderately related with ADC measures only on customer orientation and none of the others are even to the level of 0.4.
    Measures obtained from BEI, In-basket, presentations and LGD seems to be predictive of the overall scores on ADC as the relationships are moderately high to high.
    Strategic thinking and communication skills seem to be the two variables on which the competencies are more predictable across various tools as compared to other competencies.
    5. Overall the results of this organization show that past performance as measured by 360.DF is weak predictor of the future potential in this organization
  • Conclusion- (An IT Organization)
    Most of the correlation coefficients between the 360 measures and ADC
    measures are negative and a few of them are high. Considering any ‘r’ above 0.5 to be high, of the 39 coefficients of “r” reported 28 are negative and 5 are high.
    Like in the case of Organization 1 the coefficients of r between the overall ADC scores and the measures of LGD, Business Game, Presentations, and BEI are high indicating a high degree of internal consistency between the measures using various tools generated by the ADC.
    No single dimension of competence emerged as more predictable than the other
    as almost all of them showed similar trends in correlations.
    4. The results are surprising. The only reason that could be hypothesized is that in this IT organization overt behavior as shown by the 360 DF is not a good predictor of the covert potential or behavior as assessed by external experts
  • Conclusion- ( HEO- Heavy Equipment Organization):
    The coefficients of correlations between 360 measures and ADC measures are
    low and varied.
    The measures of competencies generated from various tools of ADC seem
    to be more related than the measures of ADC and the 360 data.
    There is no consistency with which any of the variables or competencies
    can be predicted.
    CONCLUSIONS DRAFTED OUT
     The 3 cases above points out that there is little correlation between the
    job performance as assessed by the 360 Feedback and Assessment center
    scores. 360 feedback is a reflection of an individual’s performance on the job
    and ADC score is the assessment by external consultants
    Therefore the case generally recommend that one should consider a combination
    of feedbacks like 360DF,Psychometric Tests etc. instead of relying fully on
    the ADC score alone
  • Possibilities that rooted up from the case
    Possibility 1
    Internal assessors are biased and the 360 Data are impressionistic and people who
    manage their impressions well hide their true potential or lack of it and people who are
    competent may not be bale to manage their impressions well. As a result the 360 data
    are not as reliable and objective. In fact several 360 experts maintain 360 degree
    feedback as essentially subjective phenomenon. The more objective assessments
    are from the ADCs where the candidate’s performance is assessed by external
    experts and on a variety of methods
    Possibility 1
    feedback data are more reliable and go beyond impression management. They
    are real and objective as they are data generated from observing the individual
    across a long period of time and by many internal assessors who understand
    the business context. Where as the ADC data are based on a series of classroom
    exercise and games devoid of actual reality. They are at best simulated
    settings and though they use external assessors, a mere observation for two days
    by a group of external observers in contexts created by them cannot substitute
    the behavior data generated on the job by the candidate across several months.
    Hence the low correlations between them are expected. The ADC data therefore
    are indicators in certain setting and used with a high degree of precaution.
  • Possibility 3:
    The third possibility is that the coefficients of correlation high or low observed are more due to the methodology used and hence cannot be treated as devoid of errors in measurement. Hence both are to be rejected. More serious validation studies are required to validate both the 360 degree feedback and the ADCs. Until then they should be used only as development tools and the candidates as well as organizations should approach them with caution. After all the classical studies of ADCs indicated the predictive validity of the assessment centers to be low.
    Possibility 4:
    360 Degree assessment is measure of the past performance though on the same competencies. It is limited by the context. While the ADC data are futuristic and predictors of future performance on tasks that are heavily weighed by the competencies being assessed. Hence it is not correct to expect a high degree relationship between the past performance measures and future potential measures. If they correlate well there is no need for ADCs to assess future potential. Since they are not correlated well and internal consistency shown by various methods used in the ADCs is high the lesson to be learnt is not to use 360 for succession planning and promotions but to bank
    on ADCs.
  • Thankyou
    BY 1. Pratik K S Negi
    2. Ratan singh
    3. Pulkit Acharaya
    4. Ravi Dhakad