Can something exist without being perceived? Pamela Jackson - e.g."is sound only sound if a person hears it?"
Rollo May’s sense of deep inner reflection intensified when, as a young tuberculosis sufferer, he was forced to spend several years in a sanitarium. In institutions, feelings of depersonalization and isolation can ben especially intense.
Frankl was a imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp. He survived psychologically by choosing to find meaning in the suffering.
The word pathology is from Ancient Greek, pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and, -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling. Pathologies is synonymous with diseases. The suffix "path" is used to indicate a disease, e.g. psychopath.Schizophrenia Example – “Schizophrenia is bad but because of your brain structure, you have a predisposition to be gifted.” e.g. A Beautiful Mind
Humanist and Existential Psychology
Humanistic, Existential,and Positive Aspects of Personality
Existentialism• Existentialism – An Area of philosophy concerned with the meaning of human existence.• Being-in-the-World – The existential idea that the self cannot exists without a world and the world cannot exist without a person of being to perceive it.
“If a tree falls in a forest and no one isaround to hear it, does it make a sound?”
Nondeterministic The existential approach is also nondeterministic because it argues against viewingpeople as controlled by fixed physical laws.
The Phenomenological ViewThe concept that people’s perceptions orsubjective realities are considered valid data for investigation.
HumanismA philosophical movement that emphasizes the personal worth of the individual and the importance of human values.
Giving a Role to the Human Spirit• Humanistic approaches are freer to give credit to the human spirit. Abraham Maslow thus called humanistic psychology the “third force.” The ﬁrst two forces being behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
Relations with Other People Define Our Humanness• I-Thou Dialogue – A phrase used by philosopher Martin Buber to describe direct, mutual relationship in which each individual conﬁrms the other person as being of unique value.• I-It Monologue – A phrase used by philosopher Martin Buber to describe a utilitarian relationship in which a person uses others but does not value them for themselves.
The Human Potential Movement Movement in which people are encouraged to realize their inner potentials through small group meetings, self-disclosure, and introspection. • Dialectical Tension – Concept used by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi for the idea that creative people tend to have traits that are seemingly contradictory but that play a role in their creativity.
Love as a Central Focus of Life: Erich Fromm Loving is an Art “Love requires knowledge, effort, and experience. The capacity to love must be developed with humility and discipline. According to Fromm, love is the answerto the avoidable question—the problem of human existence.”“Immature love says: I love you because I need you. Mature love says I need you because I love you.’ ” Erich Fromm
Dialectical Humanism:Transcending ConflictErich Fromm’s approach to personality, which tries toreconcile the biological, driven side of human beingsand the pressures of societal structure by focusing onthe belief that people can rise above or transcendthese forces and become spontaneous, creative, andloving.
Evidence Supporting Fromm’s Approach? The Age of Anxiety? Society has become more individualistic and consumerist,the rate of major psychological depression and other serious mental health problems in Western countries has risen steadily.
The American ParadoxThe contemporary situation where we havematerial abundance co-occurring with social recession and psychological depression.
Responsibility: Carl Rogers• A key postulate of existential-humanistic approaches is that each person is responsible for his or her own life and maturity. Rogers believed that people have an inherent tendency toward growth and maturation.• Responsibility, like love, is a term often heard in humanistic analyses of personality but rarely heard elsewhere.
Growth, Inner Control, and the Experiencing Person• Growth – Roger’s perspective that people tend to develop in a positive direction unless thwarted.• Inner Control – Inner self-control is healthier than forced, external control.• Experiencing Person – In Carl Roger’s phenomenological view, important issues are deﬁned by each person for himself or herself in the context of the total range of things the person experiences.
Rogerian TherapyThe client-oriented psychotherapy developed by Carl Rogers in which the therapist tends to be supportive, nondirective, and empathetic, and gives unconditional positive regard.
Becoming One’s Self• We all have ideas of what we should be like, however, Rogers says that a person should “become one’s self.” A healthy personality can trust his or her own experience and accept the fact that other people are different.• Existential anxiety and inner conﬂict often arise when put a façade and try to conform to the expectations of others. “The only person who cannot be helped is that person who blames others.” Carl Rogers
Anxiety, Threat, and Powerlessness: Rollo MayAnxiety was a particular focus of the existential psychologist Rollo May, who saw anxiety as a triggered by a threat to one’s core values ofexistence. A sense of powerlessness if often the key. “One does not become fully human painlessly.” Rollo May
Personal Choice: Victor Frankl• Existential-humanistic theorists like Victor Frankl emphasize the benefits of personal choice. If people choose to grow and develop, the challenge of the unknown produces anxiety; but this anxiety can lead to triumph and self- fulfillment. “When we are no longer able to change a situation – we are challenged to change ourselves.” Viktor Frankl
Self-Actualization: Abraham Maslow Being deprived ofcompanionship or beingdeprived of meaning in one’s life can be just asterrifying, and deadly asbeing deprived of food.
Early Ideas about Self-‐Actualization in Jung’s Work • Self-Actualization – The innate process by which one tends to grow spiritually and realize one’s potential.• Teleology – The idea that there is a grand design or purpose to one’s life.“Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes.” Carl Jung
Peak Experiences According to Abraham Maslow, powerful, meaningful experiences in which people seem to transcend the self, be at one with the world, and feel completely self-fulfilled; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes them as the “flow”that comes with total involvement in an activity.“A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately at peace with himself.” Abraham Maslow
The Internal Push for Self-Actualization• Organismic – A term sometimes used to describe theories that focus on the development that comes from inside the growing organism and that assume a natural unfolding, or life course, for each organism.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Deﬁciency Needs – According to Abraham Maslow, needs that are essential for survival including physiological, safety, belonging, love, and esteem needs.
Measuring Self-Actualization• Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) – A self-report questionnaire that asks people to classify themselves on a number of dimensions for the various characteristics of self-actualization or mental health. “What a man can be, he must be. This need we call self- actualization.” Abraham Maslow
Happiness and Positive Psychology Subjective Well-Being What individuals think of their own level of happiness or their quality of life.
Positive Psychology The movement in modern psychology tofocus on positive attributes rather than on pathology.