Social studies– history The Making ofGermany and Italy4.1 and 4.2 Done by – Mrinali Grade –X
4.1 Germany – Can the Army bethe Architect of a Nation? After 1848 – the nationalism moved away to the democracy and revolution. The sentiments of the nationalist were mobilized by conservatives- for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe. This could be observed when Germany and Italy came to be unified as nation states. The feelings of nationalist came from the middle class Germans- tried to unite the German confederation into a nation-state which would b governed by the elected parliament. However, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
Prussia took on the leadership of the movement fornational unification.Its chief minister, Otto vonBismarck, was the architect of this processcarriedout with the help of the Prussian army andbureaucracy. Three wars over seven years –withAustria, Denmark and France – ended inPrussianvictory and completed the process ofunification.In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I,was proclaimed German Emperor in aceremonyheld at Versailles.
On 18 January 1871-an assembly comprising the princes of theGerman states,representatives of the army,important Prussian ministers includingthe chief minister Otto von Bismarck gathered intheunheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace ofVersaillesto proclaim the new German Empire headedby Kaiser William I of Prussia.The nation-building process in Germany showedthe dominance of Prussian power.This placed a strong emphasison modernizing the currency,banking,legal,and judicial systems in Germany.Prussianmeasures and practices often became a modelforthe rest of Germany.
During the middle of thenineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, ofwhich only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italianprincely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs,the centre was ruled by the Pope,and the southern regions were under the dominationof the Bourbon kings of Spain.Even the Italian language had not acquired one commonform and still had many regional and local variations.During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini planned to put togethera programme to unite Italy.He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy tospread his goals and views. The failure of the revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and1848 meant the King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italianstates throughwar. ( ruler of Sardinia-Piedmont)in this region a unifiedItaly offered them the possibility of economic developmentandpolitical dominance.
Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement wasneither a revolutionary nor a democrat.he spokeFrench much better than he did Italian.The diplomatic alliance with France helpedSardinia-Piedmontsucceeded in defeating the Austrian forces in1859.Apart from regulartroops, a large number of armed volunteers underthe leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined thefray.In 1860- marched into South Italy and theKingdom of the Two Sicilians and succeeded inwinning the support of the local peasants in orderto drive out the Spanish rulersIn 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed kingof unitedItaly.
However, much of the Italian population, amongwhom rates of illiteracy were very high, remainedblissfully unaware of liberal nationalist ideology.The peasant masses who had supportedGaribaldi in southern Italy had never heard ofItalia, and believed that ‘La Talia’was Victor Emmanuel’s wife!