INTRODUCTION Transport, communication and trade play an important role in day to day life as they link production with consumption. Production itself becomes easy by transport, communication and trade as processing site is linked with the sites of raw material. Developed transport, communication and trade help goods and services being distributed in the local, national and international markets. They not only ensure movement of people, materials and communication but also movement of ideas, and skill from one region to another. So, the development of efficient transport and communication network reflects the development of economy and the country as a whole. These means are called lifelines of a nation‘s economy. In the modern world, no country can prosper without the co-operation and help of other countries . For this movement of goods and material is essential among the countries .Movement of goods and materials among the countries is termed as trade. Trade provides with our necessities and also add to our amenities and comforts. Transport, communication and trade are essential for economic integration, social interaction and defence of the country as well as other countries.
TRANSPORTRoadways: India has one of the largest road networks inthe world, aggregating to about 2.3 million kmat present.The growing importance ofroad transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rootedin the following reasons;construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines,roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulatingtopography,roadscan negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traversemountains such as the Himalayasroad transport is economical in transportation of few persons andrelatively smaller amount of goods over short distances,it also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading andunloading is much lower,road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transportsuch as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.
TRANSPORT NETWORK MEANS OF TRANSPORT LAND WATER AIR INLAND OVERSEAS DOMESTIC INTERNATIONALROADWAYS RAILWAYS PIPELINES WAYS WAYS AIRWAYS AIRWAYS PUBLIC PRIVATE UNDERTAKING AIRLINES
NETWORK OF ROADS IN INDIA - 33.2 lakh km.On the basis of nature & surfacing - 1.Metalled (pucca)- 57% 2. Unmetalled (kuchcha) -43% On the basis of construction & maintenance – (a.) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway : (i) NHDP Phase- I :- 5,846 km., six lane, CONNECTING-Delhi ,Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata (ii) NHDP Phase- II :- 7300 km. * NS Corridors – Srinagar to Kanyakumari * EW Corridors – Silchar(Assam) to Porbandar(Gujarat) (iii) Port connectivity and other projects - 1,157 km. (iv) NHDP Phase – III:- 4,015km., 4 lane ,-National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) is the implementing agency for NHDPprogramme.-NHAI is implement 4 laning of 603km. Special Accelerated Road DevelopmentProgramme in the North Eastern Region (SARDP-NE) ,
(b.) NATIONAL HIGHWAYS -- As on March 31,2006 - 65,569 km. 2% of the total length of the road network CPWD constructs and maintains National Highways. 35%-single lane, 53%-2lane & 12%-4 lane or more.(c.) STATE HIGHWAYS -- 1.28 lakh km. 97%of the length of state highway is metalled. The State Highways are constructed and maintained by State Government.(d.) DISTRICTS ROADS – 4,70,000 km. Districts authorities constructs and maintain the District Roads(e.) OTHER ROADS - mostly kuchcha roads, 26,50,000 km.(f.) BORDER ROADS - Border Road Development Board , World’s highest Roads from Manali (H.P.) to Leh of Ladakh (J&K)ROAD DENSITY - The lowest density – 10 km.per 100 sq.km in J.&K. The highest density – 375 km.per 100 sq.km. in Kerala The national average of road density – 75 km. per 100 sq. km.PROBLEMS FACED BY ROAD TRANSPORT – 1.Inadequate 2 .43% of road are unsurfaced. 3. Highly congested in cities & Bridges are narrow. 4.Roadside amenities are not sufficient &Emergencies services are poor.
In India, roads are classified in the followingsix classes according to their capacity. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
Do you know ??National Highway-7is the longest and traverses 2, 369 kmbetween Varanasi and Kanyakumarivia Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad,Bangalore and Madurai. Delhi andMumbai are connected by NationalHighway-8, while National Highway-15covers most of Rajasthan.
RAILWAYSIntroduced by British Govt. in 1853 - 34 km. between Mumbai to Thane Railway Network in India (As on March 31,2004) 1. Route Length : 63,221 km 2.Railway Station :7,031 3. Railway Engines :7,817 4. Coaches :36,510 5. Wagons :2,28,170 6. Running Track :1,07,969 km. 7. Electrified Track :17,500 km. 8. Zones :16
PROGRESS MADE BY INDIAN RAILWAYS SINCE INDEPENDENCE1. The total length of railway network as on March, 2002 was 63028 km. (i) Broad Gauge (1.67 metre) - 45622 km. (70%) (ii) Metre Gauge (1 metre) - 14364 km. (24.6%) (iii) Narrow Gauge(0.77 metre) - 3136 km. (5.36%) As on March, 1951 – 53596 km. - 18% increase2. Additional Lines on the already existing busy routes– total running track had increased from 59,315 km. to 1,07,969 km. in 2001.3. Electrification of route – By March,2006 the Indian railways had got 17500 km. of railway route electrified.(26% of total route) Purposes of Electrification –(i) relieves railways from steam engines. (ii) ensure more speedy movement. (iii) Clean and pollution free travel.4. Container Service - Provides door to door service for goods & commodities by CCI.5. Computerised reservation & more and more coaches and sleepers.6. METRO Railway - Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai & Chennai7. Super fast Trains -8. Biggest Government Department – 15.5 lakhs regular employees &2 lakhs casual.
PRESENT PROBLEMS OF INDIANRAILWAYSTravelling without tickets. Thefts of railway properties. Damaging railway properties. Pulling up of chains and stopping of trains. Attacks of terrorists. Bomb blasts. Throwing of passengers out of trains over trafficmatters
PIPELINES Pipelines have become a major means of transport and are used in transporting crude oil, petroleum product and natural gas from the oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertiliser factories and big thermal power generation plants.Major categories of pipeline transportation in India :-1. upper Assam Oil fields to Kanpur via Guwahati, Barauni andAllahabad2. Salaya (Gujarat) to Jalandhar (Punjab) via Viramgam,Mathura, Delhi and Panipat.3. Hazira (Gujarat) to Jagdishpur (U.P.) via Bijapur (M.P.) –thelongest pipeline in India -1700km.4. Mumbai HIGH with Mumbai – PunePROPOSED PIPELINES – (I) Between Kandla and Panipat (II) Between Kandla and Bina (III) Between Mumbai and Manmad (IV) Between Vishakhapatanam to Vijaiwada (V) between Mangalore to Chennai via Bangalore
waterwaysIndia has a large number of perennial rivers and a very longcoastline of 6100 km.Types of waterways:- (a.) Inland water transport (b) Ocean water transportNational Waterways :- 1.The Ganga river - Allahabad to Haldia - 1620 km. 2. The Brahmaputra river - Sadiya TO Dhubri - 891 km. 3. The West Coast Canal - Kollam to Kottapuram - 14 km. 4. The Champakara Canal – Kerala -13 km. 5. Udagmandalam Canal - Kerala -22 km.Major Sea Ports :- At the time of Independence - 5 sea ports Sea ports at West Coast Seaports at EastCoast 1. Kandla 1. Tuticorin 2. Mumbai 2. Chennai 3. Nhova Sheva (Jawahar Lal Nehru) 3. Ennore 4.Mormugao 4. Vishakhapatnam 5. Mangalore 5. Paradip 6. Kochi 6. Haldia
Airways•Air travel is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.•Civil Aviation Department of controls and supervises the activities of airlinesand gives guidelines for safe operations of the airlines.o AIR SERVICES :- 1. Air India - 26 Air Craft 2. Indian Airlines - 54 Air Craft 3. Pawan Hans Helicopters 4. Private Air Lines (Scheduled & Non-scheduled)-70oInternational Airports :- 14 1.Delhi 8.Kochi 2.Mumbai 9.Hyderabad 3.Chennai 10. Guwahati 4. Kolkata 11. Bangalore 5. Amritsar 12. Thiruvananthapuram 6. Ahmedabad 13. Srinagar 7. Panaji 14. PuneAirports are managed by Airports Authority of India.
The Role of Transport Network in thedevelopment of India 1. Lifelines of the Country- 2. Transportation- 3. Turning of local market into national market 4. Help in the development of economy 5. National integration of the country 6. Cultural integration
COMMUNICATION NETWORKCommunication is the process in whichmessages are sent from one place to another;people sitting thousands of km. away talk withone another and even watch one another.Various Means of communication- 1. Postal Services – 2. Print Media 3. Telecommunication- 4. Electronic Media - Radio & Television 5. Teleprinters and Cables
TradeThe exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referredto as trade.Trade between two countries is called international trade.Foreign Trade includes exports and imports. Export trade isthe trade in which a country supplies its surplus goods and commoditiesto other nations and earn valuable foreign exchange. Import trade isthe trade in which a country obtains these goods and commodities fromother countries in which it is deficient.Balance of Trade is the difference in the value of exportsand imports.Major items of India’s Exports - Agriculture and allied product,ores and minerals, gems and jewellery and chemical products,engineering goods.Major items of India’s Imports- Petroleum and petroleumproducts, pearls and precious stones, inorganic chemical, coke,machinery, fertilizers etc.Except 1972-73 and 1976-77, India’s trade balance has been adversesince independence.