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How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
How the iPad Can Save Accessibility
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How the iPad Can Save Accessibility

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Usability has come a long way since the dark days before "Designing with Web Standards". Now nearly all companies see the value of UX in their digital designs. But despite heightened focus on the user …

Usability has come a long way since the dark days before "Designing with Web Standards". Now nearly all companies see the value of UX in their digital designs. But despite heightened focus on the user and a growing awareness of accessibility concerns, implementation of accessibility standards have often fallen victim to time pressures and obsolete design practices. Disabled users struggle through sites missing alt tags, keyboard inputs or text alternatives.

Enter devices like the iPhone & Android … and the iPad. With the proliferation of non-desktop devices and browsers like tablets and gestural smartphones, suddenly more people are finding that the web isn't as nice and clean as they remembered: broken formatting, too small text, hover functionality that doesn’t work, and entire swaths of the web rendered as Flash-based wastelands that millions can’t access.

We've now discovered that by solving for many of the issues that iOS and other mobile users face, we can also solve for the most prevalent accessibility issues.

Through combinations of better markup, HTML5 and CSS3 functionality and better scripting, we can serve two masters at once. Better yet, in some cases, we can take advantage of the accessibility capabilities built into newer mobile devices to make the digital experience even better than they would get on the 'old web'.

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  • 1. How the iPad can save Accessibility Marty DeAngelo #iPada11y 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. Last year’s SxSW got methinking about howmobile could HELP thedisabled 3
  • 4. Accessibility is anunder-utilizedaspect of design 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Can’t access Flash contentContent presented without backupsSmall textSmall click areasHover/mouse required 6
  • 7. 17%Sources: American Federation for the Blind, Congressional Committee findings for ADA 7
  • 8. 17% 24M 2 HEARING ISSUES M DEAF 21 .5M 1.3M 120K VISION ISSUES LEGALLY BLIND TOTALLY BLIND 26M MOTOR SKIILS ISSUESSources: American Federation for the Blind, Congressional Committee findings for ADA 8
  • 9. What we have here is afailure to communicate 9
  • 10. Trying to Solvethe Problem Not that there weren’t many advocates out there… But despite all of the improvements in UX, accessibility continued to lag behind… 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. The Problem While everyone has some issues with the web, the disabled have some more significant ones. • Video without audio/textual backup • Audio without a visual/textual backup • Images sans textual backup • Content that can’t be accessed without a mouse It’s about ACCESS to the content being denied 12
  • 13. Issues Found by theDisabledIssue Vision Hearing Motor SkillsStructurally unsound markup/formatFlash-only contentImage-content without backupsVideo content without audio backupVideo/audio content without text backupContent with hover statesContent only accessed with a mouseSmall text sizesSmall click/link target sizesAuto-play video/audioLong content without ways to skipInsufficient contrast between text/backgroundInability to zoom text/pageLack of noticeable link text 13
  • 14. With mobile,the gap got wider 14
  • 15. “ Web accessibility is getting worse – there’s an increasing gap between ” innovation and accessibility. -- Jared Smith . Changing the Web Accessibility Game Plan, SxSW 2011 15
  • 16. Vision-Impaired Mobility-Impaired Usability Issues Hearing-Impaired Non-Disabled Web Issues How much do the following issues impact your use of the web? Mobile IssuesSource: Accessibility survey conducted on Wufoo 2012http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ 16
  • 17. The Issues 17
  • 18. Issues Found with EarlyMobile PhonesIssue Disabled Non-DisabledStructurally unsound markup/format  Formatting issues  Reliance on images for content  Small Text Size  Mouse-based events  Small click areas  Scripts unavailable  Flash unavailable  Slow/unreliable loading  Difficulty with long pages   18
  • 19. 19http://www.flickr.com/photos/odephoto/4446928898/lightbox/
  • 20. Source: AlltheMost.comhttp://www.allthemost.com/fastest-mobile-browser 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Issues Found by the DisabledIssue Vision Hearing Motor Skills MOBILEStructurally unsound markup/formatFlash-only contentImage-content without backupsVideo content without audio backupVideo/audio content without text backupContent with hover statesContent only accessed with a mouseSmall text sizesSmall click/link target sizesAuto-play video/audioLong content without ways to skipInsufficient contrast betweentext/backgroundInability to zoom text/pageLack of noticeable link text 24
  • 25. Even as the mobileweb got betteraccessibility lagged… 25
  • 26. Smartphone Issues Issue Disabled Non-Disabled Structurally unsound markup/format   Formatting issues   Reliance on images for content   Small Text Size   Mouse-based events   Small click areas   Scripts unavailable Flash unavailable   Slow/unreliable loading   Difficulty with long pages   Touchscreens provide no tactile input (eg keyboard)   26
  • 27. Mobile Issues =Disabled Issuesbut no one didanything 27
  • 28. “ Web accessibility is extremely important. If a website or information or app is not accessible it can make ” anyone feel disabled. .Source: Accessibility survey conducted on Wufoo 2012http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ 28
  • 29. • People’s expectations of the mobileweb were lower – partially based onprevious experience and partiallybecause the small screen wasn’toptimal for extensive web browsing.• Designers saw the iPhone (and earlyAndroid) as a size issue – that they justhad to fit the width of the screen. 29
  • 30. “…you can begin to make some simple changes that adapt your content to the iPhone. Finally, you may wish to make a version of Put Your Content in My Pocket, your site that Parts 1 & 2 by CRAIG HOCKENBERRY is targeted directly at the iPhone: a site fully optimized for the device.”• http://www.alistapart.com/articles/putyourcontentinmypocket• http://www.alistapart.com/articles/putyourcontentinmypocketpart2 30
  • 31. “Source: Christopher Schmidt - iPhone-specific Web Development Misguided (9-11-2007)http://christopherschmitt.com/2007/09/11/iphone-specific-web-development-misguided/ . ” 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. Tablet Issues Issue Disabled Non-Disabled Structurally unsound markup/format   Formatting issues   Reliance on images for content   Small Text Size   Mouse-based events   Small click areas   Scripts unavailable Flash unavailable   Slow/unreliable loading   Difficulty with long pages   Touchscreens provide no tactile input (eg keyboard)   33
  • 34. TheANGRY MOBILEUSERSeffect 34
  • 35. • People’s gradually improvingexperiences on the mobile web set thebar higher• The larger screen set expectations fora ‘normal’ web experience.• Mobile sites as a second-classexperience was no longeracceptable. 35
  • 36. And guess what?The fixes theymade helpedaccessibility 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. Impact on Accessibility Issue Status Formatting Issues Somewhat fixed Reliance on images for content Fixed Mouse-based events (not touch-friendly) Mostly fixed Small click areas Fixed Scripts unavailable Fixed Flash unavailable Somewhat fixed Slow/unreliable Mostly fixed Font size Mostly fixed Touch screens give no tactile response Limited fixes 38
  • 39. But there is still aways to go 39
  • 40. Do you experience issues with the Strongly Disagree Neutral Strongly Agreefollowing aspects of the mobile web? 1 2 3 4 5 Inaccessible Flash content Content not accessible Content without alternatives Controls not The more accessible things Broken page change… formats Text contrast issues Vision-Impaired Hearing-Impaired Site cant be Mobility-Impaired zoomed Non-Disabled Cant enlarge / zoom site text Small click areas Auto-play content Bad content hierarchy Site requires hover/ mouse events 40
  • 41. How can we fix it ? „ HTML 5 „ CSS 3 „ Mobile First „ Responsive Design „ Future developments 41
  • 42. HTML5 42Source (image): TheChive.com
  • 43. ••••• 43
  • 44. ••• 44
  • 45. <body><nav role=”navigation”> <ul role=”menubar”> <li role=”menuitem”><a href=”nav1.htm”>navigation item 1</li> ... <li role=”menuitem”><a href=”nav3.htm”>navigation item 5</li> </ul></nav><section id=”main” role=”section”> <h1>Page Title</h1> Donec lobortis, enim non blandit aliquet, velit enim rhoncus odio, nec mattis odio risus non sem. Donec faucibus odio et tortor semper lacinia. Nullam pretium neque. <h2>Section Title</h2> Sed turpis nulla, pharetra luctus vulputate eu, fringilla id arcu. Suspendisse ultrices, velit id varius fringilla, velit erat viverra enim, non sollicitudin mauris felis ac turpis. <aside class="illustration"> <img src="heart_tissue.png” alt=”heart tissue sample” title=”Example of diseased heart tissue” /> <caption="Figure1: Heart tissue displaying degradation of cardiac cell types” /> </aside> Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Praesent cursus venenatis metus ac volutpat. In sollicitudin condimentum justo, at egestas purus aliquet sit amet. Proin ut enim ac tortor sodales mattis ac in odio. Proin vitae gravida dui duis congue facilisis sollicitudin.</section></body> 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. <video controls> <source src="video.ogv" type=video/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis"> <source src="video.mp4" type=video/mp4; codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2"„> <source src="video.swf" type=flash; codecs="avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2"> <embed src="http://blip.tv/play/gcMVgcmBAgA%2Em4v" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="1024" height="798" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true"></embed> video not supported </video>Source (image): CamenDesign.comhttp://camendesign.com/code/video_for_everybody 47
  • 48. <audio controls><source src="audio.mp3" type=audio/mp4; codecs="avc1.42E01E,mp4a.40.5"><source src=“audio.ogg" type=„audio/ogg; codecs="theora, vorbis"„>audio not supported</audio> 48
  • 49. “ You can tell the browser to play the video or audio automatically, but you almost certainly shouldn’t, as many users (and particularly those using assistive technology, such as a screen reader) will . ” find it highly intrusive. Users on mobile devices probably won’t want you using their bandwidth without them explicitly asking for the video. …Providing controls is approximately 764 percent better than auto-playing your video.Source: HTML5 Audio and Video: What you Must Know (10/25/2010) - Bruce Lawson and Remy Sharphttp://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/html-css-techniques/html5-audio-and-video-what-you-must-know/ 49
  • 50. ••• 50
  • 51. Source: Opera synchronized captions demohttp://people.opera.com/brucel/demo/video/multilingual-synergy.html 51
  • 52. Source: Sorrowind Studioshttp://sorrowind.net/vilify/ 52
  • 53. “ .Source: Accessibility survey conducted on Wufoo 2012 ”http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ 53
  • 54. All images and text from “Star Wars” copyright Lucasfilm Ltd. 54
  • 55. I prefer native closed captioning over auto-translation (ex. YouTube) 4.2I often use closed-captioning provided by video services (like YouTube) 3.3 I would use closed-captioning if provided on my device 4.0 I prefer closed captioning over transcripts 4.2 I don’t use closed-captioning 2.5Source: Accessibility survey conducted on Wufoo 2012http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ 55
  • 56. Source: Basic HTML5, ARIA, and Screen Readers – Jason Kisshttp://www.accessibleculture.org/research-files/ozewai2011/basic-html5-aria-screenreaders-presentation.html 56
  • 57. ••• 57
  • 58. REFERENCE:http://www.paciellogroup.com/blog/2010/10/using-wai-aria-landmark-roles/ 58
  • 59. CSS3: Transitions,Tranforms &Animations (oh my) 59
  • 60. ••••••
  • 61. Transforms can be used manipulate shapes by rotating, scaling, skewing and translating (moving in x-y coordinates).Source (CSS Warp): http://csswarp.eleqtriq.com/Source (AT-AT): http://anthonycalzadilla.com/css3-ATAT/index.html 61
  • 62. Transitions can be used to change over timed period Color, Size,Opacity and styles (border-radius, drop-shadow, etc.).Source: Tutorialzinehttp://tympanus.net/TipsTricks/CSS3MenuHoverEffect/ 62
  • 63. Animations can create animated elements such as pulsing boxes. However, support is less than transforms or transitions.Source: Mozilla CSS DemoStudiohttps://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/demos/detail/css-tricks/launch 63
  • 64. 64
  • 65. AnimationsSource: Tutorialzinehttp://demo.tutorialzine.com/2009/12/colorful-clock-jquery-css/demo.html 65
  • 66. TypographySource (top):TrentWalton.com Source (bottom):PG Web Designhttp://trentwalton.com/bgclip/ http://pgwebdesign.net/blog/3d-css-shadow-text-tutorial 66
  • 67. But how do I knowwhat features workNOW? 67
  • 68. Tranforms Transitions Animations @Fontface Google Chrome FirefoxDesktop Internet Explorer (9 only) Opera Safari Safari /iOS (>4.1) Android 2.3 & Older Android 3.0+ (4.0+) Blackberry (6.0) (6.0) (6.0) (6.0+)Mobile Blackberry (Tablet) mixed Firefox Opera (Mini – (Mini – (Mini – partial) No) No) WebOS Internet Explorer 68
  • 69. CanIUse.comHTML5Please.com findmebyip.com/litmus/Mobilehtml5.org/ Quirksmode 69
  • 70. Rethink yourmobile strategy -accessibly 70
  • 71. As Luke Wroblewski says,“…designing for mobile first notonly prepares you for theexplosive growth and newopportunities on the mobileinternet, it forces you to focusand enables you to innovate inways you previously couldn’t.”– Mobile First 71
  • 72. • Determine the most importantinformation you need/want to convey.• Consider how users are going tointeract with your content.• Understand in what context users arelikely to visit and use your site andcontent. Many of the things that we’llconsider for our mobile users willimprove the experience fordisabled users. 72
  • 73. “…we need to practice responsiveweb design. We can embrace theflexibility inherent to the web,without surrendering the controlwe require as designers. All byembedding standards-basedtechnologies in our work, and bymaking a slight change in ourphilosophy toward online design.”– Ethan Marcotte, Responsive Web Design 73
  • 74. ••• More info: http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1509 74
  • 75. “Source: Responsive Design -- Peter Buihttp://magazine.joomla.org/issues/Issue-Nov-2011/item/594-Responsive-Design ” 75
  • 76. 76
  • 77. •••• 77
  • 78. Take advantage ofbetter accessibilityon the devicesthemselves 78
  • 79. “ . ” 79
  • 80. “Source: MobileFuture: Mobile Ability – The Transformational Impact of Wireless Innovation for People with Disabilitieshttp://www.mobilefuture.org/content/pages/mobile_ability/ ” 80
  • 81. 81
  • 82. 82
  • 83. 83
  • 84. Accessibility Options in iOS3Source: Ars Technicahttp://static.arstechnica.com/apple/accessbility-settings-iphone-4.jpg 84
  • 85. iOS Functions • VoiceOver • Zoom • Large Text • Speak Selection • Speak Auto-Text • Voice Activation (via Siri) • Vibration and badges Possibly the best suites of accessibility functions currently available on mobile. 85
  • 86. ••• 86
  • 87. • • • •Source: Crackberry.comhttp://crackberry.com/quick-tip-change-look-your-blackberry-using-accessibility-options 87
  • 88. Windows Phone has amongthe fewest options foraccessibility, limited to:••• 88
  • 89. Making sense of the Mobile AccessibilityText readingVoice over textSpoken auto-text(corrections, etc.)Voice activationVisual VoicemailZoom pageText contrast SomeFunctional buttons modelsPhysical keyboardAuditory responseTactile responseScreen Reader SupportWireless Braille DisplayAccessibility Apps 89
  • 90. “ .Source: Accessibility survey conducted on Wufoo 2012http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ ” 90
  • 91. “ .Source: Accessibility survey conducted on Wufoo 2012http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ 91
  • 92. Don’t count out the devices themselves - apps Apps that scan bar codes and read the price, compare it to nearby stores and even read nutritional information.Source: Disaboom.comhttp://www.disaboom.com/assistive-technology-general/smartphone-apps-provide-assistive-technology-for-disabled 92
  • 93. App Revolutionizes Touch-Screen Tablets For the Blind :: • Design Taxi: http://designtaxi.com/news/350936/App-Revolutionizes-Touch- Screen-Tablets-For-the-Blind/ • Stanford.edu: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2011/october/touchscreen- braille-writer-100711.html 93
  • 94. Apps have issues • • • • 94
  • 95. Web AppStandardization The ringmark system rates web standards compliance into 3 rings: • • • 95
  • 96. Source: Kindle – Amazon.com | Nook – BarnesandNoble.com 96
  • 97. 97
  • 98. Mobile Issues (eReaders) 1 2 3 Text reading Voice over text Text reading speed settings Larger text sizes (#) 6 8 8 8 6 6 8/5 5 Zoom page Text contrast Physical keyboard Tactile response Auditory response Screen reader support Wireless braille display Voice activation TtS only on Web only Notes eBooks for has 5 sizes Kindle 98
  • 99. “Source: Accessibility survey conducted on Wufoo 2012http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ . ” 99
  • 100. Conclusion 100
  • 101. Conclusion • • • • • • • 101
  • 102. THANK YOU How the iPad Can Save Accessibility http://www.slideshare.net/martytdx/how-the-ipad-can- save-accessibility Thanks to those who took my survey, and those who helped me promote it: Shawn Rhine Kalback, Robin Christopherson and Laura Mauldin http://martytdx.com/ux/2011/12/sxsw-accessibility-survey/ 102
  • 103. Image CreditsPage Source11 http://www.canadianblindsports.ca/eng/images/NationalsPictures048.jpg18 http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/media/2007/10/centro_blazer.jpg19 http://www.flickr.com/photos/odephoto/4446928898/20 http://www.allthemost.com/fastest-mobile-browser23 http://www.thechive.com30 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/putyourcontentinmypocket42 http://www.thechive.com47 http://camendesign.com/code/video_for_everybody50 http://people.opera.com/brucel/demo/video/multilingual-synergy.html51 http://sorrowind.net/vilify/58 http://www.accessibleculture.org/research-files/ozewai2011/images/html5AriaTestCase.png59 http://www.paciellogroup.com/blog/2010/10/using-wai-aria-landmark-roles/61 http://csswarp.eleqtriq.com/61 http://anthonycalzadilla.com/css3-ATAT/index.html62 http://tympanus.net/TipsTricks/CSS3MenuHoverEffect/63 https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/demos/detail/css-tricks/launch64 http://neography.com/experiment/circles/solarsystem/ 103
  • 104. Image CreditsPage Source65 http://demo.tutorialzine.com/2009/12/colorful-clock-jquery-css/demo.html66 http://trentwalton.com/bgclip/66 http://pgwebdesign.net/blog/3d-css-shadow-text-tutorial84 http://static.arstechnica.com/apple/accessbility-settings-iphone-4.jpg86 http://media1.android-apps.com/images/pname/c/com.pilot51.voicenotify/image1.png87 http://crackberry.com/quick-tip-change-look-your-blackberry-using-accessibility-options88 http://technomondo.com/2011/09/16/the-complete-guide-to-windows-8-metro-control-panel/92 http://www.disaboom.com/assistive-technology-general/smartphone-apps-provide-assistive- technology-for-disabled93 http://editorial.designtaxi.com/news-blindtabletapp0311/2.jpg 10195 http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-13970_7-57385707-78/facebook-aims-to-whip-the-mobile-web-into-shape/96 Kindle DX - http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B002GYWHSQ/ref=famstripe_kkdx96 Kindle Fire - http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0051VVOB2/ref=famstripe_kf96 Nook - http://www.barnesandnoble.com/p/nook-color-barnes-noble/110043766397 Pugilist - http://www.flashfictionfriday.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/pugilist.jpg97 Knockout - http://www.depositphotos.com 104

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