1.2. Learning objects The concept of “educational software” did not work (lockdown) Learning objects: re-usable and searchable digital objects (e.g. texts, images, video clips) with pedagogical purpose and metadata (title, type, description, language, target group, difficulty…), separated from the software video image metadata Information Objects (assets) Learning Pedagogical Object scenario Course
1.3. Learning Object Repositories Problems: teachers (re)create millions of digital learning resources every year, few can be found or accessed by other teachers Quantities go up, quality goes down Difficult to reuse without adaptation Solution: online databases for Learning Objects, standardisation of Learning objects, recommender systems Examples: www.koolielu.ee, lre.eun.org, scientix.eu, merlot.org
1.4. Legal aspects: intellectual property Technology makes it easy to steal content Textbook publishers are protecting their content Teachers are afraid to share their content Black & white approach: copyright vs copyleft In the middle: some rights reserved Creative Commons license: BY: attribution SA: share-alike NC: non-commercial ND: no derivates
1.5. Open Educational Resources Ideological movement: David Wiley, George Siemens, Stephen Downes, Graham Attwell Intiatives: MIT OpenCourseware: ocw.mit.edu iTunesU: itunes.du.se Khan Academy: www.khanacademy.org Wikimedia Commons: commons.wikimedia.org LeMill.net: authoring tool, repository and teachers’ community
1.6. Content: conclusions Towards the school of tomorrow, school without textbooks? Learning resource as an output of learning process, not as an input?
2.1. Open & Flexible Learning1880 Correspondence studies Mail1920 Distance education Radio1960 Open Universities Programmed learning Learning from Audio & computers1970 video Computer-Based Learning tapes Learning with Computer-Assisted Learning1980 computers1990 Tele--learning Video/audio- Learning with CSCL conference other people2000 E-learning Managing online courses2010 E-learning 2.0 Learning with Social Media
2.2. CSCL: Content is not important Project-Based Learning: www.espnet.eu European Schoolnet’s eTwinning: www.etwinning.net Simulation games, e.g. ICONS: www.icons.umd.edu Simulation games in Estonia: math.ut.ee/simud
2.3. Informal learning with ICT Communities of practice (J.Lave & E.Wenger): situated learning, learning as cultural immersion to a specific community, legitimate peripheral participation (AA, researchers) Connectivism (G.Siemens): learning is making connections between nodes (information, data, feelings, images, persons); learning may reside in non-human appliances Distributed cognition (E.Hutchins): social distribution, internal- external distribution, temporal distribution
2.4. Open courses Wikiversity.org: Wiki-university MOOC: Massive Open Online Courses, see change.mooc.ca Agora courses in Tallinn University: anyone can join
2.5. Outcome-based education Accreditation of prior learning and experience Competencies: measurable learning outcomes Acknowledging informal learning Revival of apprenticeship learning Three metaphors of learning: acquisition, participation, knowledge creation
2.6. Practices: conclusions Towards convergence of on-distance and on- campus learning? Towards convergence of informal and formal learning? Balancing learning and knowledge building, learning in “belief mode” and in “design mode”?
3.1. Digital Learning Environments The first generation of educational software: content-driven, vendor-lock, platform-lock Early online environments: projections of traditional classroom Learning Management System (e.g. Moodle, Fronter, Blackboard, ITSlearning): effective, hierarchical and closed environment LMS as panopticon
3.2. Open Learning Environments 3D-worlds: Second Life, OpenSim E-portfolio: collection of evidences of one’s competence PLE: Personal Learning Environment (e.g. blog): lepress.net/martlaanpere, edufeedr.net Outdoor Learning Environment: mobile learning (Environmental Detectives with GPS, smartphones, RFID, QR)
3.3. Learning Environments: conclusions Towards digital learning ecosystems? Highly personal learning environments, but integrated into various social platforms? Tablet computers will change everything: from the architecture of schools to learning environments, educational practices and resources?