Planning the teaching: didactical view• Herbart’s (1776-1841) 4-phase spiral model of planning the instruction: – Overview: Presentation of new material – Assimilation: Comparison of material with what is already known – Systematization: Integration of old and new into a unified whole – Application: Application of new systematic insight to a concrete example
Herbart’s maxims• Foundation of Teaching Is Psychology . "There is only one correct method for education: its foundation is psychology.”• Information Is Not Learning . "Mere information does not suffice.”• Learning Should Be Enjoyable . "To be wearisome is the cardinal sin of instruction.”• Theory and Practice . "In education, theory and practice go hand in hand.”• Sequencing and Linking Are Keys to Creative Design . "Sequencing, arrangement, and coordination of what is to be learned—these create the real impact in the instructional process."
R.Gagne (1916-2002)• Internal and external conditions of learning• Nine events of instruction: – Gain attention – Inform learners of objectives – Stimulate recall of prior learning – Present the content – Provide “learning guidance” – Elicit performance (practice). – Provide feedback – Assess performance – Enhance retention and transfer to the job
Instructional design• Instructional design (ID): – The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of learning materials. Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.• Instructional systems design (ISD): – a means for sound decision making in order to determine the who, what, when, where, why, and how of a learning program, based on systemic view of the teaching and learning process.
Brief history of ID• 1940: military training materials, assessment• 1946: instructional media (Dale’s cone)• 1958: programmed instruction (Skinner)• 1960: standardised testing (Bloom’s taxonomy)• 1965: hierarchical analysis (Gagne)• 1970: ISD in military and corporate training• 1990: constructivist movement, paradigm war• 2005: Learning Design
ADDIE model• A – analysis of needs, requirements etc• D – Design of instructional process• D – Development of learning resources• I – Implementation of planned instruction• E – Evaluation