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E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG
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E-õpe ja õppimisteooriad ENG

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  • 1. How the theories of learning can improve the design of e-courses Mart Laanpere ( [email_address] ) Centre for Eduational Technology (www.htk.tlu.ee) Tallinn University (www.tlu.ee)
  • 2. Table of contents <ul><li>Definition of e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Future scenarios of schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need ICT in school? </li></ul><ul><li>The “new literacy” in the past and in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative approaches to “good teaching” </li></ul><ul><li>Short overview of learning theories </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-based, active and inquiry e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>How learning theories can inform the instructional design of e-courses </li></ul><ul><li>How to evaluate e-courses </li></ul>
  • 3. What is e-learning? <ul><li>The term “E-learning” was coined 1998 by Jay Cross, as a metaphor (e-mail, e-commerce) </li></ul><ul><li>Elearningeuropa.info defines e-learning as: “ using new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to facilities and services as well as remote exchanges and collaboration ” </li></ul><ul><li>Genealogy of the concept “e-learning”: CBT + DE NB! E-learning is not CBT, neither DE </li></ul><ul><li>Technology-driven reality: most of the e-courses use ineffective, outdated didactical strategies </li></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 4. Future scenarios of schooling <ul><li>OECD 2001: 6 scenarios for the future of schooling: </li></ul><ul><li>Status quo extrapolated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust bureaucratic school systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extending the market model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Re-schooling scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools as core social centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools as focused learning organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De-schooling scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner networks in the network society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meltdown scenario: teacher exodus </li></ul></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 5. Why do we need ICT in school? <ul><li>Hawkridge draws 6 groups of reasoning: </li></ul><ul><li>Economy (cheaper teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies (everybody needs ICT skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial strategy (industry needs IT workers) </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy (new teaching methods) </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in network society </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>We could add one: ICT helps to raise teacher professionalism (communities of practice) </li></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 6. Literacy in the past and in the future <ul><li>Media revolutions in education: </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-visual media </li></ul><ul><li>Programming as “the second literacy” </li></ul><ul><li>Computer literacy today: desktop publishing, communication (e-mail, IM), information skills </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean for the teacher’s skills: from three R-s to three C-s </li></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 7. Jonassen’s 3C model Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva Context Collaboration Construction KNOWLEDGE Modeling process Authentic tasks Apprenticeship Situated learning Case-based problems Multiple perspectives Indexed meanings Coaching Social negotiation of meaning Articulation Reflection Mental models Intentions, expectations Internal negotiation Domain-specific reasoning Invention, exploration
  • 8. What is “Good teaching”? <ul><li>Pratt: five perspectives to “good teaching” </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission: pass the knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental: master the problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship: pass the way of being </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing: towards self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Social reform: change the world </li></ul><ul><li>Proverbs in education reflect different perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives should not be ranked objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives = implicit theories of learning </li></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 9. Overview of learning theories <ul><li>Behaviorist : learning is observable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner, Bloom, Gagne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning (Skinner): Stimulus-Response-Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitivist : learning as cognitive processing of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget, Ausubel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic epistemology: assimilation and accommodation, stages of cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructivist : constructed and socially negotiated meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vygotski, Jonassen, Lave, Wenger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 10. Some examples <ul><li>Problem-based e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning with computers </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative inquiry learning via Internet </li></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 11. How can theory improve practice? <ul><li>Make your implicit theories explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Help to exchange the best practice </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for designing e-courses </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for evaluating courses: quality assurance </li></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 12. Evaluation of e-courses <ul><li>Objects of evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and objectives, learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Content, learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy (strategy and tactics) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning tasks and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment methods and instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Communication, feedback, management </li></ul>Mart Laanpere, Tallinn University, http://www.htk.tlu.ee/iva
  • 13. Questions? <ul><li>Thanks to Hans Põldoja for the presentation template! </li></ul>

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