1
Digital art and Design Practice and its relation to research
methods and rationales
Practice-based Research
Professor Ma...
2
Practice-based Research : Definitions
UKCGE paper on Practice-based Doctorates in the Creative
and Performing Arts
The d...
3
Practice-based Research : Definitions
Research has ‘no lone scholars’ or ‘lone scholarships’-
it connects minds
Q What k...
4
Practice-based Research : Definitions
Research is a systematic enquiry whose goal is
communicable knowledge:
Systematic ...
5
Practice-based Research : Definitions
Types of Research through Art & Design
1 Materials research
2 Developmental work i...
6
"So, what's the difference between ’Fine Art research
methods' and ’Design Methods'?"
There are perhaps more established...
7
If MPhil/Ph.D. research produces 'poor art' (whatever the definition), is
that a problem? After all, many scientific res...
8
Whilst I would argue that PhDs form a rare and valuable arena for an
artist's 'right to fail' (as long as knowledge is g...
9
The principal feature of such research is not the employment of
a particular method but the desire or requirement to cre...
10
It is sufficient to show that the context affects our reading of 'the
work' in order to demonstrate that 'works' alone ...
11
Furthermore, we are aware that the interpretation of words and of
works of literature, changes over time owing to chang...
12
Ross Gibson’s view is 'the text is not an explanation of the
artwork; rather, the text is an explicit, word-specific
re...
13
Steve Scrivener’s view: ‘The art object does not embody a form of
knowledge’
Art is not a form of knowledge communicati...
14
Practice-based Research : Definitions
Gateway Questions to Doctoral research
Q Is the projected programme of study of i...
15
Practice-based Research : Definitions
Practice-based projects are those which include as an integral
part the productio...
16
Practice-based Research is an original investigation undertaken in
order to gain new knowledge partly by means of pract...
17
Practice-led Research is concerned with the nature of practice and
leads to new knowledge that has operational signific...
18
It is important to make a clear distinction between practice-based
research and pure practice. Many practitioners would...
19
Another important distinction between personal practitioner
research and practice-based research is the form that the k...
20
Practice-based Research : Definitions
Practice-Based and Practice-Led Research
Although practice-based research has bec...
21
Practice-based Research :Definitions
Practice-Based Research
Practice-based Research is an original investigation under...
22
Practice-based Research :Definitions
Practice-based doctoral submissions must include a substantial
contextualisation o...
23
Practice-based Research :Definitions
Practice-Led Research
Practice-led Research is concerned with the nature of practi...
24
Practice-based Research :Definitions
Studio Practice as research
The thing emerges within what is present, both physica...
25
Practice-based Research :Structure
Key elements of a Research document:
1 The Problem
This is a concise statement of th...
26
Practice-based Research :Structure
SECTIONS:
1 State of the Art Review
This presents the results of a literature survey...
27
Practice-based Research :Structure
The task of methodology courses should be to provide the researcher
with tools for t...
28
Practice-based Research :Structure
3 New Studies
The core of the documentation is a description of the new
studies/soft...
29
Practice-based Research :Structure
5 Conclusions
A discussion can now be provided that puts a wider perspective on the ...
30
Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving
led by individuals working with others in teams ...
31
Practice-based Research : Action
Action research is problem centered, and action oriented. It involves the
system in a ...
32
Practice-based Research : Action
Figure summarizes the steps and processes involved in planned change
through action re...
33
Practice-based Research : Action
The second stage of action research is the action, or transformation, phase.
This stag...
34
Practice-based Research : Action
The action-research model shown in the Figure closely follows Lewin's
repetitive cycle...
35
Interactive Art and Research Practice
Studying art is recognised as a historical or critical scholarly activity
rather ...
36
Interactive Art and Research Practice
The evaluation of an emerging interactive artwork or system is
analogous with the...
37
Hosts 2005
Hosts is a reflection on human life and death, presence and
absence. The "hosts" may be taken to represent a...
38
Hosts 2005
Technology
Made in conjunction with the Wearable Computing Group at Bristol
University. The project utilised...
39
Martin Rieser: Hosts 2006
Sponsors:
AHRC,
Bath University ,
Roper Rhodes
Bath Film Festival ,
ACE
40
Hosts 2005/6
Project Outline Description
1 Situated: Bath Abbey
Site specific: Bath Film Festival
Pilot July 05/Install...
41
Hosts 2005/6
Jacob’s Ladder
On the last wall of the installation is a single
vertical screen on which we see two ladder...
42
Hosts Overview
Projector
Layout 2
43
Hosts Technology
Technology
The project utilised an
ultrasound detection
system developed by
the Wearables Group
at Bri...
44
Technology
Ultrasound “chirper”
badges
Hosts Technology
45
Hosts Technology
Technology
The project use
ultra sound devices
developed by
Bristol University’s
Wearables group
to tr...
46
Hosts Situated
North Side of Nave
47
Hosts Outcomes
Papers
Intelligent Environments 2008
ISEA 2009
Presentations:
Imperial College
MUM Cambridge
Uniiversity...
48
SONGLINE
S
Professor Martin Rieser
Institute of Creative
Technologies
Cycling and social collaboration
49
Songlines
The Use of Locative Media for
Interactive Cycle Mapping
Martin Rieser
Professor
IOCT/ De Montfort University
50
Songlines
Songlines is a project undertaken in collaboration with
the DMU Transport Committee and Leicester City
Counci...
51
Songlines
Aims
The project aimed to encourage public collaboration in mapping safe
urban cycle routes, using local know...
52
Songlines
Research
Andrew Salkeld, Leicester City Council Cycling officer supported the
project and was instrumental in...
53
CO2 Reduction
Cycling and walking in urban centres in Britain is at a far lower level than
in comparable countries acro...
54
Songlines
The heavy traffic in urban centres is only part of the story. The efforts of
local authorities to engage comm...
55
Songlines
Innovation
The project is innovative in its use of digital folksonomies and wikis in
the creation of database...
56
Songlines
Research
Y Tian a PhD student from Computer Science has worked closely with
me to develop a mobile interface ...
57
Mapping Leicester
A new collaborative
mapping technology
from Empedia with
Open source software
for adaptation
The orig...
58
Songlines
Mainnav GPS
recorder
59
Phoenix Square: Large scale Songlines projections
The proposal for the opening of Phoenix Square was an external projec...
60
IOCT De Montfort
University
Phoenix Square
61
Phoenix Square
62
Phoenix Square
Six video loops of journeys
projected above entrance on baffles
63
Phoenix Square
64
Phoenix Square
“Palimsest” Street portrait projections related to
journeys
65
Phoenix Square Opening
Public Images recorded on journeys around city centre
66
Phoenix Square Opening
Public Images recorded on journeys around city centre layered for projection sequences
67
Phoenix Square: Pani 12
68
Phoenix Square: Launch Images
69
Phoenix Square: Opening
70
Postcard for Stall at Summer Sundae
71
How can you help?
Borrow a device
Map your journeys
Upload photos
Add Comments
Suggest Artwork ideas
Spread the word
72
Riverains tests: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
73
Riverains: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
74
Riverains: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
75
Riverains: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
76
Riverains: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
77
Riverains: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
78
Riverains: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
79
Riverains: London
Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
80
Riverains: London
Riverains adaptation for Layar by Gareth Howell
81
Riverains: London
Riverains adaptation for Layar by Gareth Howell
82
Research documentation
http://www.pervasive.org.uk/projects/songlines
mrieser@dmu.ac.uk
83
Website
84
Q What is the role of the artefact in reporting the results?
Practice-based Research :Questions 1
85
Example:
Q What is the role of the artefact in reporting the results?
A The artefact is not an explanation in itself:
I...
86
Q Can artefacts present arguments?
A?
Q Is experiential knowledge precluded from documentation?
A?
Q Does textual justi...
87
Q What is the relationship of a systematic enquiry to
creativity and serendipity?
A?
Q Does a contribution to knowledge...
88
Q How to define Originality or ‘original contribution to knowledge’:
A?
Q In practice as research, are you expanding th...
89
Q How does practice generate research outcomes?
A?
Q What is the role of serendipity in a "systematic" enquiry?
A?
Q Ho...
90
Links
www.martinrieser.com
www.mobileaudience.blogspot.com
Mobile Audience
Personal website
Action Research
http://www....
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Practice based research

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MA/MSC lecture for IOCT at De Montfort University by Professor Martin Rieser

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  • The convergence of mobile technologies and pervasive computing methods are creating a world where information-rich layers can be mapped directly onto urban topologies.The blurring of the boundaries between physical and virtual demands a new theory-base to explain our changing concepts of the “real”, and, with the growth of hybrid environments, the concomitant changes in sociability and communication patterns.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • We appear to need a redefinition of the concept of physical space (including hybrid environments), since through such technologies a new perception of urban space is emerging which is not visual, but conceptual.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • This paper will examine and critically align a number of projects using mobile and pervasive technologies which have challenged the design and delivery of mobile services from around the world, as documented on the author’s weblog and forthcoming book Mobile Audience. These will be presented together with examples from the Artist’s own research and practice, including Riverains, an exploration of underground Manchester through mobile technology, commissioned by the b.tween Festival; Vienna Underground: an experiment in multi-linear film narrative and performance for mobiles, reinventing the Third Man for the 21st Century,
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • Marketing of the idea and game will be heavily dependent on web presence through U-Tube, social media sites, Google Map links and virals
  • In the face of new enclosures of public electronic space, through surveillance and border control, biometrics and consumer tracking technologies, as Crandell puts it :
     
    The challenge is not only to endeavor to understand this operational construct, but to understand the forms of opposition to it that are emerging in the globalized world. For the operational is only one "window" onto reality. There are other orientations that counter it, and for which, by its very nature, it is unable to account. It is powerless to envision terms of engagement that do not operate according to its logics. It can only assign them to the realm of the barbaric or irrational: that which lies outside of its license on reason.
    Ibid CTheory
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Analysing and redefining the emergent visual and auditory languages required to enable the realisation of effective interactive narrative and art forms in urban and site-specific environments is a huge challenge. But only through such an understanding of the new and radical forms of experiment, can we attempt to map changes in sociability and communication patterns and new forms of collaboration.
  • Practice based research

    1. 1. 1 Digital art and Design Practice and its relation to research methods and rationales Practice-based Research Professor Martin Rieser, IOCT/ De Montfort University, UK
    2. 2. 2 Practice-based Research : Definitions UKCGE paper on Practice-based Doctorates in the Creative and Performing Arts The demonstration of certain competencies: a. undertake a systematic enquiry b. apply methods appropriate to the subject c. a grasp of context d. documentation and communication in a permanent form e. sustained and contextualised logical argument f. justification of actions in relation to process and product g. valid and original work of high quality
    3. 3. 3 Practice-based Research : Definitions Research has ‘no lone scholars’ or ‘lone scholarships’- it connects minds Q What kinds of Research are there? 1. Re-creating lost knowledge 1. Knowledge production 2. Enhancing understanding –challenging knowledge 3. Building intellectual infrastructure (Prof Bruce Brown, Brighton)
    4. 4. 4 Practice-based Research : Definitions Research is a systematic enquiry whose goal is communicable knowledge: Systematic because it is pursued according to some plan An enquiry because it seeks to find answers to questions Goal-directed because the objects of the enquiry are posed by task description (Prof Bruce Archer)
    5. 5. 5 Practice-based Research : Definitions Types of Research through Art & Design 1 Materials research 2 Developmental work i.e. customising a piece of technology 3 Action Research i.e. where (for example) a diary tells, step by step, of a practical experiment in the studios, and the report aims to contextualise it 4 Where the end product is an artefact- where thinking is embodied in the artefact, where the goal may not be communicable knowledge as in verbal communication, but in the sense of visual or iconic or imaginative communication (Christopher Frayling)
    6. 6. 6 "So, what's the difference between ’Fine Art research methods' and ’Design Methods'?" There are perhaps more established materials on design methods, and certainly more periodicals dealing with design. Are the brainstorm/prototype/improvisation/feedback methods of design really that different from fine art production? Is the difference that whilst designers are obliged to work in response to feedback on usability, market research likes etc., artists rarely seek this information, or can choose to work contrary to it? (Beryl Graham) http://seacoast.sunderland.ac.uk/~as0bgr/learnco99.html#nov/dec Practice-based Research :Views
    7. 7. 7 If MPhil/Ph.D. research produces 'poor art' (whatever the definition), is that a problem? After all, many scientific research projects end with the conclusion that the original hypothesis was incorrect. Unlike MA level art education, which involves a 'quality' judgment on finished artwork for 'success', with PhDs it is theoretically possible to produce truly terrible, 'unsuccessful' artworks, which form a most excellent piece of research (and may be more successful at communicating knowledge to other artists than the most perfect finished products). (Beryl Graham)1 Practice-based Research :Views
    8. 8. 8 Whilst I would argue that PhDs form a rare and valuable arena for an artist's 'right to fail' (as long as knowledge is gained from failure), I would also argue for artists to consciously struggle against a certain tendency of 'research artworks' to be, well, a little dull. Dullness is not stipulated in academic regulations, it is optional. By putting practice first, that relationship between form and content is necessarily foregrounded, even if not formally theorised. By pushing the boundaries of the representation of visual knowledge, excitement is maintained. (Beryl Graham) 2 http://seacoast.sunderland.ac.uk/~as0bgr/learnco99.html#nov/dec Practice-based Research :Views
    9. 9. 9 The principal feature of such research is not the employment of a particular method but the desire or requirement to create 'works' (i.e. designed artefacts, art objects or performances) and to present them as part of the 'answer'. In this way, art and design research is different from many other disciplines because it does not simply use objects as evidence which is later reported on, but attempts to present these objects as part of, or all of, an argument for interpretation by the viewer. This implies the notion that 'the work' can embody the answer to the research question and this is one of the problematics. Biggs, M. (2003). The Role of "the Work" in Research. PARIP, University of Bristol, UK. Practice-based Research :Views
    10. 10. 10 It is sufficient to show that the context affects our reading of 'the work' in order to demonstrate that 'works' alone cannot embody knowledge. This situation is comparable to the meaning of individual words. Although most of us have been taught that one way to approach an essay question is to seek the dictionary definitions of key terms in the question, we are also familiar with the feelings of dissatisfaction that arise from these isolated definitions. Words have meanings in the context of sentences, alongside other words, and in social contexts in which utterances are accompanied by actions. So it is that individual objects and performances devoid of context become more-or-less devoid of meaning. Likewise, as they become contextualised they become more-or-less meaningful. Biggs, M. (2003). The Role of "the Work" in Research. PARIP, University of Bristol, UK. Practice-based Research :Views What is the function of a text/thesis in a practice-based submission?
    11. 11. 11 Furthermore, we are aware that the interpretation of words and of works of literature, changes over time owing to changes in the intertextual context. For example, in 1920 James Joyce's Ulysses was denounced as 'obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting' by the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice By 1941 it was hailed by Levin as 'a novel to end all novels' (Joyce 1993: xli & ix). This shows that words or texts do not have single unalterable meanings any more than do 'works'. Biggs, M. (2003). The Role of "the Work" in Research. PARIP, University of Bristol, UK. Practice-based Research :Views
    12. 12. 12 Ross Gibson’s view is 'the text is not an explanation of the artwork; rather, the text is an explicit, word-specific representation of processes that occur during the iterative art-making routine, processes of gradual, cyclical speculation, realisation or revelation leading to momentary, contingent degrees of understanding. To this extent the text that one produces is a kind of narrative about the flux of perception-cognition-intuition. The text accounts for the iterative process that carries on until the artist decrees that the artwork is complete and available for critique, 'appreciation', interpretation, description, evaluation. All these particular practices can entail other particular texts.' Practice-based Research : Views
    13. 13. 13 Steve Scrivener’s view: ‘The art object does not embody a form of knowledge’ Art is not a form of knowledge communication Art is not a servant of knowledge acquisition Art making creates apprehensions Art research creates novel apprehensions http://www.herts.ac.uk/artdes/research/papers/wpades/vol2/scrivener.html Practice-based Research : Views
    14. 14. 14 Practice-based Research : Definitions Gateway Questions to Doctoral research Q Is the projected programme of study of intrinsic research interest; as opposed to a period for further personal creative development? Q Does the proposal indicate a strong and necessary link between practical and theoretical consideration? Q Is the Methodology an organised way of proceeding with research, with regard to data collection and analyses?
    15. 15. 15 Practice-based Research : Definitions Practice-based projects are those which include as an integral part the production of an original artefact in addition to, or perhaps instead of, the production of a written thesis. They are naturally of great interest to practising artists and designers, but they are not confined to these disciplines. One may find examples in music, in software design, in engineering, in law; in fact in any subject where the result might be an artefact generated in the laboratory or workplace.
    16. 16. 16 Practice-based Research is an original investigation undertaken in order to gain new knowledge partly by means of practice and the outcomes of that practice. In a doctoral thesis, claims of originality and contribution to knowledge may be demonstrated through creative outcomes in the form of designs, music, digital media, performances and exhibitions. Whilst the significance and context of the claims are described in words, a full understanding can only be obtained with direct reference to the outcomes. (Linda Candy) Practice-based Research : Definitions
    17. 17. 17 Practice-led Research is concerned with the nature of practice and leads to new knowledge that has operational significance for that practice. In a doctoral thesis, the results of practice led research may be fully described in text form without the inclusion of a creative work. The primary focus of the research is to advance knowledge about practice, or to advance knowledge within practice. Such research includes practice as an integral part of its method and often falls within the general area of action research. (Linda Candy) Practice-based Research : Definitions
    18. 18. 18 It is important to make a clear distinction between practice-based research and pure practice. Many practitioners would say they do ‘research’ as a necessary part of their everyday practice. As the published records of the creative practitioners demonstrate, searching for new understandings and seeking out new techniques for realising ideas is a substantial part of everyday practice. However, this kind of research is, for the most part, directed towards the individual’s particular goals of the time rather than seeking to add to our shared store of knowledge in a more general sense. Stephen Scrivener argues that the critical difference is that practice- based research aims to generate culturally novel apprehensions that are not just novel to the creator or individual observers of an artefact; and it is this that distinguishes the researcher from the practitioner (Scrivener, 2002). Practice-based Research : Definitions
    19. 19. 19 Another important distinction between personal practitioner research and practice-based research is the form that the knowledge generated takes. The practice-based doctoral research outcome that is shared with a wider community arises from a structured process that is defined in university examination regulations. In order to achieve advances in knowledge of the kind referred to above, the everyday research process common to professional practice has to be defined and executed in a manner that is commonly agreed. The research component of the practice-based research is, in most respects, similar to any definition of research, a key element of which is the transferability of the understandings reached as a result of the research process. In the UK, the Arts and Humanities Research Board (now Council) (AHRB, 2000) defined research primarily in terms of research processes rather than outputs (Linda Candy) Practice-based Research : Definitions
    20. 20. 20 Practice-based Research : Definitions Practice-Based and Practice-Led Research Although practice-based research has become widespread, it has yet to be characterised in a way that has become agreed across the various fields of research where it is in use. To complicate matters further, the terms ‘practice-based’ and ‘practice-led’ are often used interchangeably. In reality, there are two main types of research that have a central practice element and that distinction is summarised here as follows: If a creative artefact is the basis of the contribution to knowledge, the research is practice-based. If the research leads primarily to new understandings about practice, it is practice-led. (Linda Candy)
    21. 21. 21 Practice-based Research :Definitions Practice-Based Research Practice-based Research is an original investigation undertaken in order to gain new knowledge partly by means of practice and the outcomes of that practice. Claims of originality and contribution to knowledge may be demonstrated through creative outcomes which may include artefacts such as images, music, designs, models, digital media or other outcomes such as performances and exhibitions. Whilst the significance and context of the claims are described in words, a full understanding can only be obtained with direct reference to those outcomes. A practice-based PhD is distinguishable from a conventional PhD because creative outcomes from the research process may be included in the submission for examination and the claim for an original contribution to the field are held to be demonstrated through the original creative work. (Linda Candy)
    22. 22. 22 Practice-based Research :Definitions Practice-based doctoral submissions must include a substantial contextualisation of the creative work. This critical appraisal or analysis not only clarifies the basis of the claim for the originality and location of the original work, it also provides the basis for a judgement, as to whether general scholarly requirements are met. This could be defined as judgement of the submission as a contribution to knowledge in the field, showing doctoral level powers of analysis and mastery of existing contextual knowledge, in a form that is accessible to and auditable by knowledgeable peers. (Linda Candy)
    23. 23. 23 Practice-based Research :Definitions Practice-Led Research Practice-led Research is concerned with the nature of practice and leads to new knowledge that has operational significance for that practice. The main focus of the research is to advance knowledge about practice, or to advance knowledge within practice. In a doctoral thesis, the results of practice-led research may be fully described in text form without the inclusion of a creative outcome. The primary focus of the research is to advance knowledge about practice, or to advance knowledge within practice. Such research includes practice as an integral part of its method and often falls within the general area of action research. The doctoral theses that emerge from this type of practice related research are not the same as those that include artefacts and works as part of the submission. (Linda Candy)
    24. 24. 24 Practice-based Research :Definitions Studio Practice as research The thing emerges within what is present, both physically and in an immanent sense. The work does not merely emerge in the world, it simultaneously emerges in the practitioner who may see that which has been dimly felt as the work, may see clearly what they have been feeling, only at that point where it “feels right”, only as it emerges as a physical form. The making process can be a search. A very careful search. And it can reveal unexpected things, more or other than was searched for. However not all studio based making in the arts is such a search. Where a practice has become ritualised, repetitive, or safe — keeping to safe paths and well established territory — or is formulaic or batch production, it is not a careful search or research. (Linden Reilly: An alternative model of "knowledge" for the arts)
    25. 25. 25 Practice-based Research :Structure Key elements of a Research document: 1 The Problem This is a concise statement of the research question or issue that the thesis addresses. 2 The Context What is the main work that has been done that gives rise to the question and what is its significance? 3 The Method The approach to solving the problem (experimental, practice based, analytic) 4 The Outcomes Here the key contribution(s) to knowledge are concisely described. They are the things that arise from the work that are new and shown to advance understanding or practice internationally. The value of these outcomes will be to one or more community (computer scientists, artists, theoreticians etc)
    26. 26. 26 Practice-based Research :Structure SECTIONS: 1 State of the Art Review This presents the results of a literature survey of the area(s) of study. It should be a critical review in the context of the stated research question and related issues. It answers questions such as: Who is doing what? Who has done what? Who first did it or published it? The survey is taken from published papers, research monographs, catalogues etc. It must be based on and refer to primary sources, not textbooks or other such reports on the work of others. It is to be expected that this section provides a new structured view of the field of study. 2 Methodology This is a key section that provides a description and justification of the research methods used. Normally, the methods will be selected from known and proven examples. In special cases the development of a method may be a key part of the research, but then this will have been described in section one and reviewed in two.
    27. 27. 27 Practice-based Research :Structure The task of methodology courses should be to provide the researcher with tools for the analysis of the relationship of context, question, answer and audience, so that a method may be tested for its appropriateness. It is the task of methodology: the study of methods, to provide a decision-making strategy for the researcher to answer the question: not "which method shall I use?" but "how shall we determine which method is appropriate?"
    28. 28. 28 Practice-based Research :Structure 3 New Studies The core of the documentation is a description of the new studies/software/artwork and the process of production. It answers the questions: What has been done, how was it achieved and what was the rationale? This can be, for example, a report on the design and execution of a set of experiments or the development of an innovative software system or the making of innovative art works. In a practice based research an artwork, for example, might be presented for examination. If so, this section will illuminate it by explaining, at the very least, what is important and novel 4 Results The evaluation of the new software/artwork or analysis of the results or processes of the new studies will have led to certain results or conclusions. Placing the new results in the context of Methodology is important. The outcomes are shown to have been achieved in this section.
    29. 29. 29 Practice-based Research :Structure 5 Conclusions A discussion can now be provided that puts a wider perspective on the results and discusses the implications of them for other broader areas and domains. Future work and outstanding questions are normally also discussed. 6 References/Bibliography (including published papers) Use a standard reference format, such as Harvard, and be careful to check each entry. It is temping to presume that software such as End-Notes will ensure a perfect reference list, but that all depends on exactly how each entry was stored. There is no substitute for a line-by-line check. (Linda Candy)
    30. 30. 30 Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. Kurt Lewin, then a professor at MIT, first coined the term Action research in about 1944, and it appears in his 1946 paper Action Research and Minority Problems. In that paper, he described action research as comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action that uses a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action. Practice-based Research : Action
    31. 31. 31 Practice-based Research : Action Action research is problem centered, and action oriented. It involves the system in a diagnostic, active-learning, problem-finding, and problem- solving process. Data are not simply returned in the form of a written report but instead are fed back in open sessions, and the subject of study and the change agent collaborate in identifying and ranking specific problems, in devising methods for finding their real causes, and in developing plans for coping with them realistically and practically. Scientific method in the form of data gathering, forming hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and measuring results, although not pursued as rigorously as in the laboratory, is nevertheless an integral part of the process. Action research also sets in motion a long-range, cyclical, self-correcting mechanism for maintaining and enhancing the effectiveness of a system by leaving the system with practical and useful tools for analysis and renewal
    32. 32. 32 Practice-based Research : Action Figure summarizes the steps and processes involved in planned change through action research. Action research is depicted as a cyclical process of change. The cycle begins with a series of planning actions initiated by the client and the change agent working together. The principal elements of this stage include a preliminary diagnosis, data gathering, feedback of results, and joint action planning.
    33. 33. 33 Practice-based Research : Action The second stage of action research is the action, or transformation, phase. This stage includes actions relating to learning processes (perhaps in the form of role analysis) and to planning (and executing behavioral changes in the client organization). As shown in Figure 1, feedback at this stage would move via Feedback Loop A and would have the effect of altering previous planning to bring the learning activities of the client system into better alignment with change objectives. The third stage of action research is the output, or results, phase. This stage includes actual changes in behavior (if any) resulting from corrective action steps taken following the second stage. Data are again gathered from the client system so that progress can be determined and necessary adjustments in learning activities can be made. Minor adjustments of this nature can be made in learning activities via Feedback Loop B
    34. 34. 34 Practice-based Research : Action The action-research model shown in the Figure closely follows Lewin's repetitive cycle of planning, action, and measuring results. It also illustrates other aspects of Lewin's general model of change. As indicated in the diagram, the planning stage is a period of unfreezing, or problem awareness. The action stage is a period of changing, that is, trying out new forms of behavior in an effort to understand and cope with the system's problems. (There is inevitable overlap between the stages, since the boundaries are not clear-cut and cannot be in a continuous process). The results stage is a period of refreezing, in which new behaviors are tried out on the job and, if successful and reinforcing, become a part of the system's repertoire of problem-solving behavior.
    35. 35. 35 Interactive Art and Research Practice Studying art is recognised as a historical or critical scholarly activity rather than a natural subject for field research. By its very nature, interactive art has particular characteristics that necessitate a different form of inquiry to conventional areas of discourse in this field. The involvement of the audience in the active experience of the work, for one thing, is a radical departure from normal expectations of our relationship to art works. Some artists view audience interaction as an integral part of the work itself and are not only keen to learn from that behaviour, but also wish to engage with the audience directly. In both audience and artist collaborative experience, a process of evaluation takes place, an activity that requires systematic forms of information, analysis and reflection. Practice-based Research : Specific
    36. 36. 36 Interactive Art and Research Practice The evaluation of an emerging interactive artwork or system is analogous with the development of an interactive software system using user-centred design methods. In creative work there is a dual need: for best results, the work should be carried out in as realistic (naturalistic) setting as possible and, at the same time, the results should provide an opportunity to turn what is learnt into modifications in the evolving art system. There are some important constraints that differentiate the normal process of creating art from the research-oriented approach. Artists working in a studio are in a natural setting for them but for research to be effective the gathering of information is critical and this imposes constraints upon the way of working. Artists working in a public space learn from the audience’s behaviour as they interact with the new work. How they learn and discoveries that inform their work is both a new area of creative practice and a source of knowledge for the wider community. (Linda Candy) Practice-based Research : Specific
    37. 37. 37 Hosts 2005 Hosts is a reflection on human life and death, presence and absence. The "hosts" may be taken to represent a variety of presences: from the angels of Jacobs Ladder, to the spirit of people who have inhabited the same spaces, or seen as fragments of an individual psyche. The emotional mood is deliberately variable and the encounters change depending on a randomised selection sequence for the video sprite characters and sounds. The piece is a truly transdisciplinary work: a 3D audio landscape of acapella tonal voices accompanied the visitor between the screens on wireless headphones and formed a tangible changing audio landscape. The artist worked with a group of singers, musicians and sound designers in Bristol/Bath on this aspect of the piece. Practice-based Research : Example
    38. 38. 38 Hosts 2005 Technology Made in conjunction with the Wearable Computing Group at Bristol University. The project utilised specially designed ultrasound tracking software to detect human presence and its duration in allocated space zones, corresponding to the screen areas. Information was passed to control computers, which co-ordinate the video feed to individual projectors from networked machines. The presences were filmed on high definition digital video and transferred as QuickTime files to server hard drives. Practice-based Research : Example
    39. 39. 39 Martin Rieser: Hosts 2006 Sponsors: AHRC, Bath University , Roper Rhodes Bath Film Festival , ACE
    40. 40. 40 Hosts 2005/6 Project Outline Description 1 Situated: Bath Abbey Site specific: Bath Film Festival Pilot July 05/Install February 06 Projection panels are mounted at strategic points of the open space. A visitor triggers the presence of a variety of video characters through the use of movement detection devices and interpretative software. Individual characters appear at random and seeming to be searching for something. They pass onwards from screen to screen, keeping pace with the visitor. These ‘hosts’ are of a wide range of ages, gender, social types and races.
    41. 41. 41 Hosts 2005/6 Jacob’s Ladder On the last wall of the installation is a single vertical screen on which we see two ladders standing side by side, disappearing beyond the picture frame. On one ladder the characters are continuously climbing upwards and vanishing. On the second ladder they are climbing downwards from the top of the frame and walking off screen Thematic The piece is a reflection on human life and death, presence and absence. The “Hosts” may be taken to represent a variety of presences: from the angels of “Jacob’s Ladder” to the spirits of people who have inhabited the same spaces. The emotional mood is deliberately variable and the encounters will change depending on a randomised selection sequence for the video sprite characters and aphorisms from a list of over 100.
    42. 42. 42 Hosts Overview Projector Layout 2
    43. 43. 43 Hosts Technology Technology The project utilised an ultrasound detection system developed by the Wearables Group at Bristol University, corresponding to the screen areas, would later adapt other locative technologies from collaborating research partners such as Bath University and Hewlett Packard
    44. 44. 44 Technology Ultrasound “chirper” badges Hosts Technology
    45. 45. 45 Hosts Technology Technology The project use ultra sound devices developed by Bristol University’s Wearables group to track human presence and duration in allocated space zones, corresponding to the screen areas
    46. 46. 46 Hosts Situated North Side of Nave
    47. 47. 47 Hosts Outcomes Papers Intelligent Environments 2008 ISEA 2009 Presentations: Imperial College MUM Cambridge Uniiversity of Sussex Open University Book: The Mobile Audience, Rodopi 2010
    48. 48. 48 SONGLINE S Professor Martin Rieser Institute of Creative Technologies Cycling and social collaboration
    49. 49. 49 Songlines The Use of Locative Media for Interactive Cycle Mapping Martin Rieser Professor IOCT/ De Montfort University
    50. 50. 50 Songlines Songlines is a project undertaken in collaboration with the DMU Transport Committee and Leicester City Council. 50 GPS devices are being distributed to volunteer students n for use with software specially developed for the project to map effective cycle routes across Leicester. The project is innovative in its use of digital folksonomies and wikis in the creation of databases of local route maps and its delivery of directions to a mobile audience. It will use GPS positional sensing for a mass audience taking advantage of the roll-out of cutting edge technologies as they become available to the majority.
    51. 51. 51 Songlines Aims The project aimed to encourage public collaboration in mapping safe urban cycle routes, using local knowledge of conditions, to encourage sustainable transport solutions and to generate a database of specifically public downloadable maps and related audio-visual materials, which can be triggered automatically and listened to as the participants are walking or cycling the corresponding routes and which relate to visual landmarks.
    52. 52. 52 Songlines Research Andrew Salkeld, Leicester City Council Cycling officer supported the project and was instrumental in providing a Leicester Cycling database and in submitting a bid to the Pre-Olympics for a number of loan cycles for Leicester which would be used in the Songlines testing. The failure of the bid led to a revised timetable with the emphasis on volunteers gathering data last summer using the 50 GPS devices
    53. 53. 53 CO2 Reduction Cycling and walking in urban centres in Britain is at a far lower level than in comparable countries across Europe. In autumn 2001, 681,000 people cycled to work in England, 3% of all those in employment. Cycling accounts for 0.6% of the total distance travelled per person per year and about 1.5% of all stages are by bicycle and the number of stages made by bicycle fell by 26%, from 23 stages per person per year in 1989/1991 to 17 in 1999/2001(DTI Factsheet) Songlines
    54. 54. 54 Songlines The heavy traffic in urban centres is only part of the story. The efforts of local authorities to engage commuters in cycling are are constrained by budgetary and legal impediments, but most of all safety fears discourage cycling. By drawing on local knowledge of routes and conditions this pilot proposal will demonstrate how creative uses of new technologies can encourage mass participation in solving transport problems through their reach and innovation. Cycling is a zero emission form of transport with low environmental impact in terms of support industries, parking etc. In Leicester, for example 60 percent of commuting is by car from houses within 2 miles of a city centre in a flat geography. Detailed cycling maps are no longer available for the city and the council has discontinued the printing of any that once existed.
    55. 55. 55 Songlines Innovation The project is innovative in its use of digital folksonomies and wikis in the creation of databases of local route maps and its delivery of directions to a mobile audience. It uses positional sensing for a mass audience taking advantage of the roll-out of cutting edge technologies as they become available to the majority. The mobile phone based location- detection features will be used to update positional information. Further tests on the use of Podcasts of route directions are being developed for the iPhone using EMPEDIA software developed by Cuttlefish Multimedia who are collaborating on testing. These can be uploaded in advance of the journey and to be correlated against positions along the route. It is envisaged that directional instructions will be delivered as audio streams according to route progress.
    56. 56. 56 Songlines Research Y Tian a PhD student from Computer Science has worked closely with me to develop a mobile interface and wiki map data-base, to work on most standard mobiles. This is being further developed by a new team of funded Pervasive media researchers which is now in place (Sean Clark and Jackie Calderwood) and an sKTP placement Phil Sparks with Cuttlefish multimedia who is working with browser-based tools. After pilot testing, 50 GPS recorders were made available for use by volunteers
    57. 57. 57 Mapping Leicester A new collaborative mapping technology from Empedia with Open source software for adaptation The original Leicester City Council map was too large for adaption to mobiles
    58. 58. 58 Songlines Mainnav GPS recorder
    59. 59. 59 Phoenix Square: Large scale Songlines projections The proposal for the opening of Phoenix Square was an external projection comprising three elements: 1. a giant series of individual street portraits of randomly selected individuals met on various city centre cycling routes. The portaits will be projected on the full height of the side of the building and gradually fade into each other to create a series of semi-transparent layers as a “palimpsest” portrait of the city. 2. Six projectors will be used to project abstract video impressions of cycle journeys on the frontage through the city visualized as colourful streaming moving images of the passing roadside 3. A single projector will be mounted opposite the white corner inset in the frontage to create a gradually augmenting map of GPS traces of the journeys, which contributed to the other imagery in the installation.
    60. 60. 60 IOCT De Montfort University Phoenix Square
    61. 61. 61 Phoenix Square
    62. 62. 62 Phoenix Square Six video loops of journeys projected above entrance on baffles
    63. 63. 63 Phoenix Square
    64. 64. 64 Phoenix Square “Palimsest” Street portrait projections related to journeys
    65. 65. 65 Phoenix Square Opening Public Images recorded on journeys around city centre
    66. 66. 66 Phoenix Square Opening Public Images recorded on journeys around city centre layered for projection sequences
    67. 67. 67 Phoenix Square: Pani 12
    68. 68. 68 Phoenix Square: Launch Images
    69. 69. 69 Phoenix Square: Opening
    70. 70. 70 Postcard for Stall at Summer Sundae
    71. 71. 71 How can you help? Borrow a device Map your journeys Upload photos Add Comments Suggest Artwork ideas Spread the word
    72. 72. 72 Riverains tests: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    73. 73. 73 Riverains: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    74. 74. 74 Riverains: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    75. 75. 75 Riverains: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    76. 76. 76 Riverains: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    77. 77. 77 Riverains: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    78. 78. 78 Riverains: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    79. 79. 79 Riverains: London Empedia for Riverains: QR Codes
    80. 80. 80 Riverains: London Riverains adaptation for Layar by Gareth Howell
    81. 81. 81 Riverains: London Riverains adaptation for Layar by Gareth Howell
    82. 82. 82 Research documentation http://www.pervasive.org.uk/projects/songlines mrieser@dmu.ac.uk
    83. 83. 83 Website
    84. 84. 84 Q What is the role of the artefact in reporting the results? Practice-based Research :Questions 1
    85. 85. 85 Example: Q What is the role of the artefact in reporting the results? A The artefact is not an explanation in itself: It requires linguistic description that relates the development and nature of the artefact to understandings about creative process The text describes the innovation embodied in the artefact, but cannot be fully understood without reference to and observation of the artefact. Practice-based Research : Questions 2
    86. 86. 86 Q Can artefacts present arguments? A? Q Is experiential knowledge precluded from documentation? A? Q Does textual justification make the artefact redundant? A? Practice-based Research : Questions 3
    87. 87. 87 Q What is the relationship of a systematic enquiry to creativity and serendipity? A? Q Does a contribution to knowledge imply the discovery of "objective facts”? A? Q Does stating how one is going to set about the research restrict creative development? A? Q Does framing a research question imply a research answer? A? Practice-based Research : Questions 4
    88. 88. 88 Q How to define Originality or ‘original contribution to knowledge’: A? Q In practice as research, are you expanding the boundaries of knowledge, or the boundaries of experience? A? Practice-based Research :Questions 5
    89. 89. 89 Q How does practice generate research outcomes? A? Q What is the role of serendipity in a "systematic" enquiry? A? Q How might responses to the above questions be compared to whether Picasso deserves a PhD? A? Practice-based Research :Questions 5
    90. 90. 90 Links www.martinrieser.com www.mobileaudience.blogspot.com Mobile Audience Personal website Action Research http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arr/arow/default.html Pervasive Media Research www.pervasive.org.uk Practice-based Research http://www.creativityandcognition.com/content/category/10/56/131/

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