UKTI's promotion of the UK's Large Research Facilities and Supporting Technologies
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UKTI's promotion of the UK's Large Research Facilities and Supporting Technologies



Business opportunities from Large Research Facilities

Business opportunities from Large Research Facilities
UK industrial and research capability serving the world



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UKTI's promotion of the UK's Large Research Facilities and Supporting Technologies UKTI's promotion of the UK's Large Research Facilities and Supporting Technologies Document Transcript

  • Large Research Facilities Business opportunities from Large Research Facilities UK industrial and research capability serving the
  • 2 Large Research FacilitiesThe number of Large ResearchFacilities, commonly referred to as“Research Infrastructures”, has risensharply in the last few decadesboth in Europe and further afield.Many of these facilities undertakecutting-edge, and increasinglyinternational, scientific research.Crucially, they also offer a widerange of business opportunities.Cover image: Planck during its final cleaning.The spacecraft’s surface was inspected under UVlight to detect dust particles that fluoresce afterillumination with UV (Credit: ESA)
  • Preface 3 ContentsPREFACE SECTION CAbout this publication 4 4 Large Research Facilities in the UK 58Acknowledgements 5 4.1 Introduction 60Foreword 6 4.2 Science and Technology Facilities Council 60UKTI 8 4.2.1 Diamond Light Source 61 4.2.2 ISIS 62SECTION A 4.2.3 Central Laser Facility 631 Large Research Facilities 10 4.2.4 Computational Science and Engineering 641.1 Introduction 12 4.2.5  Chilbolton Facility for Atmospheric and Radio1.2 Types of Large Research Facility 12 Research 651.3 Business opportunities from Large Research Facilities 13 4.2.6 Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes 662 Winning business from Large Research Facilities 16 4.2.7 UK Astronomy Technology Centre 662.1 Introduction 18 4.2.8 Joint Astronomy Centre 682.2 Key factors of success 18 4.2.9 RAL Space 682.3 How can UKTI help UK organisations succeed with 4.2.10 Accelerator Science and Technology Centre 69 Large Research Facilities to win contracts? 22 4.3 Natural Environment Research Council 70 4.3.1 British Antarctic Survey 71SECTION B 4.3.2 British Geological Survey 723 UK capability in selected technology areas 24 4.3.3 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology 723.1 Introduction 26 4.3.4 National Centre for Atmospheric Science 723.2 Cryogenics 27 4.3.5 National Centre for Earth Observation 743.3 Fusion energy 30 4.3.6 National Oceanography Centre 743.4 High-performance computing 30 4.4 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences3.5 Neutron scattering and muon spectroscopy 33 Research Council 743.6 Precision engineering 33 4.5 Medical Research Council 763.7 Synchrotrons 36 4.6 Culham Centre for Fusion Energy 80 4.6.1 Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak 81CASE STUDIES 38 4.6.2 Joint European Torus 813.1 Scientific Magnetics and CVT Ltd 40 4.7 Other research facilities 813.2 Oxford Instruments and its partnership with ISIS 42 4.7.1 National Nuclear Laboratory 813.3 Culham Centre for Fusion Energy 44 4.7.2 Dalton Nuclear Institute 823.4 MG Sanders Ltd 46 4.7.3 Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre 843.5 Viglen – CERN collaboration 48 4.7.4 Integrated Vehicle Health Management Centre 843.6 Prototech Engineering Ltd – ISIS collaboration 49 4.7.5 Cockcroft Institute 853.7 Zeeko Ltd 50 4.8 Catapult centres 883.8 OpTIC 523.9 Instrument Design Technology 54 SECTION D3.10 Observatory Sciences Ltd 56 Annexes & references 90 Annex 1 Abbreviations 92 Annex 2 Glossary of technical terms 94 Annex 3 List of websites 103 Annex 4 Bibliography 110 Annex 5 Contact UKTI 110
  • 4 Large Research Facilities About this publicationThe aim of this publication is to make This publication is divided into three A series of Annexes lists abbreviations,UK organisations (especially companies) sections: 
Section A highlights the breadth glossary of technical terms, selectedaware of major business opportunities of business opportunities presented by websites, bibliography and contactfrom Large Research Facilities (LRFs) LRFs and offers practical guidance on detail in UKTI. The glossary provideson a worldwide basis. It highlights the what factors to consider when applying for general descriptions of selectedfactors they need to consider when tenders from these facilities. technical terms used in this document.seeking to exploit such opportunities, These descriptors have been found Section B showcases UK capabilityand how UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) using a variety of sources, including in selected technology areas suchcan offer targeted support to bid for and Wikipedia. as cryogenics, fusion energy, high-win contracts from these facilities. performance computing, neutron The reader should also note that thisAnother important purpose is to scattering and muon spectroscopy, publication does not include every LRFprovide UK missions abroad with a precision engineering and synchrotrons. in the UK or provide a detailed analysiscomprehensive picture of the UK’s This is supplemented by a series of case of all the country’s Research Councilsworld-leading academic/industrial studies of UK companies, which have and academic/industrial capability. Norcapability in selected technology won contracts from LRFs (some with does it present a comprehensive listareas and the types of LRFs that exist UKTI support). of overseas LRFs. There are simply tooin this country. This is done to help many of them. Section C presents an overview of LRFs inin the identification of commercial the UK, focusing particularly on Research What it does do, though, is presentopportunities arising from LRFs in Councils, and other facilities such as a thorough overview of selected UKoverseas markets that would be relevant the National Nuclear Laboratory, the industrial and research capability andto UK organisations. Integrated Vehicle Health Management how it can support LRFs around the Centre and the Catapult centres. world.Dr Amit KhandelwalUKTI
  • Preface 5ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UKTI would like to thank all the organisations for their contributions to the creation of this publication. They include:Thank you to Sabine Adeyinka and Advanced Manufacturing National Nuclear LaboratoryDr Raeid Jewad for their assistance in Research Centre Observatory Sciences Ltdcompiling this publication. British Cryogenics Cluster OpTIC CERN Oxford Instruments Cockcroft Institute PA Consulting Culham Centre for Fusion Energy Prototech Engineering Ltd CVT Ltd Scientific Magnetics Dalton Nuclear Institute UK Research Councils – Science and Diamond Light Source Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Instrument Design Technology Ltd Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), Biotechnology and Biological Integrated Vehicle Health Management Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), Centre at Cranfield University Medical Research Council (MRC) ISIS Viglen Ltd MG Sanders Ltd Zeeko Ltd
  • 6 Large Research Facilities Foreword Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is a 4-m class wide field survey telescope for the southern hemisphere, equipped with a near infrared camera and has an azimuth-altitude mount. It is located at the ESO’s Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile (Credit: VISTA). Right: Wide-field view of the Orion Nebula (Messier 42), lying about 1350 light-years from Earth taken with the VISTA infrared survey telescope. The new telescope’s huge field of view allows the whole nebula and its surroundings to be imaged in a single picture and its infrared vision also means that it can peer deep into the normally hidden dusty regions and reveal the curious antics of the very active young stars buried there. This image was created from Steve O’Leary images taken through Z, J and Ks filters in the Director – Infrastructure and near-infrared part of the spectrum. The exposure Low Carbon, UKTI times were ten minutes per filter. The image covers a region of sky about one degree by 1.5 degrees.(Credit: ESO/J. Emerson/VISTA. Acknowledgment: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit)It is my pleasure to present this The UK also contributes to several As part of the UK Government’s agendapublication, Business Opportunities from international LRFs through direct of growth through trade, UKTI is keen toLarge Research Facilities – UK Industrial subscription fees to overseas facilities ensure that UK organisations are:and Research Capability Serving the World. such as CERN, home to the world’s largest ●● Aware of major business opportunities particle accelerator and the European from LRFs on a worldwide basis, andThe UK is home to some of the biggest Southern Observatory (ESO) or through theand best LRFs anywhere in the world, Offered targeted support through EU, for example, ITER (the International ●●catering for many different disciplines UKTI’s extensive global network so that Tokamak Experimental Reactor). Thisranging from astronomy and engineering they are able to make contact with investment is focused on ensuring thatthrough to molecular biology, medical senior LRF decision makers, and bid the UK’s research community remains atresearch and the natural sciences. for/win contracts from these facilities. the forefront of science, technology andFunded by the UK Government, facilities innovation through scientific collaboration. UKTI is also keen to help overseassuch as the British Antarctic Survey, Crucially, LRFs offer diverse and organisations bring their high-qualityDiamond Light Source, ISIS Pulsed attractive procurement opportunities investment to the UK, and ideally toNeutron and Muon Source, and the for UK organisations. For example, the set up in science and innovation hubsCulham Centre for Fusion Energy, have European Southern Observatory has such as the Harwell Oxford Science andnot only secured the UK the premier budgeted €1 billion for the construction Innovation Campus and the Daresburyposition as one of the best places to of Europe’s Extremely Large Telescope, Science and Innovation Campus, or inundertake research but also support while CERN’s annual procurement one of the many science parks that exista vibrant high-technology industrial budget is over £200 million. in this country.manufacturing base.
  • Preface 7 “ he UK supports some of T the biggest and best LRFs anywhere in the world, embracing many different disciplines ranging from astronomy and engineering through to the natural sciences. These LRFs offer significant and challenging business opportunities for UK Industry globally”The aim of this publication is threefold. Third, to provide an overview of theFirst, to help highlight the breadth of diverse range and capabilities of LRFsbusiness opportunities offered by LRFs, currently based in the UK. They areand which UK organisations should playing an increasing role in undertakingconsider applying for. Practical guidance contract research and providing solutionsgleaned from companies, the UK’s to academic and industrial challengesResearch Councils and procurement throughout the world, especially throughofficials at LRFs is also provided. This research-based partnerships.outlines the factors to consider when Whether you are venturing into selling toapplying for tenders to win contracts an overseas LRF for the first time, or arefrom these facilities. Artist’s impression of the European Extremely Large an experienced exporter trying to break Telescope (E-ELT) on Cerro Armazones, a 3060-metreSecond, to showcase the UK’s academic into an existing or new facility, UKTI offers mountaintop in Chile’s Atacama Desert. The E-ELT,and industrial capability in a range of a range of trade support services that can a LRF in development, will be the largest optical/technology areas such as cryogenics, help you in doing business internationally. infrared telescope in the world — the world’s biggestnuclear fusion, precision engineering and eye on the sky. (Credit: ESO) I would encourage you to contact ussynchrotrons. This is supplemented by a (see Annex 5) to explore the businessseries of case studies of UK organisations opportunities that arise from LRFs allwhich have engaged with LRFs and over the world, and we wish you luck insubsequently won contracts from them. winning contracts.
  • 8 Large Research Facilities UKTI UK TRADE & INVESTMENT UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) is the Government Department that helps UK-based companies to succeed in the global economy. We also help overseas companies bring their high-quality investment to the UK’s dynamic economy, acknowledged as Europe’s best place from which to succeed in global business. UKTI offers expertise and contacts through its extensive network of specialists both in the UK and in British embassies and other diplomatic offices around the world. We provide companies with the tools they require to be competitive on the world stage.
  • Preface 9UKTI supports a wide range of Britishbusinesses through events and specialistworkshopsInvestment to know the UK’s strengths and where bespoke market intelligence, we can investment opportunities exist and to help you crack foreign markets andUKTI’s comprehensive range of services help businesses coming to the UK get up get to grips quickly with overseasassists overseas companies, whatever and running with speed and confidence. regulations and business practice.their size and experience, to bringhigh-quality investment to the UK. In October 2010, UKTI was awardedThey are delivered in partnership with Trade the accolade of Best Trade Promotionteams in London and the devolved UKTI staff are experts in helping your Organisation (Developed Country) atadministrations of Scotland, Wales and business grow internationally. We provide the International Trade Centre’s TradeNorthern Ireland. expert trade advice and practical support Promotion Organisation Network Awards. to UK-based companies wishing to grow The awards recognise excellence inOur services include providing bespoke their business overseas. Whatever stage export development initiatives and theinformation about important commercial of development your business is at, we ability of UKTI to meet the challengesmatters, such as company registration, can give you the support that you need ahead.immigration, incentives, labour, realestate, transport and legal issues. to expand and prosper, assisting you on every step of the exporting journey.Deciding where to locate yourinternational business is often a long Through a range of unique services, including participation at selected trade For further information please visitand involved process. It is UKTI’s job fairs, outward missions and providing
  • 10 Large Research Facilities“ he diversity of Large Research Facilities around the T world is truly astonishing, ranging from medical research hospitals and ground-based telescopes through to nuclear fusion experimental reactors, neutron sources and particle accelerators. Crucially, they have a diverse range of needs, such as architectural design, civil engineering, cryogenics, instrumentation and sensor systems among many others, which the UK can help meet. UK business should seize upon these requirements and, with support from UKTI, build long-term profitable partnerships on what are exciting business opportunities.” Dr Amit Khandelwal UKTI
  • Section A – Large Research Facilities 11Section ALarge ResearchFacilities
  • 12 Large Research Facilities Large Research FacilitiesAerial view of Diamond Synchrotron. (Image courtesy of Diamond Light Source)1.1 Introduction In essence, LRFs serve to solve speeding up the drug discovery process challenges facing the world on energy, for the pharmaceutical industry, andThe number of Large Research Facilities living with environmental change, CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a(LRFs), commonly referred to as “Research ageing and health, digital economy and particle accelerator which is currentlyInfrastructures”, has risen sharply in nanoscience, through engineering to being used to elucidate the existence ofthe last few decades both in Europe and applications. the Higgs boson.further afield. Many of these facilitiesundertake cutting-edge, and increasingly Yet, despite this growth, there is no oneinternational, scientific research to provide universal definition of what constitutes 1.2 Types of Large Research answers to questions such as: an LRF as they can vary so much – Facility from oceanographic ships to particle LRFs can be simplistically divided into●● Why is there a universe? Was there accelerators and synchrotrons, and from the following categories: (i) UK – national ever life on Mars? research hospitals to nuclear fusion facility, (ii) intergovernmental and (iii)●● How are the chemical elements reactors, space-based sensors and created? overseas, as outlined in Table 1.1. ground-based telescopes and large data●● How can we design better treatments sets. A key feature of an LRF is its substantial for cancer, malaria and diabetes? procurement budget, either for upgrades Two specific examples are the Diamond to existing infrastructure or for new●● How do the oceans regulate the Light Source – the UK’s national builds. As a result, LRFs can offer diverse, Earth’s climate? synchrotron facility – which has helped lucrative and often high-end business●● Can we create new materials to store to solve commercial concerns such as opportunities for UK companies. energy?
  • Section A – Large Research Facilities 13Table 1.1:  elected examples of LRFs – UK national facility, intergovernmental and overseas S Type of LRF Funding Selected examples Additional details UK – national facility Principally funded by the UK Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE) Procurement rules in these Government through the Research facilities are subject to OJEU rules NERC Councils such as the Natural established by the European Environment Research Council • British Antarctic Survey Commission. (NERC) and the Science and • National Oceanography Centre Technology Facilities Council • National Centre for Atmospheric Science (STFC). STFC •  iamond Light Source (with 14% from the D Wellcome Trust) •  SIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source I •  K Astronomy Technology Centre U Intergovernmental Funded by a series of nations. This •  xtreme Light Infrastructure (ELI), Czech Republic, E These tend to have either unique could be jointly with European Hungary, Romania procurement rules or rules based partners, or with other global •  uropean Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), E on the EU system. They often partners such as the USA. Switzerland and France aim to buy from their funding These facilities can be located in •  uropean Southern Observatory (ESO), Germany and E countries. the UK or elsewhere around the Chile world. •  uropean Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), France E •  nstitut Laue-Langevin (ILL), France I •  nternational Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), I France (originally called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Overseas These national facilities are •  ational Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, N These have unique procurement principally funded by overseas Canada rules. The facilities often prefer governments. • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India procurement from organisations •  orea Aerospace Research Institute, South Korea K based in the funding country. • National Space Organization, Taiwan •  ew Karolinska Solna University Hospital Project N (including Research Centre), Sweden • Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA • Los Alamos National Laboratory, USAConcomitantly, there are opportunities often multidisciplinary and serve many jointly funded or suitable subjects forfor innovative UK-based and overseas different users. Yet another defining international collaboration, in somecompanies to use LRFs at national feature is that the facilities have strong cases distributed across a number ofscience and innovation campuses such academic and increasingly business different countries. For example, theas at Harwell and Daresbury, and to links, often across nations. Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) isdraw on the diverse range of technical located in the Czech Republic, Hungary Given that research is being pursuedcapabilities within this specialist and Romania. on an international basis, reflectingenvironment. the nature of global challenges such as Crucially, these large infrastructuresAnother important characteristic of climate change and in areas such as also have ongoing procurement needs,LRFs is their considerable size and the particle physics, many national LRFs which can present attractive businessfact that they are expensive to build, are being replaced by next-generation opportunities to UK organisations.maintain and operate. For example, in international facilities such as the This is discussed below.2011 CERN’s overall budget was 1.16 European Southern Observatory andbillion Swiss francs, which is spent on ITER. These are now being viewed as a 1.3 Business opportunities the running costs of the facility such as research resource for both academia and from Large Researchsalaries and energy, and on procuring a industry. Facilitieswide range of products and services. LRFs often fall outside the funding LRFs offer both volume-based andNot surprisingly, LRFs have a life span of remit or capability of any individual value-added opportunities for UKbetween 10 and 20 years (or more), are organisation, and are potentially organisations, and there are plenty of
  • 14 Large Research Facilitiesworthwhile ones to pursue. For example, When planning the next generation of and their antiparticles rather than protons,these can range from accelerator science facilities, LRFs will often encounter physicists will gain a different perspectivetechnology, advanced materials (such areas where their scientific requirements on the underlying beryllium-coated vacuum vessels and cannot be met by today’s products and For a UK company, such programmesmetal matrix composites), construction technologies. To address this issue, LRFs represent a potential opportunity toand cryogenics through to project regularly initiate multi-million-euro advise on engineering and designmanagement, design studies and development programmes in partnership challenges, as well as to participate inremote handling (see Table 1.2). with organisations such as universities. the manufacture of component parts forFor example, when constructing the LHC, For example, in 2011 CERN entered into the machine itself.CERN had a materials budget of almost collaboration with five UK universities, as well as the Accelerator Science and Most LRFs also actively promote the5 billion Swiss francs, while the ESO has commercial exploitation of intellectualbudgeted €1 billion for the construction Technology Centre (ASTeC) at the Science and Technology Facilities Council’s property that has been generatedof Europe’s Extremely Large Telescope. through their technology development Daresbury Laboratory for the design of keyContracts worth millions of euros are components of the beam delivery system programmes. In some cases they mayregularly awarded to European suppliers for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). even provide funding to support thein high-technology areas, including application of these technologies to otherdetectors, optics and precision motion The aim of CLIC is to develop a machine fields. Not surprisingly this can prove tosystems. Furthermore, there is the to collide electrons and positrons (anti- be an attractive proposition for many UKopportunity to develop cutting-edge electrons) head on at energies up to several cutting-edge technology companies.technologies or products in association teraelectronvolts (TeV). This energy range is similar to the LHC, but by using electrons But it’s not just technology companieswith LRFs. that can benefit from working with LRFs. Contracts for architectural design, largeTable 1.2: Examples of areas in which LRFs procure steel structure fabrication or tunnel excavation are also awarded by LRFs. For ■■ Accelerator technology, magnets and superconductivity example, a UK architectural firm, BFLS, ■■ Advanced materials won the contract to design the building for ELI in the Czech Republic. ■■ Architecture, civil engineering, buildings and construction Many LRFs, such as Diamond Light ■■ Biological material Source, CERN and ITER, are also ■■ Chemicals prominent national and international brands, and a case study showing how ■■ Cryogenics, vacuum systems and gas a product and/or service from the UK ■■ Computing and IT services/support has been used by them is a compelling endorsement and a powerful marketing ■■ Design studies tool to gain new business from other ■■ Electrical/electronic systems LRFs around the world. ■■ Fluid systems There is no doubt that LRFs are an attractive customer for UK organisations ■■ Instrumentation and sensor systems from the perspective of business ■■ Mechanical handling and structures opportunities. Winning a contract from an LRF can not only generate revenue but also ■■ Particle detectors enhance your reputation. This in turn can ■■ Project management lead to repeat or new business by opening doors to procurements from other LRFs. ■■ Remote handling In short, there is a lot that UK businesses ■■ Support services can do to increase their chances of winning an LRF contract and hence add ■■ Synchrotron beamlines to their profitability. The next chapter ■■ System integration services identifies some of the key factors of success in order to win business from ■■ Welded structures LRFs around the world.
  • Section A – Large Research Facilities 15Many LRFs, such as Diamond Light Source, CERN and ITER,are also prominent national and international brands, and acase study showing how your product has been used by themis a compelling endorsement and a powerful marketing toolto gain new business from other LRFs around the world. ATLAS particle detector at the LHC during installation © CERN
  • 16 Large Research Facilities“ ndustry is vital in keeping I CERN’s research facilities running, supplying us with everything from off-the-shelf products to highly technical components. This provides the opportunity to small, medium and large enterprises to participate in and benefit from technological advancements in our quest for scientific discoveries.” Dante Gregorio Section Head – Contracts for supplies and IT, Procurement Service at CERN
  • Section A – Winning business from Large Research Facilities 17Winning businessfrom LargeResearch Facilities
  • 18 Large Research Facilities Winning business from Large Research Facilities The LRF zone at Technology World 2010 and specialist one2one meetings at Technology World 2011.2.1 Introduction country. For example, the UK has LRFs of pan-European interest. They industry liaison officers for CERN, correspond to the long-term needsA wide variety of factors should be the European Synchrotron Radiation of European research communities,considered in order to enhance a UK Facility (ESRF), Institut Laue- covering all scientific areas, regardlessorganisation’s chances of successfully Langevin (ILL), the European Southern of location. In essence, this activity aimsapplying for, and winning, tenders from Observatory (ESO) and the International to promote the European research areaLRFs. This includes networking and Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER). concept which will be delivered throughestablishing personal contact within an Their work is designed to improve the a host of LRFs.LRF; keeping abreast of developments in flow of information from the facilitiesLRFs both in the UK and abroad; getting Several European countries are now to UK industry and can be valuableinvolved in technical development; using the ESFRI Roadmap as a blueprint in helping business to make contactsand understanding procurement rules. for the development of national as well as providing information onThese factors, together with the type of roadmaps and for the setting of national procurement rules. UKTI can also helpsupport that UKTI offers, are discussed priorities, including existing and new in this regard (see Section 2.3).below. research facilities. Learning about future research Such resources can be invaluable for2.2 Key factors of success infrastructures businesses by giving them significant A number of roadmaps on LRFs notice about existing upgrades andNetworking and establishing have been published. For example, upcoming developments in researchpersonal contact the Research Council UK (RCUK) infrastructures.Personal contacts at LRFs can help Large Facilities Roadmap provideswith understanding the requirements Getting involved in technical a comprehensive picture of currentof upcoming projects and can also development facilities, and their renewals andmake the industry aware of lower-value upgrades. It also identifies emerging Facilities often require cutting-edgecontracts that do not need to go through facilities that are of the highest strategic technologies which are not “off-the-formal procedures. importance for the UK. shelf” products. Development of theseThe UK has an industry representative technologies often involves large Similarly, the European Strategy Forumfor many of the intergovernmental teams of researchers from the facilities, on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI)research facilities funded by this academia and industry working together roadmap identified new and potential
  • Section A – Winning business from Large Research Facilities 19For further information on the RCUK and ESFRI roadmaps please visit:Research Councils UK Large Facilities Roadmap: European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) en.cfm?pg=esfri-roadmapwith funds coming from several routes, in France, are established as private It is noteworthy that somesuch as the facilities and industries companies governed by civil law. intergovernmental organisations, likethemselves or funding agencies. CERN, aim to achieve “juste retour,” which Such facilities can establish their represents a quantitative linkage betweenIndustry involvement at a development own internal governance procedures, the contributions that a partner countrystage positions a company to receive including the rules under which they makes to an LRF collaboration, andcontracts in that sector. It also allows purchase equipment and services, and the benefits that it obtains in terms ofthem to supply similar facilities that are not subject to EU procurement contracts awarded and nationals hired.may use similar technologies. requirements. Their internal rules are usually decided upon and agreed by Juste retour can be a formalUnderstanding the procurement representatives of the funding member requirement, with strict accounting torules states or partner country and are ensure that money contributed returnsUnderstanding the procurement rules intended to ensure a high level of cost to each partner as the infrastructureof each LRF is key to bidding for, and efficiency, transparency and fairness to is built and operated. More often, it iswinning, tenders. Many have different the member states. a “soft” requirement, where benefits,rules depending on their governance, the averaged over several years, are incountry they are located in and the local For example, CERN’s basis of some kind of approximate proportion tolaws that apply. For example, research adjudication for supply contracts is investments made.infrastructures in the EU will follow the that a contract will be awarded to theEuropean procurement rules. These bidder with the lowest offer ((Free Carrier Overall, understanding which processinclude UK research infrastructures such (FCA) price)), which complies with the will be applied during the assessment ofas the High-End Computing Terascale technical specification and delivery any bids is crucial for winning tenders.Resource (HECToR) and the Science and requirements. This is applied even if a Table 2.1 presents a comprehensive listTechnology Facilities Council’s (STFC’s) bid offers a technically superior product. of factors to consider when identifyingCentral Laser Facility and ISIS. If, however, suppliers in a member state and applying for business opportunities cannot provide the equipment required from LRFs.Other research facilities, like CERN, at a reasonable cost or if no technicalare funded by several countries and The next section looks at the types alternative exists, then as an exceptionalhave the status of intergovernmental of support UKTI offers in assisting UK circumstance contracts can be placedorganisation. Others, like ILL and ESRF organisations to engage with LRFs with non-member states. around the world.
  • 20 Large Research FacilitiesTable 2.1Factors to consider when identifying and applyingfor business opportunities from LRFs Theme Area(s) Details Networking and “Opening the door” Identify and make contact with key decision makers in the LRF (e.g., in procurement and technical functions) communication “Making personal to: contact” and “Gaining • Build your relationship and establish your business credentials on your skills base and industrial capability,  traction” • Gain general information/intelligence on doing business with that particular LRF,  • Understand and discuss with LRF officials aspects such as how the LRF operates, the requirements of a specific  tender and the intricacies of the procurement process. Once your relationship is established, it ought to be easier to get responses to emails on specific questions you may have regarding an existing or future business opportunity. If in doubt, ask. Do not make any assumptions and do learn more about the LRF. This will help increase your confidence about the LRF, its focus and what it is trying to achieve. This should help you construct any bid and reduce risk in terms of time and cost. UKTI and Industry Make contact with UKTI’s LRF Unit and Research Councils such as STFC and the Culham Centre for Fusion Liaison Officers (ILOs) Energy (CCFE) to explore what help they can provide to your organisation. This could include participating in overseas trade missions to LRFs or “meet-the-buyer” type events where key decision makers from LRFs are going to be present. Note: STFC has ILOs for CERN, ESRF, ILL and ESO, while CCFE has one for ITER. Communications Maintain an open communication style which engenders trust and builds relationships with officials in the LRF. strategy/flow Always reply to requests for information (for example, related to specific tendering opportunities/bids) even if it is only to say thank -you. This will help maintain a healthy profile with LRF officials. Marketing Marketing strategy, • Prominently position your brand when you approach LRFs and at the same time ensure that your marketing  brand management is fit for purpose and clearly linked to the business opportunity. For example, it is crucial to understand the technical components of the tender, and how your organisation can deliver to the tender requirement. This will help to present your case on technically challenging opportunities given the high risk content in some of these projects. • Emphasise quality standards, past and present customer base, key differentiators of your product/service/  technical capability from competitor organisations, and the ability to undertake the work and deliver it on time/to cost. Market research Most LRFs have procurement teams that undertake “market research” to ascertain what suppliers exist nationally and globally. This activity is also referred to as “market survey”, a term used at CERN. Some LRFs may restrict this search in the first instance to countries that provide funding to their organisation. Market research can become part of the pre-qualification stage within the overall LRF procurement process. Tendering Accessing tenders Regularly consult LRF websites for tender opportunities. For example, ITER opportunities can be found at http:// opportunities, while the STFC tender alert service can be procurement, found at pricing, foreign Register your details with UKTI to receive notifications about business opportunities from LRFs. exchange, over- gilding Procurement • Understand the procurement rules, and seek clarity where needed from the procuring organisation. These  rules can be bureaucratic and stringent, irrespective of the organisation’s size. • Timescales for applying for tenders vary and, at times, the window of opportunity can be limited.  • Do not over-step the mark in terms of capacity, capability and expertise when considering applying for a  tender. • If you have never undertaken business with LRFs or do not have the experience of undertaking large contracts,  focus on the smaller contracts which can be successfully delivered. A small contract may seed a larger one in due course. Pricing • The lowest bid or “offer” which complies with the technical specification/delivery requirements can be the  basis of an adjudication for LRFs’ procurements in contrast to the best technical tender or other extra “value add” considerations such as quality and longevity of products or service delivered. For example, CERN awards contracts for industrial services to be executed on its site on a best-value-for-money basis. • There is likely to be inflexibility from the LRF in the negotiation of the final contract in terms of price. Hence it  is important to seek clarification from the LRF about the scope for negotiation on this matter. • Present a clear breakdown of prices (e.g. costs for design, specialised tooling, raw materials, testing/quality  assurance, transport) and factor in price increases to cover unforeseen changes in raw material and/or labour costs Exchange rate • Be aware of the price sensitivities of the procuring LRF, in particular due to fluctuating foreign exchange rates  fluctuations which can impact on your profit stream. In essence, never speculate in a currency in which you do not have major exposure or conduct business. Over-gilding • Don’t “over-gild” (give the buyer more than requested in the tender document and associated technical  specification).
  • Section A – Winning business from Large Research Facilities 21Table 2.1 continued Theme Area(s) Details Business Local distributors Consider establishing your presence in a foreign market through a local distributor, especially in countries such as arrangements/ South Korea and Taiwan where market access can be difficult because of language barriers. processes A local distributor can help in identifying tenders before they are formally released into the open marketplace, thereby giving you more time to consider the opportunity as well as for the application process. UKTI can help find local agents through its Overseas Market Introduction Service. Contractual •  ommercial conditions in contracts from LRFs can be rigid (with almost no negotiation). For example: C conditions •  onsequential and indirect losses might be unacceptable and unlimited liabilities are imposed on companies C delivering the contract by the LRF procuring the product or service. Some LRFs, such as CERN, do not impose the condition that a contractor is liable for any indirect or consequential losses, except in cases of gross negligence or wilful misconduct. •  he cap on contractor liabilities is high (e.g. twice the contract value for technical liabilities) or is ruled out by UK T corporate governance rules. For example, CERN normally caps the liability to the highest of (i) the contract price or (ii) 1 million Swiss francs or (iii) the insured amount of the liable party’s applicable insurance policy (except for personal injury or death and cases of gross negligence or wilful misconduct). •  here may be caps on what contractors can claim. For example, there might be an unrealistic ceiling on living expenses. T •  ontract negotiations tend to be legalistic and led by the legal team. The technical team may be sidelined and C there may seem to be no independent exercise to establish the best technical tender. •  echnical officials often do not foresee contractual problems. T •  ayment terms might be unhelpful, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. P Do note that once contracts are placed by LRFs, they generally tend to run smoothly. Contract termination Be clear about the impact and implication of contract termination. LRFs are likely to stipulate that they are not liable for costs incurred by the contractor for raw materials, specific investments and tooling. Sub-contractor If you are planning to sub-contract any work, be prepared to specify the nature of the sub-contracting, the names of the proposed sub-contractors and the estimated value of the work to be performed by them. In order to minimise risk, some LRFs might impose restrictions at the tendering phase as to the extent of sub-contracting. Contract performance •  ompanies will be judged not only on the offer price but also on the performance of the contract. Be prepared for C the monitoring of contract performance on a regular basis. If a contract has been awarded by an LRF, continually inform its officials about progress, execution plans and delivery schedules, including any difficulties. •  ome LRFs might insist on detailed monitoring for non-standard products where the industry has no experience S in manufacturing specific products. Scientific/ Partnerships •  roactively network and consider partnering in the technical arena. This may help realise future business P technological opportunities. Do note that LRFs might include contractual clauses which sufficiently protect themselves against development possible risks, especially where collaborative/joint development work is undertaken. •  larify the ownership and use of any intellectual property to be generated before any partnering arrangement C commences. Market intelligence Keep abreast of developments in new or existing research infrastructures through roadmaps and LRF Industrial Advisory Boards. Also liaise with UKTI, as well as with ILOs at STFC and CCFE. Intellectual Technical capability, •  rotect your technical capability and know-how by thoroughly reviewing issues surrounding the ownership of P property rights know-how, licensing IPR, especially when developed in a consortium arrangement or between a company and the LRF. (IPR) • Keep a clear inventory of background and foreground intellectual property. •  onsider licensing your technology, especially if you are concerned about IPR protection, enforcement and C access within a specific geographical market. Relationship Cultures Be sensitive to cultural differences in doing business. For example, relationship-building and networking in Asia development are key components to success. In contrast, in North America the business approach is more transactional. Language Some tenders will be released only in a local language rather than in English. Therefore, pay particular attention to the accurate translation of documents to ensure clarity in what an LRF requires. Also check which language the bid needs to be submitted in, and thoroughly proofread the bid prior to submission. Always keep a copy of the bid itself and any supporting documents. Procurement and •  orge a robust relationship with procurement officials and technical researchers. The former will help to explain F technical officials the procurement rules/procedures and identify technical officials. The latter will be able to talk in detail about the specification of the tender. •  uilding good relationships in the long term will prove indispensable for future tendering needs/opportunities. B •  e prepared to share your CV (and that of your team, including sub-contractors) if requested to do so. B These actions will help to establish your credibility and technical competency. Consortia and Consortia formation Consider consortium formation with organisations in the host country where the LRF is located. This is likely to be accessing viewed favourably by the procuring organisation. But be clear about the ownership of any IPR that is generated as supply chains a consequence of the consortium’s work. Supply chains Identifying and accessing supply chains can help win work from LRFs. This is especially true where a UK company is not a primary contractor or the UK does not have sole expertise in a specific area of need. A local distribution agent can also assist in accessing supply chains.
  • 22 Large Research FacilitiesTable 2.2: Winning LRF contracts – how UKTI can help  UKTI Trade Support Services •  ndertaking the Overseas Market Introduction Service (OMIS) – a chargeable U •  rranging and facilitating general/bespoke networking activities between UK A but heavily subsidised activity which focuses on generating bespoke research organisations and senior officials at LRFs, such as with India’s NAL. and business intelligence on existing and upcoming overseas LRFs; it •  his activity focused on on partnering opportunities in airframe structures T highlights partners for creating consortia and identifies key areas of overseas work, research and technology collaborations in areas such as impact, industrial and academic strength. crashworthiness, structural health monitoring, structural dynamics •  elivering a range of events and missions in the UK and abroad, for example: D and aero elasticity, computational mechanics and simulation, fatigue and structural integrity and up gradation of facilities at NAL’s Structural •  nformation days in the UK on partnering and business opportunities from I Technologies Division. the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) project – Czech Republic, Hungary. •  onitoring of LRF tenders and alerting relevant companies to the M •  K mission to a conference on business opportunities from ITER in U opportunities through an industrial database of UK firms. Barcelona, Spain and Cadarache, France. •  ngaging with officials in the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills E •  Meet- the- buyer” event through outward and inward missions. For “ on issues such as industry opportunities and concerns with procurement example: processes in LRFs where the UK provides funding support directly or •  utward mission to CERN (Switzerland), ESRF (France) and ILL (France) O indirectly, such as at CERN and ITER. •  nward missions to the UK from CERN (Switzerland), ESO (Germany), ELI I (Czech Republic and Hungary), New Karolinska Solna Hospital Project (Sweden) and the National Aerospace Laboratories (India).2.3  ow can UKTI help UK H to highlight LRF opportunities to UK support services that can make doing organisations succeed organisations. business internationally as easy as with Large Research doing business in the UK. While the focus of this publication is Facilities to win contracts? on supporting UK organisations to win We can also provide budding and contracts from LRFs worldwide, UKTI established exporters with tailoredUKTI can provide UK organisations with helps to attract inward investors to bring packages of support in the form of locala wealth of assistance ranging from their high-quality investment to the UK market research, covering cultural,market intelligence through to making and, ideally, to set up in “science and political and business issues, and accesscontacts at the right decision-making innovation hubs” like the Harwell Oxford to key contacts.level in LRFs around the world. Science and Innovation Campus or in A good way of promoting your expertiseWe do this through our overseas one of the many science parks that exist to international buyers and meetingnetworks in British embassies and high in this country. A list of science parks useful contacts is by attending UKTI-commission’s around the world, and can be found at the United Kingdom sponsored information days on specificby working closely with the Science Science Park Association website, www. business opportunities offered byand Innovation Network (jointly funded overseas LRFs. UKTI regularly bringsby the Department for Business, The types of trade support that UKTI senior decision makers and technicalInnovation and Skills and the Foreign provides are summarised in Table 2.2, staff from these research facilities to& Commonwealth Office), to identify while Annex 5 provides contact details meet UK companies at these events.overseas LRFs, to understand their within UKTI.procurement requirements and to This publication now shifts its focuspursue relevant tendering opportunities. Whether you are venturing into selling to highlight capability in selected to LRFs overseas for the first time, or technology areas where the UK hasIn addition, UKTI partners with CCFE, are an experienced exporter trying to world-leading industrial and academicthe Technology Strategy Board’s break into existing and/or new facilities expertise. This is supplemented by aKnowledge Transfer Networks and the such as ELI, ESO, CERN or ITER, UKTI’s series of case studies of UK organisationsUK Research Councils (such as Science dedicated team offers a range of trade which have won contracts from LRFs.and Technology Facilities Council)
  • Section A – Winning business from Large Research Facilities 23 “ uilding the world’s best B telescopes and instruments presents significant commercial opportunities for UK industry, working in partnership with the UK Astronomy Technology Centre, ESO and the University instrumentation groups, especially as we move toward construction of the European Extremely Large Telescope.” Professor Colin Cunningham UK Extremely Large Telescope Programme Director
  • 24 Large Research Facilities
  • Section B – UK capability in selected technology areas 25Section BUK capabilityin selectedtechnology areas “ e feel privileged to have been able to develop products in close W collaboration with world-leading neutron scientists from ISIS. Their knowledge and expertise was crucial to the development of a range of helium recondensing magnet products particularly well suited to neutron scattering facilities. Delivering innovative systems to a prestigious facility like ISIS also enhanced Oxford Instruments’ reputation and credibility as world leaders in superconducting magnet systems. We have since been able to offer similar systems to other key neutron scattering facilities in Europe, USA, Australia, Japan and more recently China. This application area accounts for around 10 per cent of our overall business, so it played a significant part in the growth of Oxford Instruments NanoScience over the last few years” Dr Jim Hutchins Managing Director Oxford Instruments NanoScience
  • 26 Large Research Facilities UK capability in selected technology areasTable 3.1: Selected examples of UK organisations possessing cryogenic capability (indicating scope of supply) Organisation Description Field/area of operation Cryoconnect Cryoconnect is a specialist division of Tekdata’s Interconnect Systems, and deals solely with Cryogenic wiring and cabling and interconnection solutions in cryogenic systems. Its cables are used in dilution interconnections refrigerators, cryogenic systems, superconducting magnet systems, low-temperature detector systems, infrared array systems, and general housekeeping on cryogenic systems of all scales. Cryoconnect has supplied a range of LRFs such as ESO, CERN, CCFE and the James Webb Space Telescope (which will be a large infrared- optimized space telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, and is an international collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency). CVT Ltd (see Case Study CVT Ltd manufactures ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chambers, systems and components for Manufacturing UHV chambers, 3.1) different application areas. The company’s facility is made up of computer numerical control high vacuum systems and (CNC) machining, welding, UHV cleaning and electrical/electronics wiring, assembly and test components, related assembling, for integrated systems. fabrication and computer-aided design (CAD) services Herose UK Herose develops and manufactures innovative valves for use in extreme temperatures between Cryogenic valves −270°C and +400°C, special valves for air separation and valves for liquefied natural gas (LNG). Herose also develops its range of cryogenic shut-off valves by using unique features that have resulted in improvements to the sealing characteristics and also substantially reduced wear during service life. ICEoxford ICEoxford designs, manufactures and refurbishes specialist ultra-low temperature equipment Instruments, cryogenic for the cryogenic research community. This includes wet systems, dry systems and thermometry and sensors recondensing systems. Monroe Brothers Ltd Monroe Brothers provides consultancy in the field of low-temperature engineering. It specialises Design, consultancy and in technologies using liquid nitrogen at −196°C to provide fast and effective cooling for industrial custom-built systems and scientific applications, and also liquid helium down to 1.4K for scientific applications. Examples include pollution control with liquid nitrogen and superconducting magnet design with liquid helium. Oxford Cryosystems Ltd Oxford Cryosystems manufactures a range of coolers designed specifically for sample cooling in X-ray Coolers for Diffraction and diffraction experiments. These include the Cobra, Desktop Cooler and Cryostream, the latter of which Cryocoolers was first developed over 25 years ago in the Clarendon Laboratory at the University of Oxford. Software has also been a traditional strength of the company, from the firmware used to control low-temperature systems to specialist crystallographic software. The company also manufactures the Coolstar range of Gifford McMahon coolers, and is branching out into new applications for its cryocoolers such as high-temperature superconductivity and astrophysics. Oxford Instruments OINS creates high-performance cryogenic and cryogen-free environments for ultra-low Design, consultancy and NanoScience (OINS) (see temperature and high magnetic field applications, including nanoscale characterisation, custom-built systems Case Study 3.2) materials science and quantum computing. It provides the most advanced experimental equipment and scientific instrumentation, from “best in class” standard products to custom-built systems and tailored consultancy services. The product range includes dilution refrigerators, superconducting magnets, optical and spectroscopy cryostats and cryogenic spares and accessories, including a new range of cryogenic temperature controllers and magnet power supplies.3.1 Introduction the forefront in terms of technology advancement and supplying toLRFsThe UK possesses a strong and vibrant around the world. A capability analysisacademic and industrial base in a of these areas now follows, supporteddiverse range of high-technology areas, by a series of case studies of UKsuch as cryogenics, fusion energy, organisations that have won contractshigh-performance computing, neutron from LRFs. The reader is asked to notescattering, muon spectroscopy, precision that the organisations listed in Section Bengineering and synchrotron beamlines. are purely to illustrate the UK’s capabilityThis capability plays a critical role in the high-technology areas where theyin ensuring that the UK remains at are mentioned.
  • Section B – UK capability in selected technology areas 27Table 3.1 continued Organisation Description Field/area of operation Peco Cryogenics Peco Cryogenics is a specialist provider of vacuum-insulated technologies for cryogenic Vacuum-insulated cryogenic handling. Their systems are suited to liquid nitrogen, helium and oxygen and provide the handling solutions highest quality of liquid delivery with minimal transfer losses. Scientific Magnetics Scientific Magnetics offers standard and tailor-made superconducting magnet and cryogenic Superconducting magnets solutions. It also (i) develops a superconducting magnet system from the initial geometry of the coils, through design to assembly, test and commissioning, (ii) manufactures superconducting magnets for both low temperature and high-temperature superconductors, in circular and non- circular geometries, (iii) designs and builds cryostats operating at temperatures down to 0.3K, including normal and superfluid helium systems, zero boil-off (recondensing) and cryogen-free superconducting magnet systems, and (iv) designs and builds cryogenic valve boxes and special cryostats for a wide variety of applications. Temati Temati is a specialist in cryogenic thermometry and a worldwide distributor of carbon ceramic Instruments, cryogenic cryogenic temperature sensors. These sensors offer excellent performance and stability thermometry and sensors in the harshest environments, coping well with magnetic fields, high-dose radiation, large mechanical forces and vibration. They are also thermally very responsive as their relatively large ceramic body has low thermal capacitance and absorbs and transmits heat faster than normal sensors. Temati has supplied to a range of LRFs overseas such as CERN, ITER and SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research. Tesla Engineering Ltd Tesla Engineering Ltd manufactures resistive and superconducting electromagnets for particle Superconducting magnets accelerators of all types, and produces specialised gradient coils for magnetic resonance imaging scanners. Tesla also supplies electromagnets for emerging applications, such as fusion research and the semiconductor industry. Thames Cryogenics Ltd Thames Cryogenics manufactures, installs and services cryogenic storage and distribution Cryogenic piping equipment. It has supported the food industry, from fish freezing to breweries, but in the last 10 years its business has shifted over significantly to the life sciences sector. For example, it worked with the UK Biobank to supply and install vacuum-insulated pipework from two large liquid nitrogen storage tanks to feed over 40 of the largest, most efficient cryogenic freezers available in the UK. Thames Cryogenics and UK Biobank have now established a successful, long-term partnership for the establishment and maintenance of this LRF. Following on from its success with UK Biobank, Thames Cryogenics teamed up with Biomedica, a Saudi Arabia-based specialist equipment supplier to bid for and win contracts in the cryogenic field for the Biobank planned in the country by its health authority, National Guard Affairs. Wessington Cryogenics Wessington Cryogenics is a worldwide manufacturer of cryogenic pressure vessels used for the Cryogenic vessels Ltd transport and storage of cryogenic gases, including carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, helium and LNG, and has supplied to numerous customers across a diverse range of sectors. These include LRFs such as CERN, NASA and RAL. A particularly strong area for Wessington has been the design of custom-built and very large liquid helium dewars as well as bespoke products such as mobile purge units designed and developed at the request of Air Products.3.2 Cryogenics In fact, many commercial organisations in and component suppliers has also this field can trace their origins to, or have evolved around these organisations. ThisThe UK has exceptional strength in links with, Oxford Instruments. One such concentration of cryogenic capabilitycryogenic technology, catalysed by entity is Siemens Magnet Technology, has resulted in the creation of the BritishR&D work undertaken by organisations which is responsible for almost half the Cryogenics Cluster. Its membership issuch as the University of Oxford, Oxford world’s production of magnetic resonance illustrated in Figure 3.1.Brookes University, the Universities of imaging scanner magnets.Sheffield and Southampton, the Science In fact, almost “anything cryogenic”and Technology Facilities Council’s The infrastructure of industrial gas can be sourced in this country, be it(STFC’s) RAL Space, the Culham Centre companies (such as Air Products, which temperature sensors from Temati tofor Fusion Energy (CCFE) and Oxford supplies “coolant” gases such as liquid giant superconducting magnets fromInstruments. nitrogen) and specialist tiers of service STFC, as illustrated in Table 3.1. As continued on page 30
  • 28 Large Research FacilitiesFigure 3.1Member organisations of the British Cryogenics Cluster
  • Section B – UK capability in selected technology areas 29 kTkelvin Technology, Ltd. KEEPING COOL McNaughton Dynamics
  • 30 Large Research FacilitiesTable 3.2: Overview of British cryogenic equipment at LRFs (source: British Cryogenics Cluster) UK supplier LRF – name LRF – location British cryogenic equipment at the LRF Cryoconnect European Southern Obervatory Atacama Large Millimetre Array Chile Assemblies for the cryostats and detectors CERN (the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider) Switzerland Assemblies for the cryostats and detectors Joint European Torus at CCFE UK Assemblies for the cryostats and detectors James Webb Space Telescope Outer Space (anticipated Spacecraft harnesses launch date 2018) CVT Ltd + Scientific Diamond Light Source UK 3D superconducting magnet in UHV Magnetics CELLS ALBA Synchrotron Spain 3D superconducting magnet in UHV Swiss Light Source Switzerland 3D superconducting magnet in UHV Oxford Instruments ISIS UK Recondensing superconducting magnets Peco Cryogenics Diamond Light Source UK Cryogenic transfer lines and system engineering STFC CERN Switzerland ATLAS end-cap superconducting magnets Temati Academy of Sciences China Cryogenic temperature sensors CEA (French government technological research organisation) France Cryogenic temperature sensors and ITER GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Germany Cryogenic temperature sensors Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics Germany Cryogenic temperature sensors SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research Netherlands Cryogenic temperature sensors CERN Switzerland Cryogenic temperature sensors Jefferson Laboratory, NASA USA Cryogenic temperature sensors Thames Cryogenics National Guard Health Affairs Biobank Saudi Arabia Cryogenic piping, biofreezers and alarms Ltd UK Biobank UK Cryogenic piping, alarms, storage tanks and biofreezers Wessington CCFE Joint European Torus (JET) UK Liquid helium tank Cryogenicsa consequence of this strength, UK fusion (MCF) as opposed to inertial exemplified by MG Sanders Ltd (see Casecryogenic equipment can be found in a confinement fusion (ICF). Study 3.4).large number of LRFs around the world. CCFE’s role in supporting ITER can beThis is shown in Table 3.2. 3.4 High-performance highly attributed to the UK’s expertiseCase studies focusing on CVT Ltd and in tokamak operations, engineering and computingOxford Instruments (Case Studies 3.1 fusion physics, developed under JET. In The UK is a major global centre forand 3.2 respectively) are also presented addition to the strong facility operations high-performance computing (HPC).to demonstrate the vital role that is a sound experimental and theory Its key national facility supportingindustrial and academic partnerships programme, which is being carried out in the academic base is the High-Endhave played to continually strengthen collaboration with national universities Computing Terascale Resource (HECToR),cryogenic capability in the UK and allow and international partners. The focus of funded by the UK Research Councilsthis sector to deliver bespoke cryogenic MCF is expected to shift to ITER with the and operated by Edinburgh University’ssolutions to LRFs worldwide. impending closure of the JET in five to Parallel Computing Centre. It is available 10 years. Case Study 3.3 portrays CCFE’s for use by academia and industry in the3.3 Fusion energy role in supporting UK businesses to win UK and Europe. In addition to this, there contracts from ITER. are numerous dispersed HPC facilities,The UK has played a key role globallyin the development of fusion energy. A number of UK companies, both small for example:Initiatives in this regard include and large, have won contracts from ITER, ●● STFC’s Daresbury Science andoperating the JET fusion facility at JET and MAST, covering a wide range Innovation Campus, which providesCCFE and contributing to the spherical of fields from architectural design and high-performance and distributedtokamak approach, from the Small Tight nuclear site management to remote- computing and data services, for bothAspect Ratio Tokamak up to the Mega handling applications and production of small and large organisations.Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). heavy tungsten alloys (see Table 3.3). ●● Oxford Supercomputing Centre at theCCFE is also playing a major role in Their expertise and capability in the University of Oxford, which providesthe world’s largest fusion energy fusion energy arena have allowed them researchers with services such asexperiment, ITER, which is based on to win contracts from other LRFs such as training, application support, accessthe principles of magnetic confinement CERN and UK’s Diamond Light Source, as to powerful computer clusters and
  • Section B – UK capability in selected technology areas 31Table 3.3: Selected examples of UK organisations which have expertise in fusion energy (indicating scope of supply) Organisation Description Field/area of operation AMEC plc One of the largest UK private-sector suppliers to the nuclear sector of programme management and AMEC is a focused supplier of engineering services. AMEC has been a pioneer in the development of fusion technology, working consultancy, engineering and with the UK Atomic Energy Authority Culham (now CCFE). It is a founding member of the European project management services to Fusion Engineering and Technology consortium, a European Economic Interest Grouping which its customers in the world’s oil brings together major systems engineering companies from seven European countries . and gas, minerals and metals, AMEC has undertaken many projects on JET, design and safety activities for ITER and studies clean energy, environment and for fusion power plants. It continues to provide R&D support, and prototype manufacture and infrastructure markets. With development of mock-ups of key ITER components. annual revenues of some £3.3 “We have successfully developed a new low-temperature hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding billion, AMEC designs, delivers technique that will be used in the manufacture of fusion-related components. and maintains strategic and complex assets and employs “This new technique has benefited other aspects of nuclear generation, including the design and over 27,000 people in around 40 development of a copper-bonded steam generator for use in future sodium-cooled fast reactors. countries worldwide. “As the next generation of reactors is developed, both fission and fusion, we will remain at the forefront of delivering nuclear solutions both in the UK and internationally.” – Alain Chevalier, Business Manager, International and Reactor Development, AMEC plc. Atkins UK Atkins is one of the world’s leading engineering and design consultancies and the largest engineering Design and engineering consultancy in the UK, employing some 17,700 people across the UK, North America, Middle East, services and related technical Asia Pacific and Europe. consultancy Atkins is leading the design and overseeing the procurement and construction of the 39 buildings and associated infrastructure that will make up the ITER research facility in Cadarache, France. As project director and design manager of the Engage consortium, appointed as architect engineer on the project, Atkins is at the forefront of design optimisation of the infrastructure and the co-ordination of all of the technological components that will make up the facility ready for scientific experiments to begin in 2019. With over 40 years’ experience in the UK’s nuclear sector, delivering engineering services from new build through to decommissioning, Atkins is now rapidly growing its presence in the international market place; expanding its services into the US and, through its ntriplea alliance with French engineering giant, Asysstem, in Europe, South Africa and the Middle East. Babcock Babcock provides site management services at nuclear sites and operates a nuclear services Nuclear site management, International consultancy business, providing a range of specialist, knowledge-based, outsourced solutions to operations, decommissioning Group customers in both the UK and abroad. and advisory The company’s services include programme management, decommissioning, waste management, environmental services and technical consulting. It has won contracts/sub-contracts with the ITER project, including providing five project control specialities to the Central Programme Control Office. Jacobs Jacobs is one of the world’s largest and most diverse providers of professional technical services, Provider of scientific and covering a range of primary markets including energy, infrastructure and technology. For example, specialty consulting, as well as Jacobs has been involved in the ITER project for six years, having undertaken the preliminary all aspects of engineering and design of all the buildings, including the Tokamak Complex for the European Fusion Development construction, and operations Agreement. It is now providing support to ITER’s Building and Site Infrastructure Department and to and maintenance. the Machine Assembly and Installation Department. Meggitt Aerospace Meggitt Aerospace is involved in the design and manufacture of wheels, brakes and braking systems, Aircraft braking systems and Braking Systems heat exchangers and bleed valves. wheels, C–C heat-resistant tiles (part of Meggitt Key clients include airline operators, aircraft constructors, private aircraft owners and charter plc) operators, governments and military operations, distributors and repair stations. The company has worked on fusion projects with clients across Europe and North America, helping them develop the carbon–carbon (C–C) materials with the ability to transfer large heat fluxes (with retention of strength at elevated temperatures and low density). It provided C–C composite tiles to clad the plasma-facing metallic parts of the JET vessel wall. The tiles help to thwart plasma contact with the vessel wall and other devices extending from the wall such as antenna structures. For the ITER project, Meggitt supplies C–C tiles for trials of a divertor design that is being piloted in the JET vessel. “The divertor located at the base of the tokamak vessel is exposed to the highest heat fluxes during operation, and in order to meet the heat flux demands, the C–C tile blanks contain carbon fibres on a matrix of carbon. To optimise thermal properties for use in fusion applications the C–C is heat- treated at temperatures in excess of 2,400°C. “ITER is an exciting project that is at the forefront of materials development and a key strategic business project. Our experience of fusion has been very positive. So far it has led to changes in production engineering practice resulting in increased efficiency and reduced costs that have been transferred across to core business products.” – Ben van Sleeuwen, Head of Aftermarket and Advanced Material Programmes, Meggitt Aerospace Braking Systems MG Sanders Ltd Established in 1971, MG Sanders has expertise in the production of heavy tungsten alloys, which are CNC turning, EDM wire erosion, (see Case Study widely used in the aerospace, defence, automotive, motorsport, nuclear energy and nuclear medicine abrasive water jet cutting, 3.4) sectors. assembly, DENSAMET® heavy tungsten alloys, industrial power, quality and materials laboratory and military antennas
  • 32 Large Research FacilitiesTable 3.3 continued Organisation Description Field/area of operation Oxford Instruments Involved in the R&D, manufacture and sale of high-technology tools and systems for the analysis Nanotechnology tools, industrial and manipulation of matter at the smallest scale. It caters to sectors such as industrial analysis, products and services research, education, space and energy. The company’s tools are being used for the development of alternative energy, climate change research and environmental pollution. Recently won contracts with ITER include: • A £30 million contract for supplying 58 tonnes of superconducting wire from Fusion for Energy, the European procurement agency for ITER. • A £5 million contract for supplying nine tonnes of superconducting wire through a deal agreed with Oak Ridge National Laboratory/UT-Battelle on behalf of the US ITER Project Office, the procurement agency in the USA for ITER. Oxford Involved in the development of technologies and expertise for the implementation of cost-effective Remote-handling applications Technologies solutions to remote-handling applications. Phoenix Inspection A developer and manufacturer of automated non-destructive testing equipment using ultrasonic Ultrasonic non-destructive Systems Ltd techniques, serving sectors such as energy, aerospace, process industries and rail. testing solutions The company’s assignment with the ITER vacuum vessel consists of developing phased array ultrasonic techniques for inspecting the vessel’s splice plate welds that join the nine sections of the vessel together. Narrow gap welding of the nine sections using tungsten inert gas welding reduces the risk of distortion over the length of the weld. The confined space makes inspection difficult as narrow gap welds are not conveniently oriented for inspection. In order to overcome this issue, Phoenix has developed a special ultrasonic probe mounted on a probe pan and carried by the welding robot to perform automated ultrasonic inspection. “The technique for inspecting these welds uses phased array along with other advanced ultrasonic methods. The ITER vacuum vessel work has broadened our capability in inspecting similar welds throughout the nuclear and energy sectors.” – Karl Quirk, Managing Director, Phoenix Inspection Systems LtdTable 3.4: Selected examples of UK companies with HPC expertise (indicating scope of supply) Organisation Description Field/area of operation Allinea Allinea Software is the leader in development tools for High Performance Computing parallel programming. World-leading institutions, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA, rely on this company, as do partners like Cray and IBM. Allinea DDT (distributed debugging tool) easily handles classic bugs and those arising from execution on up to 200,000 cores simultaneously. It’s the most scalable debugger for scalar, threaded and parallel codes on central processing unit and graphics processing units. Allinea OPT (optimisation and profiling tool) helps to identify bottlenecks in code to help increase performance. ClusterVision Specialists in the design, implementation and support of Computer clusters, high-availability clusters, fast networking large-scale computer clusters (Myrinet, Quadrics, SCI and Infiniband), storage (>3TB), database clusters (Oracle 10g), servers (AMD/Intel) Eurotech Computer Services Ltd Develops and implements HPC and storage clusters Specialists in all aspects of processing, protecting, managing and specialises in providing information and data and analysis of data. Creates and integrates large-scale HPC management solutions and services. solutions with a specific focus on the oil and gas, life sciences and research sectors. OCF plc High-performance server and storage cluster integrator, Largest HPC delivery team in the UK; provides tailored cluster services and support team, and Compute on solutions utilising innovative HPC and storage systems Demand provider Viglen Ltd (see Case Study 3.5) Supplies IT hardware, software and technical support Designing and installation of custom-built HPC solutions; to two-thirds of UK’s universities, including Oxford and provision of products that cover storage, high-performance, Cambridge, as well as CERN software, servers, learning platforms and training Xyratex Ltd Provider of modular solutions for the enterprise data Advanced, scalable data storage solutions for Original storage and hard disk drive capital equipment industry. Equipment Manufacturers and HPC communities
  • Section B – UK capability in selected technology areas 33Table 3.5: Example of a UK company working in the field of neutron scattering and muon spectroscopy (indicating scope of supply) Organisation Description Field/area of operation Prototech Prototech offers a range of in-house engineering services, including CAD Diversified field of operation which includes Engineering Ltd (see drawing, procurement of materials, machining of components, mechanical manufacturing of prototype and small batch precision- Case Study 3.6) and electrical assembly, and welding and testing of finished products. engineered components and equipment; process Its equipment and services could be used by the gases, chemicals, furnace control systems; cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum and smelting industries, as well as by atomic energy authorities and LRFs. equipment; and specialised welding servicesTable 3.6: Examples of UK academic centres of excellence that support precision engineering (PE) PE centres of excellence Detail Cranfield University Precision CUPE focuses on the design and development of precision production systems, ultra-precision machining, metrology and Engineering (CUPE) micro-engineering. It has supplied precision machines and systems to organisations such as NASA, ESA, ESO, NPL, RAL and high-technology manufacturing companies. CUPE operates ultra-precision laboratories of over 1,000m2 at Cranfield and OpTIC. University of Huddersfield’s CPT focuses on areas such as advanced machining technology, engineering control, machine tool performance and micro Centre for Precision Technologies nano metrology. The University of Huddersfield and the National Physical Laboratory have entered into a Memorandum (CPT) of Understanding to co-operate in engineering measurement research. The CPT is now the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology. Ultra-Precision Structured UPS2 is a partnership combining the ultra-precision expertise of Cranfield University with PE facilities and resources Surfaces Integrated Knowledge held by Glyndŵr Innovations Ltd at OpTIC in North Wales. Other partner institutions include UCL and the University Centre (UPS2) of Cambridge. Specific capabilities are based around a world-class diamond machining system for large area surface structuring and large-sized optics fabrication facilities at OpTIC and Cranfield. This offers a full suite of surface metrology equipment, including measurement interferometers, high stability for form measurement, miniature high accuracy, and white-light for small-scale surface profiling. shared memory machines, and a In October 2011, the UK Government 3.6 Precision engineering large storage facility. announced £145 million in aid to The UK possesses strong academic UK’s Atomic Weapons Establishment support the development of HPC and●● and industrial capabilities in precision (AWE), which has one of the associated e-infrastructure in order to engineering (PE), ranging from most advanced and powerful maintain the UK as a world leader in machining, materials handling, supercomputing facilities in the supercomputing. Improving computing metrology and micro-engineering to world, undertakes three-dimensional infrastructure is considered key to optics. Table 3.6 outlines a number of modelling, simulation and driving growth and giving businesses UK academic centres of excellence that visualisations studies using its HPC confidence to invest in the country. support PE, while Table 3.7 provides a list capabilities. For example, computer of companies that deliver PE solutions. codes used in the mathematical 3.5 Neutron scattering and modelling of nuclear weapons muon spectroscopy Two case studies are also presented. performance are refined using Case Study 3.7 focuses on Zeeko Ltd, The UK’s neutron scattering and muon which offers ultra-precision polishing information from hydrodynamics and spectroscopy capabilities are amply laser experiments, data from studies services for optics used, for example, supported by the ISIS Pulsed Neutron as telescopic mirrors. Case Study 3.8 on how materials age, and results and Muon Source, based at STFC’s RAL, from previous actual nuclear tests. concentrates on OpTIC, a company and through the UK’s subscription to which specialises in precision opticalSupporting this HPC capability are ILL in Grenoble, France, one of the most design and manufacturing.numerous UK companies (some of them intense neutron sources globally. These cases studies demonstrate howare listed in Table 3.4). They include Furthermore, the UK has a number of two small yet highly specialist UKViglen Ltd, which has supplied HPC leading companies which work in this area. companies can engage successfully withequipment to CERN (see Case Study 3.5), These are listed in Tables 3.1 and 3.5. Case LRFs such as NASA and the Europeanwhilst Xyrates Ltd has recently supplied Study 3.6 provides an example of how Southern Observatory.its ClusterStor 3000 – a new optimal Prototech Engineering Ltd, a UK SME, hasscale-out storage platform – to the successfully won contracts from an LRF.University of Cambridge.
  • 34 Large Research FacilitiesTable 3.7: Selected examples of UK organisations that have expertise in precision engineering (PE) (indicating scope of supply) Organisation Description Field/area of operation Claro Precision Established in 1978, Claro specialises in precision machining and CNC milling and turning, material supply, design, Engineering Ltd precision machined parts, sub-contract machining design and assembly, packaging, labelling and managing the manufacture of parts for key areas such as medical instrumentation, anodising, plating, painting and heat treatment of lasers, aerospace, sub-sea and electronics housing. components FGP Precision Established in 1970, FGP offers a complete sub-contract machining CNC milling and turning, manual milling and turning, Engineering Ltd facility to its clients representing the aircraft, automotive, hydraulic grinding, honing, lapping, spark erosion, inspection and nuclear industries. equipment Genesis Precision Genesis provides precision machined components for varied CNC manufacture of components from varied materials Engineering Ltd industries such as medical, optical, laboratory, instrument, electronic, scientific, machinery and component manufacturers. GOM UK Ltd The company’s capabilities include the development and distribution Optical measurement systems of optical measuring systems with a focus on applications such as 3D digitising, 3D co-ordinate measurements, deformation measurements and quality control. GOM systems are used by the automotive, aerospace and consumer goods industry, and by LRFs. Hutton Engineering Hutton Engineering, part of the KAS Technologies Group, specialises CNC milling and turning, water jet cutting, design for (Precision) Ltd in precision machining and precision machined parts, prototyping, manufacture advice, assembly, material supply, packing, production and packaging of materials across sectors such as labelling of components, anodising, plating, painting and medical, Formula One, semiconductor and aerospace. heat treatment of materials Merc Engineering UK Ltd Merc Engineering has expertise in producing customised, high- CNC milling and turning, sliding-head CNC turning, multi- quality precision parts and sub-assemblies for the defence, axis mill turning, EDM wire erosion, EDM spark erosion, aerospace, railway, nuclear, power generation and commercial EDM fast hole drilling, welding and fabrication sectors. OpTIC (see Case Study An offshoot of Glyndŵr Innovations, OpTIC designs and develops Micro-precision engineering: nano-scale polishing, 3.9) prototypes, new processes and products for various industries. micro-precision engineering-structured pattern drums, solar energy research, holography, lasers, polymerisation reaction engineering and optical systems consultancy Pace Precision Pace Precision is a light engineering company involved in the design, Precision CNC machining, milling and turning, prototyping, engineering and production of components for a maintenance and repair, sheet metal and fabrication, CAD broad range of industries, including packaging, defence, aerospace, and prototyping electronics and medical. Scitech Precision Ltd Scitech Precision mainly provides bespoke micro-targets for use in Micro-assembly, thin film coating, characterisation, high-energy photon science experiments. micro-engineering and micro-manufacture based upon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques Taylor Hobson A high-precision engineering company providing contact and non- Optic applications, automotive applications, Aerospect contact metrology solutions for various applications. stack prediction for alignment and measurement of gas turbine and jet engines in the aerospace industry, bearings applications, hard disk, MEMS and semiconductor applications, nano-scale metrology for medical applications and thin film analysis Zeeko Ltd (see Case Established in 2000, Zeeko is a technology company that provides Ultra-precision polishing solutions for optics and complex Study 3.7) ultra-precision polishing solutions for optics and other complex surfaces, manufacture of ultra-specific polishing machines, surfaces such as telescopic surfaces for the aerospace, healthcare, manufacture of corrective polishing machines for fabricating optics, moulded optics, semi-conductor and display industries. high-precision optics, orthopaedic joints, semi-conductor applications and precision moulds in a variety of materials
  • Section B – UK capability in selected technology areas 35AMEC operates the NIRAS laboratory, which provides independentradioactivity testing. Photo by courtesy of AMEC
  • 36 Large Research FacilitiesTable 3.8: Select examples of UK organisations with expertise to supply, build and maintain synchrotron facilities (indicating scope of supply) Organisation Description Field/area of operation FMB Oxford FMB Oxford supplies instrumentation to the scientific community. The company is Beamlines and beamline components, also involved in providing synchrotron beamline components and systems. Their core monochromators, mirror systems, slits, competencies include project management, design, assembly, testing and installation of controls, ancillary components, detectors beamline systems and components. and diagnostics It has delivered key components for three macromolecular crystallography beamlines to Diamond Light Source, two bending magnet beamlines and two insertion device beamlines for the Australian Synchrotron Project, and one beamline for Indus-1 in India. They are currently working on a nano-beamline for ANKA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and an X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline for the CELLS ALBA Synchrotron. Genvolt Genvolt is involved in the design, development and manufacture of DC stabilised high- High-voltage power supplies voltage power supplies. It has recently won contracts from CERN. and RAL. Instrument Design IDT provides a range of components for the synchrotron beamline market. The company Designing and building beamlines and Technology (IDT) has supplied to most synchrotron radiation sources worldwide, including the High Pressure beamline components (see Case Study 3.9) Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source (Chicago, USA), the Hard X-ray Microanalysis at the Canadian Light Source (Saskatoon, Canada) and the Micro-spectroscopy Beamline ID5 at the Australian Synchrotron Project (Melbourne, Australia). Kurt J Lesker Established in 1954, Kurt J Lesker is long considered a global market leader in the Customised vacuum systems and Company manufacture and distribution of high-quality vacuum parts and systems. The company’s support, deposition materials, design and four divisions include; Vacuum Mart, Process Equipment, Materials and Manufacturing. engineering services. The most complete line of vacuum products in the world. Observatory Sciences Observatory Sciences is a leading developer and supplier of software for the control of “big Developing and supplying software for Ltd (see Case Study science” systems and instruments, including large telescopes and synchrotrons. the control of “big science” systems and 3.10) They provide a range of bespoke systems development, consultancy and project instruments, and consultancy management services tailored to the needs of individual clients, and employ a wide range of software technologies for producing control systems, including the EPICS toolkit and the LabVIEW graphical programming language from National Instruments, as well as Java and C/C++ programming. Projects include the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, the Gemini Observatory, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer, the European Extremely Large Telescope, the Discovery Channel Telescope, Diamond Light Source and ITER. Q-par Angus Ltd Q-par Angus’s expertise includes microwave design and manufacture. The company Antenna positioners, the entire range of focuses on R&D and manufacture of microwave components and antenna systems for antennas comprising horn, omni, sinuous the entire breath of radio frequency spectrum. and spiral antennas, sub-systems and bespoke components VG Scienta VG Scienta was formed by merging the businesses of Vacuum Generators and Vacuum components, surface science Gammadata Scienta. It is considered as a worldwide premier supplier of quality products instruments such as spectrometers, and in the area of surface physics, and UHV and vacuum components. VG Scienta Systems (special vacuum systems for scientific use)3.7 Synchrotrons advanced research tool for both applied Technology Centre (ASTeC) located at and fundamental science. STFC’s Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus.The UK’s principal synchrotron light Particle Physics Department at RALsource capability resides in Diamond The UK also has many prominent actively supports the particle physicsat the Harwell Oxford Science and companies that help to build, supply and research programme; its work includesInnovation Campus. Diamond is a not- maintain synchrotron research facilities. construction of large detector systems,for-profit limited company funded as A select number are listed in Tables computing, data analysis and acceleratora joint venture by the UK Government 3.1 and 3.8. Case Studies 3.9 and 3.10 expertise. Some of the global projectsthrough the Science & Technology focus on highlighting two SMEs, namely and experiments that use its expertiseFacilities Council (STFC) in partnership Instrument Design Technology (IDT) and include CERN’s Large Hadron Collider andwith the Wellcome Trust. Observatory Sciences Ltd, which have international grid computing. successfully supplied to synchrotronDiamond and the ESRF serve the Other UK centres for particle physics facilities worldwide.light source community, providing an include the Accelerator Science and
  • Section B – UK capability in selected technology areas 37 “ s an SME specialising in A manufacturing tungsten and other exotic materials, the EFDA contract award for divertor modules in the JET-ITER like wall project was a major milestone in our company’s evolution. It has allowed us to invest and innovate in new manufacturing processes and techniques which have provided the foundation for current and future supply opportunities to all of the Large Research Facilities” Ian Warrington MG Sanders, Project Manager
  • 38 Large Research Facilities Case studies Page 40 – 3.1 Scientific Magnetics and CVT Ltd Page 42 – 3.2 Oxford Instruments and its partnership with ISIS Page 44 – 3.3 Culham Centre for Fusion Energy Page 46 – 3.4 MG Sanders Ltd Page 48 – 3.5 Viglen Ltd – CERN collaboration Page 49 – 3.6 Prototech Engineering Ltd – ISIS collaboration Page 50 – 3.7 Zeeko Ltd Page 52 – 3.8 OpTIC Page 54 – 3.9 Instrument Design Technology Page 56 – 3.10 Observatory Sciences Ltd
  • Section B – Case Studies 39Section BCase studies
  • 40 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.1 Scientific Magnetics and CVT Ltd Two members of the British Cryogenics Cluster, Scientific Magnetics and CVT Ltd, have been collaborating on the design and manufacture of 3D superconducting vector magnets operating in UHV in order to deliver sophisticated instruments that would not be possible if they were operating as individual companies. Scientific Magnetics, world leaders at up to 6 tesla (T). The sample had in the design and manufacture of to be easily transferred into and out superconducting vector magnets, of the system while maintaining a“ aving LRFs as customers H coupled its skills with CVT Ltd, which has pressure of <7 x 10−10mbar. In-situ is essential for our business over 30 years’ experience in the design facilities to prepare the sample surface development as their and manufacture of UHV systems, were essential and included cleaving, particularly sample handling in UHV abrasion, ion beam cleaning and thin- requirements often lead us to conditions. film deposition. new technologies or materials The challenges included maintaining To date, three custom instruments have that we use to our commercial the 10mm diameter sample at any been installed at Diamond Light Source advantage elsewhere” temperature between <5K and 370K UK, Swiss Light Source and the CELLS Richard Davies while applying three orthogonal ALBA Synchrotron in Spain. Managing Director, CVT Ltd magnetic fields, centred on the sample,
  • Section B – Case Studies 41 For further information please visit 3-Axis superconducting magnet andUHV cryostat installed at the DiamondLight Source
  • 42 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.2 Oxford Instruments and its partnership with ISISOxford Instruments provideshigh-technology tools and systems forindustrial and research markets, basedon its ability to analyse and manipulatematter at the smallest scale. Top: 14 Tesla neutron scattering magnet with sample access +10º/-5º in the vertical and 340º in the horizontal directions. Right: The ISIS Neutron source Target Station 2 Experimental HallIt partnered with the ISIS Pulsed Oxford Instruments has supplied successful delivery of these innovativeNeutron and Muon Source at STFC RAL in equipment to ISIS for many years and systems. It has also enabled us toOxfordshire to develop superconducting was prepared to meet the challenge. It expand our knowledge and develop amagnets that would allow a cost- not only provided ISIS with two state-of- new system that we have since beeneffective reduction in the amount the-art magnets, but also collaborated able to offer to other facilities – givingof liquid helium needed to keep the with ISIS scientists to design a system to us a competitive edge over othermagnets cold, especially in ISIS’s Second reduce significantly the consumption of instrument suppliers.”Target Station’s instruments. liquid helium used when cooling them. “ISIS is a well-known and prestigiousTraditional superconducting magnets In traditional devices, liquid helium facility so delivering these innovativeoperate at very low temperatures evaporates into helium gas, which is systems on time has enhanced Oxford(4.2K; −269°C) and generate enormous vented from the system. The device Instruments’ reputation and credibilitymagnetic fields of up to 14T. Keeping from Oxford Instruments captures the as world leaders in superconductingsimilar magnets cold traditionally evaporated gas and turns it back into magnet systems.”requires large amounts of liquid helium, liquid helium. This reduces costs and the The technology developed on the twoan increasingly expensive and scarce frequency of manual refills, which can be ISIS high-field superconducting magnetresource. hazardous if not done properly. systems has since been further exploitedISIS scientist Oleg Kirichek said: “This John Burgoyne, Manager of the Magnets on other magnet systems delivered towas a difficult problem that required Business Group at Oxford Instruments LRFs in the UK, mainland Europe, thea bespoke solution. It presented a said: “Working with ISIS gave us access USA and Australia, continuing to providehuge investment risk for the supplier to some of the world’s leading neutron leading-edge sample environments toas nothing like it had been achieved scientists. Their knowledge and expertise neutron, muon and X-ray synchrotronbefore.”. in neutron scattering was crucial to the beamlines.
  • Section B – Case Studies 43 For further information please visit Above: 9 Tesla and 13.8 Tesla neutron scattering magnet systems with liquid helium recondensing cryostats, installed at the ISIS Neutron Source, UK (ISIS staff and facility images courtesy of ISIS). Right: 9 Tesla, wide-angle neutron scattering magnet system with liquid helium recondensing cryostat“ dvanced superconducting A magnets, cryostats and ultra- low temperature refrigerators developed by Oxford Instruments in collaboration with ISIS open up extraordinary new opportunities across broad areas of science” Dr. Oleg Kirichek Sample Enviroment, The ISIS Facility
  • 44 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.3 Culham Centre for Fusion EnergyIn southern France, an area the size of60 football pitches has been clearedfor the site of the world’s largest fusionenergy experiment. A global partnershipincluding Europe, USA, China and Russiais undertaking the €14 billion ITER projectwhich they believe will be a key steppingstone to commercial fusion power stations.Culham Centre for Fusion Energy is the other countries, but there are more He adds: “The ITER project facesUK’s national fusion laboratory and is opportunities for the taking. significant engineering and projectrecognised for its major contribution to management challenges where UK UK fusion capabilitiesthe worldwide research and development companies can compete effectivelyof this emerging energy source. Already “There has never been a better time – either on their own or as part ofCulham has already successfully bid for British companies to get involved a consortium. The opportunitieswith a number of consortia for funding to in fusion,” says Dan Mistry, Fusion for involvement are wide-ranging,design key parts of the ITER’s systems, and Industry Manager at Culham. from civil, mechanical and electricalincluding the LIDAR diagnostic, which “Investment is increasing with the advent engineering, design consultancy anduses lasers to measure the plasma of ITER – the next construction phase project management, through totemperature, and the ion cyclotron alone is worth at least €2 billion. We instrumentation, advanced materials,resonance and neutral beam heating are playing our part by alerting firms to magnets, vacuum systems, nuclearsystems. opportunities and helping them form technologies and precision engineering.” consortia to bid for contracts. Our firstCulham is also using its considerable aim is for the UK to be number one in £30 million upgradeknowledge and expertise to encourage winning European contracts on ITER Culham Centre for Fusion Energy hostsUK businesses to apply for forthcoming and then to establish this country as a the Europe-wide research collaborationITER contracts. UK firms have already leading player in the future fusion power JET - Joint European Torus – which iswon €150 million of ITER contracts, economy.” currently the largest fusion device in themany in consortia with companies from
  • Section B – Case Studies 45 For further information please visit The inside of the Joint European Torus at Culham with a fusion plasma superimposed (ImageLeft: The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak at Culham courtesy of EFDA-JET)world. Culham also operates the UK’s shown to have knock-on benefits tofusion experiment MAST - the Mega Amp suppliers, worth up to three times theSpherical Tokamak - which is pioneering value of the original project, through newa promising design concept for compact business.” “ here has never been a better Tfusion reactors. A major £30 million Looking further ahead, Professor Steve time for British companiesupgrade to MAST, to be completed in to get involved in fusion. Cowley, Chief Executive of Culham2015, will enable it to test technologyfor future power reactors, including an Centre for Fusion Energy, sees the UK Investment is increasing with becoming a major centre for fusion the advent of ITER – the nextinnovative heat exhaust system which technology, with industry playingmay be adopted in the prototype fusion an integral role. “Although most of construction phase alone ispower station that will follow ITER. worth at least €2 billion” our current programme is focused onThanks to JET and MAST there are ensuring the success of ITER,” he says, Dan Mistryopportunities for UK business to get “we are also increasingly addressing Fusion and Industry Manager at Culhamdirect experience of fusion. “If UK the additional technical challenges forcompanies apply and win contracts commercial fusion – the end it will be a really good opportunity With leading experts in plasma physics,for them to gain valuable experience materials research and power plantif they later bid for ITER,” says Mistry. design, we are well placed to make thisInvolvement in big science projects is transition.”
  • 46 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.4 MG Sanders LtdMG Sanders, an alloy manufacturingand precision engineering company, hasgained an international reputation formanufacturing high-quality tungstenalloys and applying them to a wide rangeof applications, from fusion reactors toFormula One cars.The company is based in Stone, between improvement.” the high temperatures they couldManchester and Birmingham, and withstand,” says Warrington. “Apart He adds: “There aren’t many companiesstarted out in the early 1970s as a small from carbon, tungsten has the highest globally that manufacture componentsfamily precision engineering firm. It has melting point of all the elements, so we from tungsten grades they havesince developed into a thriving small to decided to tender for a contract on the produced themselves. It means thatmedium-sized enterprise (SME) which European JET reactor based in the UK.” we have been able to innovate in thisemploys over 60 people. area because of our control over the €5 million contractToday, its DENSAMET® alloys are in manufacturing of the alloys.” At the time, the tender was a biggreat demand worldwide and are used commitment for MG Sanders as it In addition to tungsten alloys, thein a wide range of sectors, including took over six months of preparation to company also produces componentsdefence, aerospace, automotive, submit the final bid and the same time from other engineering materials,motorsport, nuclear energy and nuclear again before they found out the result. including refractory metals such asmedicine. Yet the hard work paid off. In 2006, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium andIan Warrington, Project Manager for MG tantalum. Turnover has been growing the company successfully won a €5Sanders, says: “We produce a unique steadily in recent years and is expected million contract to supply 50 tungstenproduct by processing in-house tungsten to be well over £10 million in 2012 tile modules for the central part of thepowder through consolidation, sintering thanks in part to the demand from large JET divertor, which has to withstand theand heat treatment in vacuum furnaces scientific projects. highest heat loads of any a fully machined component. When In operation, the tungsten lamellae “We knew our work with tungstenenhanced mechanical properties may have to reach temperatures of and heavy metal alloys would be veryare required, our in-house swaging up to 2,200°C, so each one had to be relevant for fusion research givencapability can give up to a 25 per cent individually shaped to maximise their
  • Section B – Case Studies 47 For further information please visit Left: A CAD image of the ITER like wall installed in JET. Above: Tungsten –LBSRP test array with Langmuir probes. Above right: MGS Vacuum Sinter facility. Right: Single Tungsten-LBSRP showing Inconel 625 wedge carrier and spring assembly. (Images courtesy of EFDA/CCFE and FZ Juelich)power-handling capabilities. “One leads to the other. At CERN we again used our experience of tungsten,“The experience of JET has been but this time to produce absorber platesabsolutely invaluable and has placed for the Compact Linear Collider study.” “ e produce a unique product Wus in a good position to win similarcontracts for other big science projects,” The company also has its sights by processing in-housesays Warrington. “A few years ago we on supplying the world market for tungsten powder throughwere taken over by the Rubicon Partners synchrotrons. It has already carried consolidation, sintering andIndustries LLP Group, which has invested out work for the UK’s Diamond Light heat treatment in vacuuma lot in our facilities, including new CNC Source and, with support from UKTI, isfive-axis machine tools, clean room hoping to win contracts with the French furnaces to a fully machinedassembly facilities, electrical discharge synchrotron at Grenoble. component. When enhancedmachining (EDM) capability and “This year we have been on a UKTI trade mechanical properties areadditional metallurgical management required, our in-house swaging mission to the European Synchrotronresources.” Radiation Facility at Grenoble,” says capability can give up to a 25New business opportunities Warrington. “It was really helpful as per cent improvement”Soon after completing JET, MG Sanders UKTI arranged a lot of interviews for Ian Warringtonwas successful in winning two new us as well as formal and informal Project Manager for MG Sanderscontracts with one of the world’s leading gatherings. It has opened up a lot ofscience experiments at CERN. “I am sure contacts for the company and given uswe got the work at CERN because of our a lot of opportunities, so it was a reallyexperience of JET,” states Warrington. worthwhile trip.”
  • 48 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.5 For further information please visit Viglen Ltd – CERN collaborationViglen is a majorsolutions supplier tothe UK’s corporateand public sectors. Itsupplies IT hardware,software and technicalsupport to the majorityof the UK’s universities,including Oxford andCambridge. Viglen’s first delivery of equipment to CERN. (Image courtesy of CERN)In 2010, Viglen received a portion of two Dr Olof Bärring, Head of Computercontracts worth £1.8 million awarded by Facility Planning and ProcurementCERN. STFC’s subscription to CERN on at CERN, stated: “Viglen was one ofbehalf of the UK helped Viglen bid for the firms awarded large contracts for “ iglen was one of the firms Vthe contracts, which were to provide the expanding our processing and storage awarded large contracts forHPC and storage equipment needed to capacity. This expansion, which expanding our processing andhandle about 15 petabytes (1015 B = 1 represents almost a doubling of themillion gigabytes) of data annually. total capacity, is required for meeting storage capacity” the scientific computing needs of the Dr Olof BärringBordan Tkachuk, Viglen CEO, said: Head of Computer Facility Planning and experiments at CERN’s LHC, the world’s“We are delighted to announce this Procurement at CERN highest-energy particle acceleratoragreement with CERN. Having already commissioned at the end of 2009. Ourworked on some innovative projects with strong requirements on performance,other contributing GridPP UK-based cost and power efficiency were readilysites, we are honoured to be the leading met by Viglen’s solutions and we haveUK-based company to supply HPC been impressed by their experience insolutions to CERN in this way in recent dealing with large-scale computing andyears. Like CERN, we maintain the same storage projects as well as the timelydesire for excellence and this agreement and reliable delivery.”will mean that CERN will possess allthe storage capacity and processingpower for it to remain at the forefront ofscientific research.”
  • Section B – Case Studies 49 Case study 3.6 For further information please visit Prototech Engineering Ltd – ISIS collaborationThe performance of the ISISPulsed Neutron and Muon Sourceis highly dependent on theperformance of its moderators.Costing nearly £50,000 each andreplaced approximately every sixmonths, these moderators aremade up of a complex system oflayers containing cryogenically Inspection of a moderator for ISIS’s newcooled methane and helium. research facility, Target Station 2Being extremely detailed in their design, identify, and put them to good use. If wethese moderators require precision don’t, we may lose them.”engineering. Prototech Engineering Ltd Such tendering opportunities offer small “ he UK is full of small, highly Twon the contract to supply moderators UK companies a chance to supply tofor neutron scattering and muon world-class LRFs and also support local skilled and specialisedspectroscopy for Target Station 2, ISIS’s engineering companies, business. John Greenaway, Managingnew research facility. Director of Prototech, said: “The idea with a lot to offer. PrototechSean Higgins, a lead engineer from that small companies cannot work supplies complex assembliesISIS, said “These components are with big research facilities is wrong.incredibly complicated to manufacture. Small businesses can see huge benefits for moderating cold neutrons.Being able to drive down the road to from the long-term contracts on offer. It’s great to see a small UKPrototech to discuss progress and solve Winning work from large world-class company step up to theproblems has reduced the cost of the facilities such as ISIS gives us the challenge of manufacturingproject. Sometimes you can’t solve confidence to pitch for other large complex assemblies for aproblems on the phone – you need to contracts. And because our formalsit next to each other and work it out. relationship with ISIS is set for four world-class scientific researchThis was an incredibly complex piece of years, we can enjoy valuable long-term facility.”manufacturing and we are very lucky stability at a time when the future of the Sean Higginsto have such skills available in the UK. UK economy is so uncertain.” Project Engineer, ISIS Design DivisionBut it is up to facilities such as ISIS to
  • 50 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.7 Zeeko LtdZeeko Ltd has used British ingenuity to takethe technology it developed for “big science”telescopes and apply it to a completelydifferent sector. Its robotic polisher is able tomake a replica of a knee joint by scanningits surface and turning it into a highlysophisticated prosthetic. And the key tomaking such a precise replica of a knee jointis the high degree of accuracy.“We produce ultra-precise surfaces where for the technology, whether it’s plastic Perhaps Zeeko’s greatest success to datethe overall shape is a few hundred atoms injection moulds, a semi-conductor wafer has been its involvement in the NASAand their roughness is a few tens of or a compact camera lens,” says Richard 2009 satellite that was launched to remapatoms,” says Dr David Walker, Research Freeman, Zeeko’s Managing Director. the moon’s surface. The optics used inDirector of Zeeko, as well as Research the two on-board cameras were entirely Big science projectsProfessor at UCL and Professor of Optics produced on Zeeko machines operatingat Glyndŵr. Today, Zeeko has an annual turnover in California. Zeeko is also involved in the in excess of £6 million and machines European Extremely Large Telescope withToday, Zeeko is a world leader in in use all over the world. While the its 42m primary mirror and the equivalentthe development and manufacture applications for the Zeeko machines are US Thirty Meter Telescope.of computer-controlled, ultra-high- vast, the company has also stayed trueprecision polishing machines that can to its roots. “The larger Zeeko machines Large Research Facilitiesproduce freeform artifacts from 1.5mm are focused on the astronomical optics From its early days Zeeko has worked withto 2m in diameter. market and their demand for segmented many of the leading research institutesWhile the company’s first products telescopes that comprise large numbers throughout the world. “Large Researchserved the optics industry, it has adapted of off-axis segments,” explaind Walker Facilities are always trying to push thethe technology not only for prosthetics “This is a market that we are well placed boundaries and as a result they oftenbut also for semi-conductors, display to satisfy as we are leaders in the want to use our machines in ways that wetechnology, mould making, aerospace processing of off-axis components, as never originally envisaged,” says Freeman.and the healthcare market, including well as developing the technology to “For example, while they were originallyendoscope lenses, contact lenses and polish to the edge without rolling and designed to polish glass, you may getintra-ocular lenses. The list could go on. degrading it.” an academic researcher wanting to use“We are constantly finding new uses it for tungsten carbide or, at the other
  • Section B – Case Studies 51 For further information please visit Below: High-Precision Glass Shell used for makingLeft: Zeeko IRP1600 Machine at OpTIC, St Asaph; currently polishing the Sample X-Ray Telescopes, being measured on Ultra-Segments for the ESO 42 Metre Telescope. Below: The Queen’s Award being awarded by Precision Metrology Equipment. Bottom: A view ofLady Gretton to Richard Freeman (MD), with the Zeeko Team the Zeeko Production Floorextreme, plutonium. This is really helpful eventually have found a way of meetingfor us as it is a further opportunity to test these people, UKTI made it a lot easierour machines to the limits and ensure we and quicker. Also, when working overseashave robust products.” they have been very helpful at market “ e produce ultra-precise WZeeko also offers many other benefits. introductions as well as cutting through surfaces where the overall red tape. I have a rather special place in shape is a few hundred atoms“Leading-edge scientists have bright my heart for UKTI because I really thinkideas and we like collaborating with they make a difference.” and their roughness is a fewthem,” says Freeman. “It helps us to tens of atoms”keep moving the company forward and Dr David Walkerdeveloping new applications. More than Research Director of Zeeko20 per cent of our annual revenue isspent on research and development,which is the lifeblood of the business.”Freeman is in no doubt that UKTI hasbeen key to helping them grow over theyears. “UKTI has been tremendouslyhelpful in all sorts of ways,” he states.“Last year, I went to NASA with them andmade a lot of useful connections. Thisyear I was at Farnborough with UKTI andgot to meet space- and aerospace-basedcompanies. While I am sure I would A Zeeko IRP 1200 Machine
  • 52 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.8 OpTICA pioneering Welsh company thatspecialises in precision optical designand manufacturing has developed anew technology that greatly enhancesthe energy uptake for commercial usephotovoltaic cells. In just 12 months,OpTIC has increased sales from £50,000 to£500,000 for its specialist copper mouldsthat are used to produce a fine film forconcentrating ultraviolet (UV) light througha Fresnel lens.John Oliver, Marketing Director of Academic collaboration University. However, what is critical isOpTIC, says “We have the world’s most However, mould making is just that they are based on-site here andadvanced CNC optical machines and one arm of this company that regarded as part of our team as well asas a result have become leaders in specialises in designing, developing being customer facing.”the production of high-precision film and manufacturing customised OpTIC is based within one of Europe’smoulds. Our specialist staff and unique precision optical and opto-mechanical largest purpose-built industrial-scaledrum diamond turning machine give components and systems. It has a facilities. The laboratory space has anclients the opportunity to replicate capability that has worldwide demand unparalleled array of highly specialistpatterns to tolerances and designs – the past two years have seen OpTIC manufacturing and testing equipment.unparalleled in the world.” increase its exports fivefold. “When we are micro-cutting a precisionAs well as solar power, the company “We’re competing against large global drum – which could take up to 15 daysalso predicts that there is a similar organisations, so collaborating with at a time – the environment needs to befast-growing market for moulds to other UK organisations to enhance highly controlled and vibration resistant 24produce film for light-emitting diode our international reputation has been hours a day,” says Olive. “We specificallyluminaires, which are significantly more key,” says Oliver. “In particular, we’ve chose this peaceful rural location in Northenergy efficient than traditional lighting partnered with leading academic Wales because of our highly specialisedsystems. Film produced from its moulds organisations to help develop new manufacturing requirements, butis also being used to diffuse light in processes and products – such as also because of the transport links tocomputer and television screens. Cranfield, UCL and nearby Glyndŵr international airports such as Manchester.”
  • Section B – Case Studies 53 For further information please visit Opposite: Programming a CNC polishing machine. Top left: Two of OpTIC’s large glass polishing machines. Top right: 1.5m diameter mirror segment prepared for polishing. Bottom left: R&D tests on smaller mirror. Bottom right: Polishing one of the world’s largest telescope mirrors€5 million telescope contract growth market. The aerospace marketOne of OpTIC’s recent major successes also demands mirrors that are equallyhas been securing a €5 million contract precise, but are much lighter in weightto make the first seven prototype – typically 70-80 per cent lighter than “ e’re competing against Wmirror segments for the world’s largest normal – and we now have a new large global organisations, sotelescope – the European Extremely machine that can produce for this collaborating with other UKLarge Telescope – in Chile. When specification as well.” organisations to enhance ourcompleted, the telescope will require 931 As well as manufacturing, the companyhexagon-shaped mirrors. The mirrors international reputation has also offers a precision engineeringare 0.24nm in accuracy and 1.5m in design and testing service for optical been key”diameter and polished on the largest systems. This enables clients to go John OliverCNC machine of its type in the world. rapidly from concept design through to Marketing Director of OpTIC,“The success we have had with this product verification and prototyping.machine means that there is a realopportunity for moving into othersectors as the technologies are similar,”says Oliver. “So, for example, we canmake optics for fusion reactors, whichhave an even greater potential future
  • 54 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.9 Instrument Design TechnologyIDT, a Cheshire-based UK company thatspecialises in designing and buildingbeamlines for synchrotrons, is doublingits laboratory space following a continualgrowth in orders.In the first six months of 2011, IDT won “My partner at IDT and I met while getting plenty of work but were alsowell over £500,000-worth of contracts working as engineers at Daresbury finding that synchrotron facilities wereto supply beamlines for synchrotron during the 1980s,” he states. “It meant asking suppliers not only to design andfacilities around the world. These we gained first-hand experience of build the beamlines but also to provideinclude contracts with some of the most developing beamlines for the world’s first control software to complement theirprestigious global research facilities, dedicated synchrotron radiation source.” hardware instruments,” he explains.including Diamond Light Source, the “As we hadn’t got this skill in-house, we It proved valuable experience and ledAustralian Synchrotron Project and the relied on external consultants. By 2004, Murray to further work at other majorAdvanced Photon Source in Chicago. we decided that if we were to continue to synchrotron facilities around the world: build the company, we needed to haveSynchrotrons produce very bright beams the Advanced Photon Source in Chicago this capacity in-house.”of light – sometimes substantially and the European Synchrotron Radiationbrighter than the sun. The result is an Facility in Grenoble. On his return to the IDT secured funding from a governmentextremely powerful tool to study samples UK in 2000, he and others set up IDT. scheme to send one of its staff withat a molecular level, and therefore a PhD in physics on a six-month “It was a good time to start such asynchrotrons are in great demand by a secondment to the GeoSoilEnviro Center specialist company as governmentsworldwide community of scientists. for Advanced Radiation Sources at the around the world had started to invest University of Chicago.Paul Murray, Managing Director of heavily in synchrotron facilities and ourIDT, has considerable expertise and skills were in big demand,” he recalls. “This was a great opportunity as ourexperience in the world of synchrotron member of staff got to work with a Early in the development of thebeamlines, having worked since the leading research team and learn how company, Murray realised that if theyearly 1980s on some of the world’s to apply EPICS instrument control were to continue to grow they neededleading research facilities. software to our beamline work. It was to add new skills to the team. “We were
  • Section B – Case Studies 55 For further information please visit Micro-spectroscopy Beamline @ Australian Synchrotron –Melbourne. Designed, built and commissioned by IDTa real success and has made a big IDT is involved in all stages of designing,difference to our ability to tender for building and testing precision opto-much larger contracts,” says Murray. mechanical systems for synchrotron beamlines and other related scientific “ y partner at IDT and I met MToday, the company, which has TotalQuality Management System ISO instruments. while working as engineers at9001:2008 accreditation, is one of only a “IDT has core competencies in the Daresbury during the 1980s.small handful in the world that can offer design and build of complex multi- It meant we gained first-handa complete design and build service for axis instruments, often working in an experience of developingsynchrotron beamlines. It employs 12 ultra-high vacuum environment underpeople, has a turnover in excess of £1.5 high heat loads,” states Murray. “The beamlines for the world’smillion and is regarded as a world leader complex optical engineering focusing first dedicated synchrotronin beamline instrumentation. systems for X-rays often have novel radiation source” concepts incorporated.” He adds, “We“The staff of IDT have decades of Paul Murray have a growing reputation for novel Managing Director of IDTcombined experience in professional monochromators with exceptionalengineering and the design, planning proven performance in the field. Ourand construction of innovative Small Mirror Kirkpatrick-Baez X-rayinstrumentation at the very highest focusing systems are the market lead.”level of scientific facility development,”says Murray. “They include mechanicalengineers, PhD physicists and highlyskilled technicians.”
  • 56 Large Research Facilities Case study 3.10 Observatory Sciences LtdObservatory Sciences Ltd is one of theworld’s leading developers of software forthe control of “big science” systems andinstruments, in particular large telescopes.The company, which is based in Sussexand Cambridge, has a core team of sixspecialists, who all have a background inastronomy and computer science.“We use a wide range of software Heason Technology in the UK, Danfysik It will have unprecedented abilities totechnologies for producing control in Denmark and ACCEL and attocube in view solar detail and allow scientistssystems, including the EPICS toolkit and Germany.” to learn even more about the sun andthe LabVIEW graphical programming solar–terrestrial interactions. The ATST Astronomy and astrophysics projectslanguage from National Instruments, as project is a collaboration of nearly all thewell as Java and C/C++ programming,” Observatory Sciences has worked American institutions involved with solarsays Philip Taylor, who helped set up with many of the world’s LRFs on physics and is run by the US Nationalthe company 13 years ago. “We not astronomy and astrophysics projects. Solar Observatory based in Arizona.only develop control systems, but also They include the Gemini Observatory in Chile and Hawaii, the Magdalena Benefits of working with LRFscarry out feasibility and technologystudies and training for clients, as well Ridge Observatory Interferometer, the There are many benefits of working withas placing our scientists on the ground European Extremely Large Telescope and LRFs, both directly and indirectly as ato see projects through from concept to the Discovery Channel Telescope. sub-contractor for other companies.completion.” “Working for LRFs means that we get a The company recently won a contract lot of variety as well as getting to workHe adds, “We also give software support to produce the software that will control with some of the world’s best scientiststo providers of equipment used in the world’s largest solar telescope. The on cutting-edge projects. It is extremelyscientific facilities, particularly in the US$298 million Advanced Technology rewarding,” says Dr Chris Mayer, aarea of motion control. We have worked Solar Telescope (ATST) will have a Director of Observatory Sciences.with a number of companies in Europe, 4m-diameter primary mirror and willincluding Micromech, Delta Tau and be sited at an altitude of 3,048m on the There are also real practical benefits of Hawaiian island of Maui. working with a large institution.
  • Section B – Case Studies 57 For further information please visit of ATST looking south.(Image courtesy of KC Environmental Inc) Cutaway view of the ATST observatory facility. (Image courtesy of AURA/NSO/ATST)“LRFs are big organisations and are not projects such as the UK’s Diamond Lightgoing to go bust, which is good news Source a difficult world economic climate,” “Our consultants have been responsiblestates Mayer. “It also means that you get “ e use a wide range of W for the production of Diamondpaid on time, which for a small company software systems, as well as writing software technologies foris really important. Additionally, while producing control systems, and commissioning software usedthere are no guarantees, you oftenget the opportunity to work on these to control beamline equipment and including the EPICS toolkit carrying out training courses,” explains and the LabVIEW graphicalprojects for many years because they Mayer. “We have also been involved inare so large and have long time scales. the Australian Synchrotron Project in programming languageAnd of course, success on one LRF from National Instruments, Melbourne. We will continue to look forproject means it is much easier to win other opportunities with LRFs to use and as well as Java and C/C++future ones.” apply our skills, for example in the field programming”The future looks bright for the company. of medicine or fusion energy projects. Philip TaylorWhile it continues to specialise in It’s an exciting time.” Director of Observatory Sciences Ltdastronomy, it is also branching out intonew areas. In recent years, it has appliedits considerable specialist skills to thedevelopment of control systems for
  • 58 Large Research Facilities“ he UK has invested T significantly in Large Research Facilities over the past decade, ensuring that our scientists have access to the world- leading capabilities they need to remain at the forefront of research and to address the pressing problems faced by society and the economy” John Womersley Chief Executive, STFC
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 59Section CLarge ResearchFacilitiesin the UK
  • 60 Large Research Facilities Large Research Facilities in the UKThis chapter concentrates on providingan overview of the LRFs currently based inthe UK. This has been included not only toincrease the reader’s understanding of thediverse range and capabilities of UK LRFs,but also in recognition that many LRFsare increasingly undertaking contractresearch in order to provide solutions Right: Professor Fred Mosselmans loading ato academic and industrial challenges sample of wood from the Tudor warship the Mary Rose on the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline.around the world. Diamond is helping with the design of a new treatment to ensure that the Mary Rose can be on public display for years to come. (Image courtesy of Diamond Light Source)4.1 Introduction such as the Dalton Nuclear Institute at 4.2 Science and Technology  the University of Manchester. Some of Facilities CouncilThe UK has some of the world’s most these centres, such as the Integratedprestigious LRFs, which conduct leading- STFC, one of the UK’s seven Research Vehicle Health Management (IVHM)edge R&D in a wide variety of disciplines Councils, is keeping the country at the Centre based at Cranfield University,such as the medical and biological forefront of international science and the Advanced Manufacturing Researchsciences, astronomy, chemistry, tackling some of the most significant Centre (AMRC) at Sheffield Universitygeology, environmental and materials challenges facing society. These include and the Nuclear AMRC, a collaborationsciences, physics and engineering. meeting our future energy needs, between the Universities of Sheffield andThe majority of these facilities are Manchester, have been funded through monitoring and understanding climatefunded by the UK Government through a public–private partnership with change and ensuring global security.organisations such as the United commercial organisations such as BAE It has a broad science portfolio andKingdom Atomic Energy Authority’s Systems, Boeing and Rolls-Royce. works with the academic and industrialCulham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), communities to share its expertise in All these facilities are increasingly takingthe National Nuclear Laboratory and materials science, space and ground- the form of distributed, networkedthe Research Councils (for example, based astronomy technologies, laser resources that exploit advances inthe Science and Technology Facilities science, microelectronics, wafer-scale information and communicationsCouncil (STFC), the Natural Environment manufacturing, particle and nuclear technology to underpin new modesResearch Council (NERC), the physics, alternative energy production, of collaborative research, rather thanBiotechnology and Biological Sciences radio communications and radar. operating as large physical installations.Research Council (BBSRC) and the In 2010, the Government also STFC operates and hosts world-classMedical Research Council (MRC)). UK announced the creation of a series experimental facilities in the UK andcharities such as the Wellcome Trust of Catapult centres to help drive the overseas. It also enables UK researchersalso play a leading role in supporting commercialisation of technologies to access leading international scienceLRFs, including Diamond Light Source, from the research base and to support facilities by funding membership ofthe UK’s national synchrotron science business-driven innovation. international bodies including CERN, thefacility. Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), the EuropeanThe UK also has a number of research An overview of a selection of the UK’s Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) andcentres embedded within universities, LRFs is presented below.
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 61 Above: Dr Claire Pizzey on Diamond’s Small Angle Scattering & Diffraction beamline. This experimental station is used for a wide range of studies; from protecting historic parchment to improving corneal surgery. (Image courtesy of Diamond Light Source)the European Southern Observatory (ESO). to generate brilliant beams of light from materials science, engineering, and earthThe following are some of the key UK infrared to X-rays, which are used for and environmental sciences.facilities funded by STFC. academic and industrial R&D across a Diamond is being developed in three range of scientific disciplines including phases. A total of 20 beamlines are4.2.1 Diamond Light Source structural biology, physics, chemistry, now operational, with two more due toDiamond Light Source is the UK’s nationalsynchrotron facility, located at HarwellOxford, the national science and innovationcampus in Oxfordshire. Construction of thisresearch facility began in early 2003, andDiamond became operational on schedulein early 2007.It is run by Diamond Light Source Ltd, ajoint venture limited company fundedby the UK Government via STFC and theWellcome Trust. These organisations own86 per cent and 14per cent of the sharesrespectively in the limited company,which is operated as a public–privatepartnership. This type of funding modelis groundbreaking and has been set upto encourage industry not only to utilisethe synchrotron facility but also to spreadthe cost of maintaining and running it. One of the five macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at Diamond, I04 is used to carry outDiamond is the largest scientific facility to research in the life sciences, helping to determine the 3D structures of proteins and other large biological molecules. Previous studies using structural data from Diamond’s MX beamlines include gaining a betterbe built in the UK for over 40 years. understanding of hypertension in the pre-natal condition pre-eclampsia, learning how a key tuberculosisA third-generation synchrotron, Diamond drug is activated, understanding how bird flu can affect humans, and revealing the mechanism used byaccelerates electrons to near light-speed HIV to attack the body.. See page 12 for an aerial view of the Diamond Synchrotron.
  • 62 Large Research Facilities PhD student Teresa Buenavista on Diamond’s Circular Dichroism (CD) beamline. CD is a technique that can help us understand the structure-function relationship in proteins, an essential step in identifying new targets for novel drug therapeutics Central Laser Facility – Right: Adjusting mirrors in the front end pump laser for the Vulcan 1 PW Petawatt Laser Facility, one of the most powerful lasers in the world. With the potential to upgrade to 10 PW, enabling the further advancement of extreme physics, giving the ability to investigate pulsar magnetospheres - the science of stars. Far Right: The lasers are being collimated and aligned before entering a TIRF microscope. The microscope was set up for either wavelength (an adjustment to a filter ring enabled the changeover). (Credit: James Berridge)come online in 2012. Each beamline passes through a carbon target. The protons the structure of materials and how thisis optimised for a specific technique then go on to collide with a tungsten target relates to their possible use.and ranges from macromolecular and produce neutron pulses. ISIS research has been used to improvecrystallography to angle-resolved Neutron scattering and muon the performance of aircraft and powerphotoemission spectroscopy. In March spectroscopy can then be used to stations; develop bio-compatible2011, Phase III was launched, which probe the structure and dynamics of materials, including a new methodinvolves building an additional 10 condensed matter on a microscopic for cleft-palate treatment and plasticadvanced beamlines between 2011 and scale ranging from the subatomic to the surgery; identify solutions for waste2018, bringing the total to 32. macromolecular. Neutrons and muons water treatment, such as determining theOver 3,000 researchers from the UK and can easily penetrate matter and, by fate of nanoparticles or characterisingworldwide currently use Diamond, and this pinpointing the location of atoms and the breakdown of environmentalwork generates several hundred research molecules, it is possible to determine contamination by natural enzymes; andpapers in leading scientific journals everyyear. Diamond increasingly supportsindustrial R&D, technology and innovationin areas ranging from drug discovery anddesign through catalysts and energyapplications to aerospace engineering.4.2.2 ISISThe ISIS Pulsed Neutron and MuonSource at RAL Space, located in Harwell,Oxford is a world-leading research centrein the physical and life sciences. At theheart of ISIS is a proton accelerator thatproduces intense pulses of protons 50times per second.Muons are produced when the proton beam The ISIS Neutron source Target Station 2 Experimental Hall.
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 63in the discovery of new materials for ●● Imat – Neutron imaging and Table 4.1: STFC CLF laser systemshydrogen storage and clean energy. materials testing for power generation, civil engineering, LaserDuring 2009, ISIS completed a £145 facilities Details transportation and aerospace.million expansion by building a second Vulcan This petawatt laser can delivertarget station to increase scientific ●● Larmor – Advanced techniques a focused beam, which for 1capability and add capacity for the key instrument for polymer science, picosecond is 10,000 times more powerful than the Nationalresearch areas of soft matter, advanced biomaterials and food science. Grid. Vulcan plays a key rolematerials and bioscience. There is in laser plasma research in ●● Zoom – Small-angle scattering the UK, especially the role ofcapacity for at least 18 new instruments instrument for advanced materials, inertial fusion in the UK fusionon the second target station. programme. biological and environmental science, OCTOPUS Optics Clustered to OutPut UniqueSeven instruments have been built pharmacy and magnetism. Solutions comprises a centralduring Phase One and all are operational. core of lasers coupled to multiple Overall, the neutron and muon beams advanced microscopy stationsThe Phase Two Instruments Project will that can be used to image samples produced at ISIS are used in researchbuild the next four instruments together from single molecules to whole areas ranging from clean energy and cells and tissues.with the necessary advanced detectors, the environment to pharmaceuticals, Artemis This aims to bring togetherelectronics and software. The four new nanotechnology and information femtosecond laser andinstruments, listed below, will give ISIS synchrotron technologies to technology. enable new science in thescientific capability that is in short supply emerging field of ultra-fast time-worldwide: resolved X-ray techniques. 4.2.3 Central Laser Facility●● Chipir – Facility for the aerospace The Central Laser Facility (CLF) at Astra This is a high-power, ultra-short pulse, high repetition rate laser and electronics industries to STFC’s RAL is a world leader in its field. using titanium-doped sapphire as examine how microchips respond to Its wide-ranging applications include its active material, and works in the near infrared part of the spectrum. cosmic radiation, thereby ensuring experiments in physics, chemistry that computer systems for cars, Astra This is an extension of Astra, and biology, accelerating subatomic Gemini which can deliver 30 times as communications and medical particles to higher energies and much energy. The extreme equipment operate reliably, and concentration of energy possible probing chemical reactions on the with Gemini makes it one of the keeping aircraft safe. shortest timescales. most intense lasers in the world.
  • 64 Large Research Facilities Central Laser Facility – Targets with the dimensions in microns act as “samples” for investigations into the physics of extreme conditions comparable to temperatures and pressures at the centre of the sun; they are at the forefront of research into laser-induced fusion as a potential energy source and particle beam therapies for cancer treatment.The CLF provides access to large-scale 4.2.4  omputational Science and C In 2011, the UK Government announcedlaser systems for researchers from the Engineering an investment of £37.5 million inUK and other EU countries. The facility The International Centre of Excellence in computational science at Daresburyoperates high-power glass and Ti:sapphire Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory. This will see the existinglaser installations and a number of (ICE-CSE) is located at STFC’s Daresbury infrastructure upgraded to enable thesmaller-scale, tuneable lasers. Its laser Laboratory. ICE-CSE is a new kind of ICE-CSE to host the next generation offacilities are listed in Table 4.1. computational science institute for high-performance computing systems the UK. It brings together academic, (Blue Gene/Q, iDataplex, Data IntensiveThe CLF also has a Target Fabrication government and industry communities Systems and large disc and tape storageGroup, who possess extensive experience and focuses on multidisciplinary, multi- systems).in micro-assembly, thin-film coating,characterisation of micro-targets and scale, efficient and effective simulation These improvements will put the ICE-CSEmicro-machining. by creating next-generation simulation at the forefront of the development of software. new software applications and services,They work closely with the user The aim of ICE-CSE is to provide a step- which in turn should enhance the UK’scommunity to provide advice, change in simulation and modelling ability to address key challenges anddelivery and characterisation of high- capabilities that will address key societal deliver new breakthroughs in science inspecification micro-targets. They are challenges such as environmental the next few years.also actively involved in R&D projectsinto novel target designs and micro- monitoring, more accurate weather andassembly techniques to be able to climate prediction, developing cleanerdeliver targets for the high-power lasers and more efficient energy sources andof the future. modelling new medicines.
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 65 Left: The view shows the first LOFAR station to be built, located at STFC’s Chilbolton Observatory. Unlike conventional radio telescopes, there are no moving parts, but steering of the telescope is done in software. When completed, LOFAR will consist of over 5,000 separate antennas spread in “stations” all over Europe. The project is based in the Netherlands where the core of the array is located. Below left: One of the LOFAR Low-Band Array (LBA) aerials at Chilbolton 4.2.5  hilbolton Facility for C Atmospheric and Radio Research The Chilbolton Facility for Atmospheric and Radio Research (CFARR) is one of the most advanced meteorological radar experimental facilities in the world, and is home to the world’s largest fully steerable meteorological radar, the Chilbolton Advanced Meteorological Radar. In January 2006, Chilbolton received the first signals from the new GIOVE-A satellite, launched for the European Space Agency’s Galileo navigation system. The main research tool at the Chilbolton Observatory is a 25m, fully steerable antenna. The pioneering 3GHz Doppler- polarisation radar is installed on this antenna, along with the 1275MHz clear air radar. Other facilities at the site include 35GHz and 94GHz cloud radar systems, meteorological sensors and a high- power UV Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) that measures clouds and water-vapour profiles.
  • 66 Large Research FacilitiesThe Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes 4.2.6  saac Newton Group of I imaging and spectroscopy. In turn, thesesituated on the island of La Palma, one of Telescopes observations have helped in discoveringthe Canary Islands the accelerated expansion of the universe The Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes consists of the 4.2m William Herschel and have contributed to developments Telescope, the 2.5m Isaac Newton in the fields of observational cosmology, Telescope and the 1m Jacobus Kapteyn gamma-ray bursts, galaxy dynamics and Telescope, operating on the island of La star evolution. Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain. The William Herschel Telescope remainsBelow: The James Clerk Maxwell Telecsope with These facilities have allowed researchers at the forefront of astronomical research,its gortex covering is able to observe during the to undertake a wide range of astronomical aided by continued development ofdaytime. Below right: A view from inside JCMT.The backing structure provides support for the observations, from the optical instrumentation, particularly in the field15m dish. wavelengths to the infrared, covering both of adaptive optics.
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 67 Left: Aerial view of the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, including the UK ATC, from the South East. Below left: KMOS is a state-of-the art multi- object spectrograph working at near-infrared wavelengths, which will be installed on the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile in Autumn 2012. This new instrument, built by a British-German consortium, will be an invaluable tool to investigate the physical, chemical and dynamical processes which shape the evolution of galaxies over the entire history of the Universe. In fact, its ability to carry out spatially-resolved 3D spectroscopy for 24 sources simultaneously by using deployable Integral Field Units, will be essential to trace the star-formation and mass assembly history of galaxies from the local Universe up to very early epochs, just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang 4.2.7  K Astronomy U Technology Centre The UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) is the national centre for astronomical technology. Based at the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh and operated by STFC, its technology can be found in telescopes both on the ground and in space. The UK ATC designs and builds state- of-the-art instruments for many of the world’s major telescopes, including the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) the James Webb Space Telescope and the European Extremely Large Telescope, as well as conducting observational astronomical research. It also manages UK and international astronomy collaborations with universities, research centres, national institutes and industry. The expertise it has built-up over many years of designing and building such world-class astronomy instruments and telescopes is now being exploited in other areas of scientific research, including particle physics and synchrotrons, and in performing cutting-edge industrial work for both UK and international customers.
  • 68 Large Research Facilities4.2.8 Joint Astronomy Centre 4.2.9 RAL Space  instruments will withstand the rigoursThe Joint Astronomy Centre (JAC) is RAL Space, STFC’s space science of a space mission. Hence, equipmentlocated in Hilo, on the east coast of the department, has been at the forefront and materials need to be tested forBig Island of Hawaii. The Centre houses of UK space research for 50 years, resilience to extreme temperatures,the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, which possessing a unique combination of vibrations and pressure. RAL Space’sis the largest astronomical telescope in science and engineering expertise, Environmental Test Facility undertakesthe world designed specifically to operate laboratories and testing facilities. It this task and consists of a vibration testin the submillimetre wavelength region undertakes world-leading space research facility; the UK’s largest thermal vacuumof the spectrum. It also operates the and technology development, provides chamber; vacuum bakeout facilities;United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, the space test and ground-based facilities, and large, clean rooms for assembly andworld’s largest telescope dedicated solely designs and builds instruments, integration of sensitive flight infrared astronomy. analyses and processes data and The facility produces work to the strict operates S-band and X-band ground- quality standards imposed by theThese telescopes are used to study the station facilities, as well as leading European Space Agency and NASA. Thesechemistry of interstellar gas and its conceptual studies for future missions. high standards have nurtured an outlooktemperature, density and motion andto enhance our understanding of how For example, the assembly and testing which ensures that testing remains withinthe planets, stars and galaxies were of products and instruments designed timescales and is of consistent quality.born and evolved into the universe we for use in space missions is essential in In recognition of its space productsee today. order to ensure that these products and assurance system, the facility has been
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 69RAL Space – Left: Paul Eccleston prepares the Mid-Infrared Instrument(MIRI) for cryogenic testing in the thermal vacuum in RAL Space’s spacetest chamber. Below: The Precision Development Facility, RAL Space andMillimetre Wave Technology is a comprehensive and well-equipped facilityproviding expertise in precision machining and novel component prototypingassociated with the manufacture of miniature detectors. Using specialisedtechniques, components as small as 100 x 26 microns can be produced.Right: One of the RAL Space’s CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machinetools in the Precision Development Facility; providing precision machiningand novel component prototyping. Below right: Paul Eccleston and DaveRippington of RAL Space, test the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) in thevibration test facility within the space test facilities.awarded ISO 9000:2000 accreditation. ●● Initial design of Diamond, the UK’s advanced third-generation lightOverall, the capabilities of RAL Space source on the Harwell Oxford Campus,have allowed it to work with space andground-based groups around the world. ●● Conceptual studies of fourth- generation light sources, including4.2.10  ccelerator Science and A the 4GLS project (based on energy Technology Centre recovery technology) and New LightThe Accelerator Science and Technology Source (a state-of-the-art, high-Centre (ASTeC) studies all aspects of performance superconducting linearthe science and technology of charged accelerator-based proposal),particle accelerators, ranging from large- ●● Concept, construction andscale international and national research commissioning of ALICE (Accelerators The pioneering EMMA (Electron Model for Manyfacilities, such as Diamond Light and Lasers In Combined Experiments), Applications) accelerator is a prototype for a brandSource and ISIS, through to specialised an accelerator test facility at STFC’s new type of particle accelerator that will massivelyindustrial and medical applications. The Daresbury Laboratory, based around impact fundamental science by changing the wayASTeC record includes: Europe’s first operational energy such accelerators across the world are designed recovery system. and built in the future
  • 70 Large Research Facilities●● Design and build of EMMA, a to world-leading advances in electron, environmental sciences. It tackles some revolutionary fixed-field alternating neutron and muon accelerator of the world’s most important issues, gradient accelerator at the Daresbury development and in maximising their such as climate change, environmental Laboratory, which will contribute to scientific and societal impact. influences on human health, sustainable advances in cancer therapy, energy use of natural resources, biodiversity, ASTeC has recently secured £2.5 million generation and industrial processing, earth system science and the genetic of Government funding to establish Leading roles in the two latest make-up of life on earth.●● a novel Electron Beam Test Facility international studies into future particle in partnership with sector-leading NERC works internationally and has physics accelerators (an electron linear businesses, the primary focus of which bases in the most inhospitable parts collider and a neutrino factory), will be to develop the next generation of the planet, including the Antarctic.●● Preliminary studies on next-generation of more compact, efficient and cost- It also runs a number of research spallation neutron source options. effective accelerators. ships and aircraft and invests in satellite technology to monitor gradualTogether with additional R&D facilities 4.3 Natural Environment environmental change on a global scale.and expertise in all aspects of enabling Research Council NERC currently operates six researchtechnologies such as beam simulation, NERC is the UK’s main agency for centres: the British Antarctic Survey (BAS),radio-frequency design, diagnostics funding and undertaking research, the British Geological Survey (BGS), theand vacuum science, ASTeC contributes training and knowledge exchange in the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 71 British Antarctic Survey – Left: Halley VI. Above: A BAS Twin Otter with a halo behind during a refuel stop near Bluefields depot, on the way to Halley Research Station. Right: Dr Liz Thomas of the British Antarctic Survey conducts initial analysis of the Gomez ice coreNational Centre for Atmospheric Science atmosphere to the depths of oceanic Rothera, Halley and Signy, and two(NCAS), the National Centre for Earth trenches. Its timespan encompasses a stations on South Georgia at King EdwardObservation (NCEO) and the National billion years of geological history and it is Point and Bird Island. These stations areOceanography Centre (NOC). crucial for understanding how the Earth supported by: operates as a global system. Two ice-strengthened ships: the JamesThey provide key national capability ●●and leadership to the UK environmental Current BAS projects include a Clark Ross, which has facilities forscience community and play an multinational collaborative study of the oceanographic research, and the Ernestinfluential role in international science Gamburtsev mountains (the size of the Shackleton, primarily a logistics shipcollaborations. These research centres Alps, under the Antarctic ice sheet) and used for the re-supply of stations,are briefly described below. a leading role in the NERC consortium to ●● Five aircraft: four Twin Otter aircraft, explore the sub-glacial Lake Ellsworth. fitted with wheels and skis and4.3.1 British Antarctic Survey Without such fundamental research, operated from Rothera and Halley, andBAS has, for over 60 years, undertaken our ability to predict and safeguard the a wheels-only Dash-7 aircraft whichand enabled the majority of Britain’s future of Antarctica and Earth’s complex provides the inter-continental air-linkscientific research on and around ecosystem would be greatly diminished. from Rothera to the Falkland Islands,Antarctica. NERC invests around £37 million every and flies inland to ice runways.Polar science, the principal focus of BAS, year in BAS, which, among other At Halley, where BAS scientistsextends from the outer limits of the Earth’s activities, runs three Antarctic stations, discovered the ozone hole, a new state-
  • 72 Large Research FacilitiesAs part of the development of the International Space NCAS – The Atmospheric Research Aircraft is a Lee Jones of the British Geological Survey preparesInnovation Centre (ISIC) at Harwell, staff at NCEO modified BAe 146-301, owned by BAE SYSTEMS and to survey the lava dome using ground-basedand the Centre for Environmental Data Archival have operated as a collaboration between NERC and the LiDAR, Montserrat.developed and deployed a new data visualisation Met Office. The Atmospheric Research Aircraft isservice for Earth Observation. This is a web based managed by the Facility for Airborne Atmosphericapplication to allow users to visualise and make use of Measurement (FAAM) as an airborne measurementEarth Observation data and climate model simulations platform for use by the atmospheric scienceand display them. The images and animations can community. The aircraft is used globally to conductbe exported for viewing and manipulation on the ISIC research in areas such as radiative transfer studies Right: NOC – The latest addition to the Autosubvideowall, on Google Earth or other viewing software. in clear and cloudy air, tropospheric chemistry fleet Autosub Long Range is an underwater robotThis image is of the ISIC videowall showing NCEO Earth measurements, cloud physics and dynamic studies, being developed at the National OceanographyObservation images of significant ocean wave heights dynamics of mesoscale weather systems, boundary Centre. It is intended that Autosub LR will have aproduced by Susanne Fangohn and David Woolf, using layer and turbulence studies, remote sensing, range of 6000km and be capable of working atdata from the TOPEX satellite. The images are shown verification of ground based instruments and as a depths of 6000m. This will enable it to cross anon multiple globes, one for each month. satellite instrument test-bed. (Credit: FAAM) ocean or traverse the Arctic Ocean under the ice.of-the-art ski-mounted research station centre for earth science information community, policymakers, industry andcalled Halley VI has been recently and expertise. society, delivering world-class solutionsconstructed and is now operational. to the most complex environmental BGS’s annual budget is in the region of challenges facing humankind. CEH’s skillsThe ships, aircraft and research stations £52 million, half of which is contributed and expertise range from the smallestallow BAS to operate in a harsh and remote by NERC. The remainder is obtained from scale (the gene) to the largest scaleenvironment in order to: research commissioned by the public and (whole-Earth systems).●● Provide a national capability for private sectors. In addition to geological Antarctic science and logistics, work in the UK, BGS has an extensive The organisation is a major custodian programme of overseas research, of environmental data, and contributes●● Carry out scientific research, long- surveying and monitoring, including to major international networks, term observations and surveys that major programmes in the developing such as the Partnership for European cannot be done by anyone else in the world. Much of this work is now won Environmental Research (PEER), as well UK, through competitive tendering. as leading European and global research Act as a focus for international co- efforts in the areas of water science,●● Examples of BGS’ research focus, capability operation (in Antarctica) and for its biogeochemistry and biodiversity. and expertise are presented in Table 4.2. conservation, NERC provides over £20 million of CEH’s●● Co-ordinate international research 4.3.3  entre for Ecology & Hydrology C £35 million budget; the rest comes from programmes to enhance understanding CEH is the UK’s centre of excellence external funding. CEH has four research sites of the polar sciences. for integrated research in terrestrial located at Bangor, Edinburgh, Lancaster and and freshwater ecosystems and their Wallingford (CEH headquarters).4.3.2  ritish Geological Survey B interaction with the atmosphere. The centre carries out innovative, independent 4.3.4  ational Centre for NBGS, founded in 1835 and based at and interdisciplinary science and long- Atmospheric ScienceKeyworth just outside Nottingham, is term environmental monitoring. NCAS provides a national capability inthe world’s longest-established national atmospheric science research. Withgeological survey and the UK’s premier CEH works in partnership with the research
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 73NOC – Isis is the UK’s deepest diving remotelyoperated vehicle, working at depths of 6000m. Ithas provided footage of hydrothermal vents andthe animals that inhabit them. Above: Scientists installing a water quality monitoring bouy on Loch Leven in Scotland. The bouy is part of a UK network that CEH maintain. (Photography by Dr Bryan Spears/CEH). Right: Taking water samples in the ocean using a CTD (conductivity, temperature and pressure) annual budget of £9 million, the Table 4.2: Research focus and selected areas of expertise at the British Geological Surveycentre increases knowledge of keyenvironmental issues, including: Research focus Detail and expertise●● Climate change, including modelling UK geology and Performing multidisciplinary surveys and research into British geology, and predictions, and geoscience producing 2D and 3D geological maps and models, thereby assisting technologies geodiversity and geoconservation studies.●● Weather processes, Using geoscience technologies such as satellite and airborne remote sensing and ground-based geophysical measurements.●● Atmospheric composition, including The 3D modelling of the Earth’s subsurface helps to improve knowledge for air quality. research into water, mineral and energy resources, carbon storage, natural hazards prediction and environmental prediction.It uses state-of-the-art technologies for Climate change Observing past and present climates, and predicting future climates and theobserving and modelling the atmosphere, environmental responses to those climates. This is done through modelling, assessing carbon concentration in the soil and organic chemistry research intofor example, a world-leading research pollution and climate in several UK and international estuaries.aircraft, a ground-based instrumentation Earth hazards Understanding the dynamic processes in the Earth’s core, mantle and crust,pool, access to computer models and and the space environment surrounding our planet to enable better forecastsfacilities for storing and accessing data. to be made of earthquake occurrence and volcanic eruptions, and of related hazards including tsunamis.Its research is used by policymakers and Energy Understanding and maximising the recovery of dwindling fossil fuel reserves,the wider UK science base. and helping the development of renewable energy such as geothermal power. BGS is a world leader in capture and storage science and geophysical researchNCAS is a collaborative centre made up into the structure of underground reservoirs, as well as a centre for research intoof three science directorates (climate, unconventional hydrocarbon and coal resource and atmospheric composition) Groundwater Developing expertise in the hydrosciences including groundwater-related science monitoring and surveys; undertaking integrated catchment studies throughand four services and facilities distributed the development of field sites and novel monitoring technologies; developingacross many UK universities and related groundwater models and the providing supporting services and analytical facilities.institutions. This capability allows BGS to focus on areas such as the sustainability of water resources and quality; the impacts of environmental change on the water cycle; natural hazards in the context of groundwater; and groundwater and human health.
  • 74 Large Research FacilitiesAbove: Researchers in the glasshouses of the JohnInnes Centre (Credit Oliver Smith). Right: Assessingof biogenic greenhouse gases from agriculturalsoils at Rothamsted Research – North Wyke (Credit:Rothamsted Research). Far right: The broadbalkexperiment at Rothamsted Research examines theeffects of inorganic fertilisers and organic manureson the nutrition and yield of a number of importantcrops. It has been ongoing for more than 150 years(Credit: Rothamsted Research).4.3.5  ational Centre for Earth N 4.3.6 National Oceanography Centre  4.4 Biotechnology and  Observation NOC is a national research organisation Biological SciencesNCEO provides NERC with national delivering integrated marine science and Research Councilcapability in Earth observation science. technology from the coast to the deep BBSRC invests in world-class bioscienceNCEO uses data from Earth observation ocean. It works with institutions across research and training on behalf of thesatellites to monitor global and regional the UK’s marine science community, UK public. Its aim is to further scientificchanges in the environment in order to addressing key science challenges knowledge, to promote economic growth,predict future environmental conditions. including sea-level change, the oceans’ wealth and job creation and to improveThe centre has already highlighted role in climate change, the future of the quality of life in the UK and beyond.significant environmental changes in, for Arctic Ocean and long-term monitoringexample, ozone depletion, atmospheric technologies. Funded by Government, and with anpollution and melting sea ice. annual budget of around £445million, Working with its partners, the centre BBSRC supports research and training focuses on providing capability to meet in universities and strategically funded the needs of the whole of the country’s institutes such as the Institute for Animal marine research community, including Health (IAH), the Babraham Institute, Royal Research Ships, deep submersibles, the Institute of Biological, Environmental advanced ocean sensors and instruments. and Rural Sciences (IBERS), the Institute NOC is home to the global mean sea- of Food Research (IFR), the John Innes level data archive, the UK’s sea-level Centre (JIC), The Genome Analysis monitoring system for flood warning Centre (TGAC), the Roslin Institute and and climate change, the national archive Rothamsted Research. of sub-sea sediment cores, which is keyThe Norwich Research Park, including the John These institutes deliver innovative, to the understanding of historic climateInnes Centre, The Institute of Food Research and world-class bioscience research and change, and the British OceanographicThe Genome Analysis Centre. (Credit: Norwich training, leading to wealth and job Data Centre.BioScience Institutes) creation and generating high returns
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 75Table 4.3: List of BBSRC research institutes Research institute Detail Institute for Animal IAH, principally based at Pirbright, is a world-leading centre of excellence for research into infectious diseases of farm animals. It aims to Health (IAH) advance the knowledge of veterinary and medical science, and to enhance the sustainability of livestock farming. The institute is a unique national capability for the UK, providing high bio-containment level (CL) 4 laboratories, CL3 and CL4 animal experimentation facilities, and an insectary to combat newly emerging and re-emerging insect-transmitted viruses. Furthermore, a new £100M+ state-of-the-art laboratory complex is under construction at Pirbright to secure IAH’s place at the forefront of research on animal diseases. The Babraham The Babraham Institute undertakes innovative biomedical research to discover the molecular mechanisms that underlie normal cellular Institute processes and functions, and how, over lifetime, their failure or abnormality may lead to disease. Institute of Biological, IBERS provides a unique research base that supports food security, bioenergy and sustainable land use – all of which face a range of Environmental conflicting demands, both now and in a future of predicted climate change. and Rural Sciences Specific research focus is on genome diversity and plant breeding, bio-renewables and environmental change and animal and microbial (IBERS) biology. Institute of Food IFR is a world leader in research into harnessing food for health and controlling food-related diseases. It is developing intervention Research (IFR) strategies based on an increased understanding of the biology of bacterial foodborne pathogens and the requirements for establishing and maintaining a healthy gut. IFR has strong research infrastructure. It has a purpose-built laboratory for work on foodborne pathogens, together with access to several joint technology platforms, a state-of-the-art disease modelling unit with gnotobiotic animals and excellent facilities for human dietary intervention studies. IFR also houses the National Collection of Yeast Cultures, which is strategically important to the UK in relation to the food production chain. John Innes Centre JIC is an independent, internationally renowned bioscience research centre in plant science and microbiology. (JIC) JIC’s research focuses on the growth underpinning yield in plants, biotic interactions of plants, wheat improvement, and the metabolism of plants and microbes through the use of genetics. It also applies modern biotechnology to agriculture in an environmentally sustainable context. The Genome Analysis TGAC is a national genomics and bioinformatics centre which addresses problems in agriculture, sustainable energy and food and Centre (TGAC) nutrition, through novel approaches in genomics and specialising in genomics technology, high-throughput data analysis, advanced bioinformatics and innovation. TGAC has already established itself as an expert partner in high throughput sequencing, with projects including de novo sequencing of a rubber tree genome, and as a member of the international wheat genome project consortium. Roslin Institute The Roslin Institute undertakes research focused on the health and welfare of animals (livestock and companion animals), and the application of basic animal sciences in human and veterinary medicine, the livestock industry and food security. The Institute’s research is supported by a number of unique resources, including the ARK-Genomics Centre for Comparative and Functional Genomics which utilises the latest genomics technologies for research into genome structure, genetic variation, gene expression and function with a focus on systems of relevance to animal health and food security. Similarly, the avian research facility, a national resource centre for experimental science of poultry and model avian species (including transgenic avian lines), provides specialist resources for avian biology research. In addition, the Roslin Institute holds the UK natural scrapie resource, a Cheviot sheep flock with endemic natural scrapie but which also has cases of atypical scrapie. The flock represents the only controlled TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) flock worldwide in which the progeny of each sheep is known in detail; research data from this flock was key to the development of the UK’s National Scrapie Plan. Rothamsted Research Rothamsted Research is the largest agricultural research centre in the UK and almost certainly the longest-running agricultural research station in the world. Founded in 1843, Rothamsted Research has built an international reputation as a centre of excellence for science in support of sustainable land management and its environmental impacts. For example, inventing synthetic pyrethroid insecticides which now comprise a quarter of chemical pest control agents used worldwide, and creating permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin – the second-generation pyrethroids. Currently, work at Rothamsted Research focuses on the following areas: • 20:20 wheat: increasing wheat productivity to yield 20 tonnes per hectare in 20 years, • Cropping carbon: optimising carbon capture by grasslands and perennial energy crops, such as willow, to help underpin the UK’s transition to a low carbon economy, • Designing seeds: harnessing expertise in seed biology and biochemistry to deliver improved health and nutrition through seeds, • Delivering sustainable systems: designing, modelling and assessing sustainable agricultural systems that increase productivity while minimising environmental impact.for the UK economy. They have strong academic–industry research partnership BBSRC also supports basic research thatlinks with business, industry and the to underpin development in the is directly relevant to important newwider community and support policy bioenergy sector from growing biomass technologies and to addressing majordevelopment. More details are outlined to fermentation for biofuels. In addition, it challenges such as animal welfare,in Table 4.3. supports six Systems Biology centres and environmental change, food security, six Structural Biology centres based at UK nanotechnology, obesity, research onBBSRC also funds the Sustainable universities, including Imperial College ageing and stem cell research.Bioenergy Centre, which is an innovative London, Cambridge, York and Manchester.
  • 76 Large Research Facilities Left: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Neil Grant, LMB Visual Aids, Cambridge (2011). Below left: MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford (photography by Noel Murphy). Researchers at the MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford. The unit undertakes vital research into diseases involving the immune system including flu, arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Below: MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London (photography by Noel Murphy). Researchers at the MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London preparing vials for experiments to study the genetics of growth and metabolism in fruit flies to gain insights into human diseaseThe research that BBSRC funds based drug-discovery company formed Research institutes (Table 4.4), are veryunderpins key sectors of the UK in 2007 and based on the pioneering long-term flexible investments adoptingeconomy, such as farming, food, work of scientists at the MRC Laboratory broad multidisciplinary approaches toindustrial biotechnology and of Molecular Biology and the MRC address major challenges in health-pharmaceuticals, and the people it National Institute for Medical Research. related research. They are provided withfunds are helping society to meet major The company now employs 46 people sustained support and state-of-the-artchallenges, including food security, and had raised £26 million in venture facilities over a long period of time, andgreen energy and healthier, longer lives. capital by 2010 for its work to produce offer scientists maximum flexibility to new medicines that target a family of engage in innovative “risky” research,4.5 Medical Research Council proteins in cell membranes. avoiding traditional university-style departmental boundaries.For almost 100 years, the MRC has been In 2009-10, the MRC spent £758 millionimproving the health of people in the on research, which it supports in three In contrast, research units (Table 4.5) areUK and around the world by supporting main ways, namely: set up to meet specific needs or to tacklethe highest-quality research into the ●● Through research institutes and important research questions where themedical sciences, making significant research units, need cannot easily be addressed throughdiscoveries such as the link between grant funding. They are fully funded by By funding research centres in the MRC and there is no set limit on thesmoking and cancer and the invention of ●● partnership with universities lifespan of a unit.therapeutic antibodies. ( MRC contributes strongly unitscentresinstitutes/unitalphalist/ The MRC has recently embarked on ato economic growth through its index.htm), programme of building the ‘laboratoriescommercial success. It funds research of tomorrow’ in order to ensure that the By providing research grants and UK maintains its premier position inwith more than 80 companies worldwide, ●● career awards to scientists in UK medical research. For example, the MRCincluding pharmaceutical, bioscience universities and hospitals (www.mrc. is constructing a new building for theand healthcare companies. One notable Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Thesuccess is that of Heptares, a London-
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 77MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge (photography by Noel Murphy). Automated liquid handling robot MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Dundeeused for quality checking and preparing thousands of DNA samples for genetic analysis work (photography by Noel Murphy). DNA sequencing and DNA fragment size analysis (like “DNA fingerprinting”)/Anode buffer and polymer assembly in Applied Biosystems model 3730 Genetic Analyzerfacility, being built by BAM Construction Table 4.4: MRC research institutesLtd, will cost around £200 million, and isbeing paid for in part from the royalties Name Detailderived from antibody-related work atthis laboratory. National Institute NIMR is the MRC’s largest research establishment and has four major for Medical Research research areas: genetics and development; infections and immunity;The soon-to-be-opened building will (NIMR), including the neurosciences and structural biology. The World Health Organization Biomedical NMR Centre Influenza Centre is located here. The Biomedical NMR Centre is aprovide an environment that fosters multi-user facility for biomedical nuclear magnetic resonance, andinnovation and collaboration, and will has well-supported facilities for liquid-state NMR studies of biological home to some of the world’s leadingscientists. Laboratory of Molecular LMB’s goal is the understanding of biological processes at the molecular Biology (LMB) level to help tackle problems in human health and disease.Elsewhere, the MRC is working LMB helped unravel the structure of DNA, and it has played an important role in the development of new techniques, includingwith partners to establish a unique X-ray crystallography of proteins, DNA sequencing and monoclonalinternational centre for scientific antibodies. The LMB has four scientific divisions: structural studies, protein and nucleic acid chemistry, cell biology and neurobiology.excellence in medical research in the Clinical Sciences Centre CSC uses modern biological approaches and patient-derivedheart of London: The Francis Crick (CSC) information to gain an understanding of the molecular andInstitute. This is a consortium of six physiological basis of health and disease. CSC has three sections – epigenetics; brain repair and dysfunction; and genes and metabolismof the UK’s most successful scientific – providing unique opportunities for scientific discovery and healthcareand academic organisations — benefit.the MRC, Cancer Research UK, theWellcome Trust, UCL, Imperial CollegeLondon and King’s College London. find new ways to prevent and treat scientists, and have an operating budget ofIt will bring together scientists from illnesses. more than £100 million.across disciplines who will conduct The centre is scheduled to be completed This is one of the most significantgroundbreaking medical research to in 2015, and when fully operational will developments in UK biomedical scienceunderstand why disease develops and employ 1,500 staff, including 1,250 for a generation as the institute will
  • 78 Large Research FacilitiesTable 4.5: MRC research units Name Detail MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge The Biostatistics Unit is an internationally leading centre for the development, application and dissemination of statistical methods MRC Cancer Cell Unit Cambridge The MRC Cancer Cell Unit undertakes research into understanding how cancers develop (with a focus on discovering the early steps in epithelial carcinogenesis to improve the care and survival of patients with epithelial malignancies such as pancreatic, oesophageal, lung, breast and skin cancers. MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences The mission of the Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit is to understand and enhance cognition and behaviour in health, Unit, Cambridge disease, and disorder by developing integrated explanations of human behaviour and its disorders that link cognition with the brain and other biological systems. MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge The MRC Epidemiology Unit research is focussed on the genetic, developmental and environmental determinants of obesity, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders and to contribute to the prevention of these disorders. MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, The Mitochondrial Biology Unit aims are to understand the fundamental processes taking place in mitochondria and Cambridge their involvement in human diseases and to exploit knowledge of these fundamental processes for the development of new therapies to treat human diseases. MRC Human Nutrition Research, The Human Nutrition Research centre conducts nutrition research and surveillance to improve the health of the Cambridge population with a focus on obesity and metabolic risk, musculoskeletal health, intestinal health and nutritional inequalities. MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, The Protein Phosphorylation Unit uses biochemistry, cell and molecular biology and mouse genetics to investigate the Dundee role of protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cell regulation and human disease. MRC-University of Edinburgh Human The Human Genetics Unit’s research focuses on the understanding of genetic factors implicated in human disease and Genetics Unit normal and abnormal development and physiology (including developmental genetics, common disease genetics, chromosome biology and models for human genetic diseases). MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for The Centre for Virus Research carries out multidisciplinary research on viruses and viral diseases of humans and Virus Research/ animals, translating the knowledge gained for the improvement of human and animal health. MRC Social and Public Health The Social and Public Health Sciences Unit research focuses on social and environmental influences on health Sciences Unit, Glasgow including studies on social position, social and physical environments, the influence on physical and mental health and capacity to lead healthy lives, designing and evaluating interventions aiming to improve public health and reduce social inequalities in health. Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell The Mammalian Genetics Unit undertakes studies in mouse genetics and functional genomics, investigating and The Mary Lyon Centre, Harwell a wide variety of disease models to enhancing understanding of the molecular and genetic bases of disease (including Diabetes and Obesity, Metabolism, Liver and Bone disease, Sensory Dysfunction (Vision and Deafness), Neuromuscular, Neurodegenerative and Behavioural disorders, Developmental Defects). The Mary Lyon Centre Mary Lyon Centre offers academic and industry research programs access to specialist infrastructure dedicated to mouse breeding, transgenics, mutagenesis, phenotypic analysis (imaging, pathology, clinical chemistry, and drug validation and testing. They also operate a national bioarchive of mouse lines allowing access to existing and novel models being developed in the UK and internationally through our distribution network in the EU, North America, China and Japan. MRC Toxicology Unit, Leicester The Toxicology Unit researches the effects that occur following cellular exposure to chemicals, radiation and external biological agents to facilitate the development of new models that are better able to predict adverse drug reactions and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of diseases that are associated with toxic exposure. MRC Cell Biology Unit, London Research at the Cell Biology Unit focuses on fundamental questions in molecular cell biology. Using model organisms and the latest molecular and imaging technologies, this unit explores some of the key processes underlying cell function and behaviour including the control of cell number, the determination of cell and tissue architecture, the regulation of communication within and between cells and the control of cell movement. MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London The Clinical Trials Unit designs, conducts, analyses and publishes clinical trials, observational studies, meta-analyses and other systematic reviews which are of clinical or public health importance MRC Prion Unit, London The Prion Unit undertakes studies, which address the fundamental aspects of prion biology with a view to understand the wider relevance of these processes in human disease including in “protein-misfolding diseases” such as Alzheimer’s disease. The Unit also provides a specialist centre to safely handle and characterise existing and emerging human and zoonotic prion pathogens with appropriate biosecurity and expertise.
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 79Table 4.5 continued Name Detail MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and The recently established MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing is the new home of the MRC National Survey of Ageing, London Health and Development which is the oldest of the British birth cohort studies, is unique in having data from birth to age 60 years on the health and social circumstances of a representative sample (N=5362) of men and women born in England, Scotland or Wales in March 1946. MRC Institute of Hearing Research, The Institute of Hearing Research also receives funding from the Chief Scientist Office and the Department of Health. Nottingham Its objective is to conduct research into hearing and hearing disorders, and translate this research from scientific discovery to clinical practice MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology The mission of the Unit is to define the molecular, spatial and temporal organisational principles of networks in the Unit, Oxford brain at the synaptic and cellular level by analysing a variety of brain regions affected in disease. MRC/Cancer Research UK/BHF Clinical The Clinical Trial Service Unit’s work involves studies of the causes and treatment of “chronic” diseases such as cancer, Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological heart attack or stroke (which, collectively, account for most adult deaths worldwide), although it does also involve Studies Unit some studies of other major conditions in developed and developing countries. MRC Functional Genomics Unit, The mission of the Functional Genomics Unit is to use genomic information to determine mechanisms of disease Oxford in order to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Their approach combines computational analyses and the latest experimental technologies in model organisms to reveal the roles of genes and genomes in health and disease. MRC/Cancer Research UK Gray The Gray Institute has been created to be the world’s largest and most comprehensive centre for research and training Institute for Radiation Oncology and in radiation oncology and biology. Biology, University of Oxford The work at the Institute includes DNA damage signalling, tissue signal transduction, tumour microenvironment, imaging, radiation physics, signal transduction and the development of radiopharmaceuticals for systemic use that target the cytotoxicity of radiation directly to tumour cells. The Institute is supported by two core facilities Radiation Biophysics and Imaging. MRC/ University of Oxford Human The Human Immunology Unit aims to increase the understanding of the human immune response. Ongoing work Immunology Unit (within the encompasses attempts to understand, at a molecular and cellular level, how immune responses protect against, and Weatherall Institute of Molecular in some cases cause, disease. In addition, the development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies is a priority. Medicine) MRC/ University of Oxford Molecular The Molecular Haematology Unit applies molecular and cell biology approaches to haematological and related Haematology Unit (within the diseases. In addition, the unit’s research interests include regulation of the developmental changes of human Weatherall Institute of Molecular haemoglobin and the way in which these are modified in patients with inherited disorders of haemoglobin synthesis. Medicine) MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, The Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit is a centre of excellence which utilises epidemiological methods to delineate the Southampton environmental causes throughout the lifecourse of chronic musculoskeletal disorders; diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome; and cardiovascular disease. The EEU maintains and develops long-term cohort studies assembled in Southampton as national and international resources to explore the developmental origins of health lifecourse. MRC Unit, The Gambia The MRC Unit in The Gambia is the UK’s single largest investment in medical research in a developing country and is internationally recognised for its track record of research into tropical infectious diseases. Its success is based on innovative lab-based research, clinical studies and field-oriented science, and the translation of research into clinical and public health practice. The Units three major research themes are Child Survival, Vaccinology and Disease Elimination and Control. The close proximity of the International Nutrition Unit in The Gambia provides the opportunity to further enhance investigations of the important role of nutrition in each of the research themes. MRC/ Uganda Virus Research The Uganda Research Unit on AIDS is based at the Uganda Virus Research Institute. It was established following a Institute - Uganda Research Unit on request in 1988 from the Ugandan Government to the British Government for assistance regarding the research and AIDS the control of HIV and AIDS. The primary focus of the Unit’s programme is to investigate HIV infection related issues of public health relevance to Uganda and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Activities range from virology and immunology to social science, clinical studies and intervention trials.
  • 80 Large Research FacilitiesTop: Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, the UK’snational laboratory for fusion research. Above:MAST, the UK’s domestic fusion experiment,located at Culham. (Images Courtesy of CCFE) Diagnostic equipment for collecting data from the MAST device. (Image Courtesy of CCFE)invest in innovative, creative and and power supplies; neutral beam CCFE is taking spherical tokamaks tocollaborative scientists, working to and microwave heating systems; and the next level by implementing a majorunderstand the biology underlying diagnostic systems development. £30 million two-stage upgrade, to behuman health. completed by 2015. The main features Two principal research programmes of the upgrade include more heating are the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak4.6  ulham Centre for C power, better control and pumping (MAST) experiment and the Joint Fusion Energy necessary to contain the resulting European Torus (JET). These are briefly higher temperature and longer-pulseCCFE is the UK’s national research described below. plasmas, and the capability to testlaboratory for fusion energy. It is advanced “divertor” solutions to handlebased at the Culham Science Centre in 4.6.1 Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak high exhaust powers from the plasma.Oxfordshire and is owned and operated The UK fusion programme is centredby the UK Atomic Energy Authority. The on the MAST experiment pioneered by These enhancements will allow scientistsnuclear fusion programme is funded by CCFE, which continues to lead on its to study plasmas which approachthe Engineering and Physical Sciences development. “steady-state” conditions – operatingResearch Council and the EU under the regimes that could be used for the Experiments on MAST are important design of future fusion machines, whichEURATOM treaty. because they help determine the long- must run for hours or days rather thanKey capabilities and competencies term potential of the spherical tokamak the seconds of today’s CCFE include plasma physics fusion concept, which may eventuallyresearch; computer modelling of be suitable as the basis for a power The MAST upgrade will offer possibilitiesplasma behaviour, materials research station. In fact, a design based on MAST for scientific collaborations from thefor nuclear use; robotics and remote- may lead to a compact component UK and overseas and once onlinehandling technology; engineering of test facility, which would reduce risk it will operate as a user facility tofusion reactor technology, especially and accelerate the development of allow scientists from other fusionmechanical and electrical engineering; commercial fusion power. laboratories and universities to exploitcryogenic systems; power plant design its capabilities.
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 81State-of-the-art remote handling technology is used to maintain and upgrade the JET facility. (Image Courtesy of EFDA-JET)4.6.2 Joint European Torus ITER technologies. A recent 18-month contractor (Battelle, SERCO and theCCFE also hosts the world’s largest upgrade has seen the installation of a University of Manchester). It is organisedmagnetic fusion experiment, JET, on new inner wall in the JET machine to as a commercial business and receivesbehalf of its European partners. The JET test the mix of beryllium and tungsten no funding from government. NNL’stokamak is the largest and most powerful materials that ITER will employ. The core business is to provide experts andever built, and is the focal point of the JET facilities are operated by scientists technologies to ensure that the UKEuropean fusion research programme. from around Europe who work together nuclear industry operates safely and isDesigned to study fusion in conditions under the European Fusion Development cost-effective.approaching those needed for a power Agreement. Its services cover a wide range ofplant, it is the only device currently areas, including fuel manufacture andoperating that can use the deuterium- 4.7 Other research facilities reactors; operating reprocessing/wastetritium fuel mix that will be used for The UK has a number of other research plants; decommissioning and treatmentcommercial fusion power plants. facilities that have been developed as a of legacy waste; environmentalIn recent years, JET has carried out joint venture with industry using public– management; disposal, includingimportant work in assisting the design private partnership models. geological, defence, chemical biologicaland construction of the International radiological and nuclear materials linked They include the National NuclearTokamak Experimental Reactor to homeland security; new nuclear build/ Laboratory (NNL), the Dalton Nuclear(ITER), an international research and future nuclear systems; and research, Institute at the University of Manchester,development project which aims to training and academia. the AMRC at the University of Sheffield anddemonstrate that it is possible to the IVHM centre at Cranfield University. NNL has access to some of the mostproduce commercial energy from fusion. These are briefly described below. advanced facilities in the world. ResearchIt is based in France and is expected to activities span the entire nuclear fueldemonstrate a 500 megawatt tokamak 4.7.1 National Nuclear Laboratory cycle, including fuel design, support tofusion power plant. ongoing operations, waste immobilisation NNL is a UK government-ownedJET continues to act as a test-bed for company, managed by an appointed and processing, fuel disposition,
  • 82 Large Research FacilitiesThe Plutonium and Minor Actinides (PuMA)Laboratory, part of the Central Laboratory atSellafield. Able to carry out experiments onplutonium and a range of other actinides. Current The Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) rig at Workington Laboratory. NNL has been working with the Australianresearch includes work on a project to determine Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) to develop a process for the treatment of plutoniumpotential use of americium in space batteries residues. Using the HIP process produces a stable ceramic matrix suitable for long-term storage Table 4.6 National Nuclear Laboratory Facilities Central Laboratory, Sellafield Windscale Laboratory, Sellafield Active and non-active laboratories including an active rig hall Post-irradiation examination of nuclear fuel and irradiated materials. Plutonium and high-active alpha/beta/gamma cells Radioactive waste processing and management Handling and management of radioactive sealed sources Material analysis and mechanical testing Preston Laboratory, Lancashire Workington Laboratory, Cumbria Purpose-built facility dealing with uranium-active materials Non-radioactive engineering and rig testing facility Low and non-active research and development Technical assessment and solution proposition Design, manufacture and build of test rigs plus testing Operator trainingplutonium management and nuclear maximise research activities and potential 4.7.2 Dalton Nuclear Institutesecurity and non-proliferation. benefits. It has recently become a key The Dalton Nuclear Institute was player in the first TIC, the High-Value established at the University ofNNL is also involved in more novel Manufacturing Catapult (see Section 4.8). Manchester in 2005 as a leadingresearch, including a project with theEuropean Space Agency to assess the NNL collaborates with universities and national centre for nuclear researchuse of americium in space batteries. Its other national laboratories in the UK and and higher learning. The Institute isfacilities are listed in Table 4.6. overseas, as well as UK and international delivering a sustainable programme companies. It also offers independent of transformational nuclear research,As a national laboratory, part of its remit targeted higher learning and effective advice to the UK Government in theis to work with a range of organisations to social engagement by establishing: nuclear arena.
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 83 Far left: Postgraduate students from the Dalton Nuclear Institute’s Centre for Radiochemistry Research working with radioactive materials in one of the Centre’s glove boxes. Left: Postdoctoral researchers using state-of-the-art X-ray facilities to investigate the surface chemistry of reactor materials in the Dalton Nuclear Institute’s Materials Performance Centre. Below: Dalton Cumbrian Facility.Below: School children learn the principles of nuclear reactor operation by operating The University ofManchester’s reactor simulator at one of the Dalton Nuclear Institute’s outreach events. Below right: Apostdoctoral researcher undertakes a sophisticated experiment to assess the performance of structuralmaterials in the challenging high temperature water environment of a Pressurised Water Reactor. Right:Academics at The University of Manchester engaging the nuclear industry to build strategic researchpartnerships, transfer new methods and understanding, and develop the next generation of skills●● The research capability needed to ●● Strategic research partnerships with decommissioning with academic access deliver new knowledge to underpin the the nuclear sector, including industry, to the NNL facilities, and the Nuclear UK’s future nuclear energy strategy with Government and academia, to AMRC in collaboration with Sheffield the academic leadership and specialist maximise the impact of research and University. Research programmes facilities required to undertake world- skills development. address reactor technology (existing leading nuclear research. reactors, new nuclear build and nuclear The Dalton Nuclear Institute has A sustained programme of nuclear fuel technology), decommissioning and●● established a broad range of nuclear skills training at undergraduate and radioactive waste management, as well research capabilities, including the new postgraduate levels that meets the as other nuclear technologies, including Dalton Cumbrian Facility for radiation requirements of growing industry. medicine, security and policy. science and nuclear engineering
  • 84 Large Research Facilities IVHM Centre – Left: Fuel rig experiment with National Instruments LabView interface. Top: Test workstation for Machine Fault Simulator & Wavelet transform method. Above: Testing and soldering of a test printed circuit board. Right: Machine Fault Simulator experiment4.7.3  dvanced Manufacturing A adopted by research centres worldwide, Research Centre, the AMRC’s sister Research Centre including the UK’s new generation of facility, which is applying the sameThe AMRC with Boeing is a global centre ‘Catapult centres’ (see section 4.8). collaborative research model to the civilof advanced machining and materials nuclear manufacturing supply chain. The AMRC is a world leader in high-research for aerospace and other high- performance machining research.value manufacturing sectors. 4.7.4 Integrated Vehicle Health This involves designing and producing Management CentreThe AMRC was established in 2001 machined parts in the shortest-possible time, without compromising the structural The IVHM Centre was establishedthrough collaboration between the or surface integrity of the component. in 2008 as a joint venture betweenUniversity of Sheffield and Boeing. More Cranfield University and industry, withthan 60 companies are now members, By deploying a range of innovative involvement from companies such asfrom global aerospace giants such as design, analysis and control techniques, Boeing, Rolls-Royce, BAE Systems,Rolls-Royce, BAE Systems and Messier- AMRC researchers can typically improve Meggitt and Thales.Bugatti-Dowty, to local SMEs. the efficiency of a machining process by around 40 per cent. Other core research It was created to develop state-of-the-artThe AMRC model of collaborative groups focus on automated systems diagnostic and prognostic capabilitiesindustry-focused research has been for large complex assemblies, advanced to enable the health of a vehicle to be structural testing and certification, monitored and assessed. This is done and the production and machining of through the distribution of sensors composite and metal hybrid components. throughout the vehicle in order to collect data on the condition of components The AMRC employs around 200 and subsystems. On-board processors researchers and engineers, from assess the vehicle’s health and predict apprentices to PhDs, at the Advanced possible deterioration and future life. Manufacturing Park (AMP) in South Yorkshire. The AMP is also home to the This data and resulting informationMori Seiki millturn in the AMRC with Boeing’s Rolls new Nuclear Advanced Manufacturing can be used to improve maintenance,Royce Factory of the Future shopfloor extend the life of both the whole vehicle
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 85(such as aircraft, ships, high-speed fields, from electronic prognostics The institute, whose research focusestrains and high-performance cars) and through structural health monitoring on innovative tools of acceleratorsindividual components, improve vehicle to machine fault detection. The centre and free electron lasers, was officiallyreadiness and availability, and reduce has developed new methods for inaugurated in 2006 as a collaborationoperating costs. detecting gear damage. This enables of STFC’s Daresbury Laboratory (in the detection and prediction of gear particular its Accelerator Science andThe IVHM Centre possesses the following and gearbox damage that would Technology Centre (ASTeC), describedcore competencies, namely business seriously impact the performance and in section 4.2.10) with the Universitiesmodelling and simulation; business operational safety of machines such as of Lancaster, Liverpool and Manchester,transformation and culture change; jet engines or wind turbines. and the former North West Developmentdemonstration and fast prototyping; Agency. It aims to:analysis and algorithm development Overall, the Centre offers a unique(including. data exploitation); systems capability for advancing the field of ●● Provide the intellectual focus andengineering /architecture; and systems IVHM supported by direct high-speed R&D test facilities for research andintegration and knowledge integration. communication links to the testing development of particle, nuclear, and hardware laboratories at Cranfield photon and neutron sciences;It also has the ability to design, build with those of partner organisations and accelerator-based skills applied toand fly complex platforms such as the industry test partners across the globe. probe “anti-matter” and cosmology;advanced concept, fuel-efficient blended particle beam-, laser- and microwave-wing body – the ‘X48B’ – and to undertake 4.7.5 Cockcroft Institute based cancer and medical therapy;end-to-end integration of technologies The Cockcroft Institute, located at the solar energy; sub-critical reactors;from diverse institutions (for example, Daresbury Science and Innovation transmutation of radioactive waste fora project, called FLAVIIR which looks at Campus, in the North-West of England, cleaner environment; and compacttechnologies for future unmanned air is an emerging international centre accelerator systems for securityvehicles). enabling “discovery class” science and scanning;The IVHM Centre has a number of addressing global needs in energy, ●● Develop a robust industrialprojects spanning a wide array of environment, health and security. collaboration framework for UK
  • 86 Large Research FacilitiesParts of the Cockcroft-Walton Generator that once powered protons in the ISIS facility at RAL Space – a novelvoltage multiplier invented by Sir John Cockcroft in collaboration with Ernest Walton in 1932, enabling theworld’s first “splitting of the atom” --- now housed in the building that marks the iconic Cockcroft Institute inDaresbury Campus
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 87The Cockcroft Institute is working with CERNin spearheading the development of the nextgeneration large particle physics facility: the Large Above: A virtual computer-aided design of a compactHadron Collider in CERN, Geneva, Switzerland microwave-driven linear electron accelerator system for X-ray scanning. Above right: A waveform showing the accelerating electromagnetic waves in the operating accelerator. Right: The detailed precision machining of the microwave linear accelerator waveguide at a high frequency of approximately 9 Gigahertz industry in areas such as precision training and outreach programme. for development of radiation sources magnets, electromagnetic cavities, in the infrared, ultraviolet and x-rays The Cockcroft Institute also provides digital electronics and photonics for science and various applications access to large-scale R&D test components, vacuum systems, in security and medical imaging and facilities such as the existing Research metrology, diagnostics and treatment; advanced computation, Council-operated accelerators. This instrumentation. mathematical modelling, simulation includes ALICE (‘Accelerators and This has enabled the creation of and visualization tools; parametric Lasers In Combined Experiments’ – a a “CERN-UK Industrial Incubation optimisation of designs and value- prototype for a next-generation energy- Centre” at Daresbury with the goal engineering; high and low-power recovery efficient accelerator) and of enabling UK industry to bid for microwaves and their precise control; EMMA (Electron Machine with Many the design, fabrication and delivery high-power microwave processing; Applications); the Electron Beam Test of sophisticated engineering and high-speed digital electronics and Facility under construction at Daresbury technological components for future signal processing; ultra-fast light and Laboratory; the state-of-the-art laser large facilities construction projects in photonics; superconducting magnets facilities at the University of Manchester the European Union such as the future and microwave cavities; ultra-high Photon Science Institute; the Terahertz accelerators at CERN and the European vacuum systems and surface science Tissue Culture Facility at ALICE operated Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden. and engineering; sensor, diagnostics by the University of Liverpool; and Enable UK scientists and engineers and instrumentation techniques;●● state-of-the art vacuum, microwave and to take a leading role in innovating nuclear detection techniques of particles diagnostics laboratories supported by future tools for scientific discovery and radiation; novel materials e.g. ASTeC and the universities of Lancaster, via conception and design of world- structured metamaterials, photonic Manchester and Liverpool. leading research accelerators such as band-gap structures, semi-conductor In summary, the institute’s core photocathodes, MEG (Multiple Exciton the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. competencies cover a diverse range Generation) structures for Type-III solar●● Nurture the curiosity of emerging of areas such as compact particle cells, and superconducting materials for minds via a vibrant education, accelerator systems; technologies electromagnetics.
  • 88 Large Research Facilities4.8 Catapult centres ●● Bridging the gap between universities The new centre provides an integrated and businesses and helping to capability and embraces all formsIn 2010, the UK Government announced commercialise the outputs of the UK’s of manufacture using metals andit would invest more than £200 million world-class research base. composites, in addition to processin four years to create a network of manufacturing technologies and bio-world-leading technology and innovation The first Catapult, in high-value processing. It will also draw on excellentcentres, called Catapults, which will manufacturing, became operational university research to accelerate thetransform the UK’s ability to create in October 2011. Seven partners are commercialisation of new and emergingnew products and services in priority working together in this centre, bringing manufacturing technologies.areas, and drive future economic together their expertise in different andgrowth. Established and overseen by complementary areas of high-value Two more Catapults, in cell therapythe Technology Strategy Board, the UK’s manufacturing. They are the: and offshore renewable energy, areinnovation agency, these Catapults ●● Advanced Manufacturing Research on schedule to open by autumnwill offer critical mass for business and Centre with Boeing at the University 2012, whilst the Catapults in satelliteresearch innovation by focusing on a of Sheffield (see Section 4.7.3) applications, connected digitalspecific technology where there is a economy, future cities and transportpotentially large global market and a ●● Nuclear Advanced Manufacturing systems are due to open towards the endsignificant UK capability. Research Centre at the Universities of of 2012 or early 2013. All the Catapults Sheffield and Manchester are expected to be fully operational inThese centres, in addition to the LRFs Manufacturing Technology Centre, 2013.mentioned in this brochure, will be an ●●important part of the UK’s innovation a partnership of the Universities of Overall, the Catapult centres, workingsystem, making a major long-term Loughborough, Nottingham and in close collaboration with the diversecontribution to national economic Birmingham TWI. range of UK LRFs, will allow this countrygrowth by: ●● Advanced Forming Research Centre at to be the best place in the world to the University of Strathclyde undertake scientific research and provide●● Allowing businesses to access solutions to the commercial challenges equipment and expertise that would National Composites Centre at the ●● facing the world. otherwise be out of reach, enabling University of Bristol them to conduct their own in-house R&D, ●● Centre for Process Innovation at Wilton and Sedgefield●● Helping businesses to access new funding streams and pointing them ●● Warwick Manufacturing Group at the towards the potential of emerging University of Warwick. technologies,
  • Section C – Large Research Facilities in the UK 89 “ he IVHM Centre, T encompassing research, education and demonstration facilities, was set up by industry to solve industrial problems. UKTI played a pivotal role in the formation of the Centre and continues by helping us seek business opportunities in foreign markets such as with India’s National Aerospace Laboratories located in Bangalore.” Ian Jennions Director, IVHM Centre Cranfield University
  • 90 Large Research Facilities
  • Section D – Annexes & references 91Section DAnnexes& references
  • 92 Large Research Facilities Annex 1 - Abbreviations ALICE Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments AMRC Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre, University of Sheffield AMP Advanced Manufacturing Park ASTeC Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, STFC ATST Advanced Technology Solar Telescope BAS British Antarctic Survey, NERC BBSRC Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council BGS British Geological Survey, NERC CAD Computer-aided design C–C Carbon–carbon bond CEH Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, NERC CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research CFARR Chilbolton Facility for Atmospheric and Radio Research, STFC CL (Bio)-containment level CLF Central Laser Facility, STFC CLIC Compact Linear Collider CNC Computer numerical control CPT Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield CSC Clinical Sciences Centre, MRC CUPE Cranfield University Precision Engineering DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid EDM Electrical discharge machining ELI Extreme Light Infrastructure E-ELT European Extremely Large Telescope EMMA Electron Machine with Many Applications ESO European Southern Observatory ESRF European Synchrotron Radiation Facility FAAM Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement HECToR High-End Computing Terascale Resource HPC High-performance computing IAH Institute for Animal Health, BBSRC Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, IBERS BBSRC/Aberystwyth University International Centre of Excellence in Computational Science ICE-CSE and Engineering, STFC ICF Inertial confinement fusion IFR Institute of Food Research, BBSRC ILL Institut Laue-Langevin ILO Industry liaison officer
  • Section D – Annexes & references 93 ISIC International Space Innovation Centre ITER International Tokamak Experimental Reactor IVHM Integrated Vehicle Health Management, Cranfield University JCMT James Clerk Maxwell Telescope JET Joint European Torus JIC John Innes Centre, BBSRC JWST James Webb Space Telescope LHC Large Hadron Collider LMB Laboratory for Molecular Biology, MRC LNG Liquefied natural gas LRF Large Research Facility MAST Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak MEG Multiple Excitor Generation MCF Magnetic confinement fusion MEMS Micro-electro-mechanical systems MRC Medical Research Council NAL National Aerospace Laboratories NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCAS National Centre for Atmospheric Science, NERC NCEO National Centre for Earth Observation, NERC NERC Natural Environment Research Council NIMR National Institute for Medical Research, MRC NNL National Nuclear Laboratory NOC National Oceanography Centre, NERCOCTOPUS Optics Clustered to OutPut Unique Solutions OINS Oxford Instruments NanoScience PE Precision engineering PEER Partnership for European Environmental Research RAL Rutherford Appleton Laboratory RCUK Research Councils UK RNA Ribonucleic acid STFC Science and Technology Facilities Council TGAC The Genome Analysis Centre, BBSRC UHV Ultra-high vacuumUK ATC UK Astronomy Technology Centre, STFC UPS2 Ultra-Precision Structured Surfaces Integrated Knowledge Centre UV Ultraviolet VISTA Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy
  • 94 Large Research Facilities Annex 2 - Glossary of technical terms Alloy An alloy is a homogeneous mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements. Biogeochemistry This is the study of the processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment. These processes may be chemical, physical, geological and/or biological; the definition of natural environment encompasses water, soil, air, living organisms and the Earth’s crust. Biomaterial A biomaterial is any matter, surface or construct that interacts with biological systems. Catalyst A catalyst is a substance which speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but remains unchanged chemically once the reaction has finished. Cryogenics Cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below −150°C, −238°F or 123K) and the behaviour of materials at those temperatures. The technology behind this field is critical to enable a spectrum of activity ranging from the preservation of stem cells to cooling detectors in order to minimise atomic vibration to capture the sharpest image from faint signals from space. In fact, a great deal of science is already conducted at low temperatures, and the growing use of superconductors is adding to the need for cryogenic technology and expertise. Crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of the arrangement of atoms in solids. Deuterium Deuterium is a type of hydrogen, also called heavy hydrogen. It is naturally found in the Earth’s oceans and is one of the elements required for fusion energy production. Electromagnet An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electron beam Streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes. Femtosecond A femtosecond is a unit of time equal to 10-15 seconds.
  • Section D – Annexes & references 95Fresnel lens A Fresnel lens is a type of lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses. The design allows the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length without the mass and volume of material that would be required by a lens of conventional design. Compared with conventional bulky lenses, the Fresnel lens is much thinner, larger and flatter, and captures more oblique light from a light source, thus allowing the light from a lighthouse to be visible over a much greater distance.Fusion energy Fusion energy is energy generated by nuclear fusion processes. In fusion reactions, two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. In doing so, they release a large amount of energy which is manifested as an increase in temperature of the reactants. Major advantages for power stations using fusion energy include: • No emission of carbon through the process, thereby decreasing pollution • Abundant fuels • Energy efficiency – the energy provided by 1kg of fusion fuel is equivalent to the energy provided by 10 million kg of fossil fuel • Non long-term radioactive waste • Generation of reliable power. To create fusion energy artificially, scientists invented the process of heating gas from deuterium and tritium to a high temperature. They have been exploring two main avenues for generating fusion energy, namely: • Magnetic confinement fusion - using magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of plasma, • Inertial confinement fusion - nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by heating and compressing a fuel target, usually in the form of a pellet that contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.Genome The genome is the entirety of an organism’s hereditary information. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of virus, in RNA. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA/RNA.
  • 96 Large Research Facilities Gnotobiotic animal Gnotobiotic animals are born in aseptic conditions, removed from the mother by Caesarean section. They are reared in the laboratory, and exposed only to those microorganisms that the researchers wish to be present in the animal. They are used in research into the symbiotic relationship between an animal and the micro-organisms that inhabit its body, sometimes called its ‘eco-organ’. Heat treatment Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as the hardening or softening of a material. Higgs Boson The Higgs Boson is a hypothetical elementary particle, the existence of which is postulated to resolve inconsistencies in theoretical physics and unfold the mystery of the creation of the universe, the Big Bang. High-performance HPC integrates systems administration and parallel computing (HPC) programming into a multidisciplinary field that combines digital electronics, computer architecture, system software, programming languages, algorithms and computational techniques. It is rapidly replacing traditional experimental-based methods in the delivery of scientific insights, simulation and modelling, as well as facilitating fundamental breakthroughs in fields such as engineering, medicine and entertainment. HPC is also increasingly being embraced by industrial sectors such as aerospace, electronics, energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, life sciences and defence. For example, it is coming out into the mainstream in commercial applications such as: • Simulating galaxy creation, fusion energy and global warming • The simulation of car crashes for structural design • Molecular interaction for new drug design • Simulating airflow over motor vehicles or aeroplanes • Working to create more accurate short and long-term weather forecasts.
  • Section D – Annexes & references 97Infrared (IR) IR light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74µm, and extending conventionally to 300µm.Joint European Torus JET is the world’s largest and most powerful tokamak(JET) and the focal point of the European fusion research programme. Designed to study fusion in conditions approaching those needed for a power plant, it is the only device currently operating that can use the deuterium–tritium fuel mix that will be used for commercial fusion power.Juste retour This term represents a quantitative link between the financial contributions that a partner country makes to an LRF collaboration, and the benefits that it obtains in terms of contracts awarded and nationals hired (‘the fair return agenda’).Lamella A lamella is a gill-shaped structure: fine sheets of material held adjacent to one another, often with fluid in between though sometimes simply a set of “welded” plates.Large Hadron Collider This is the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. It is expected to address some of the most fundamental questions of physics, advancing the understanding of the deepest laws of nature. It aims to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang, by colliding two beams of subatomic particles at very high energy.Laser A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term ‘laser’ originated as an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.Market research A study, which is often undertaken by procurement and technical officials in LRFs, to ascertain the level of industrial capability and skills with member states or partner countries.Mega Amp Spherical MAST is the UK’s fusion energy experiment, based at theTokamak (MAST) Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. Along with NSTX – a complementary experiment at Princeton in the USA – MAST is one of the world’s two leading spherical tokamaks.
  • 98 Large Research Facilities Monochromator A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input. Muon The muon is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with a negative electric charge. Muon scattering or Muon scattering or muon spectroscopy is used to muon spectroscopy examine the magnetic properties of atoms as well as to determine magnetism and superconductivity properties of materials. This technique has applications in many fields such as biosciences, particle physics, materials science, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. For example, exploring the membrane activity of plant seed defence proteins, and elucidating the solution structure of proteasome activators. Nanotechnology The design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems within the nano-scale, which covers the size range from approximately 1nm to 10nm. Neutron scattering Neutron scattering is used to study the structure and magnetic properties of materials. Like muon spectrocsopy, it has applications in many fields such as biosciences, particle physics, materials science, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. For example: • Optimising polymer solutions for printed electronics • Advancing low temperature cryogenics based on pulse- tube technology. Nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei. Particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams. Particle physics Particle physics is the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the forces of nature. Petawatt The petawatt is equal to one quadrillion (1015) watts and can be produced by the current generation of lasers for timescales in the order of femtoseconds (10−15 seconds). Photovoltaic cell Also known as a solar cell. It is a solid state electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity.
  • Section D – Annexes & references 99Plasma Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionised. Heating a gas may ionise (reduce the number of electrons in) its molecules or atoms, thus turning it into plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons.Precision engineering PE deals with the design and manufacture of machines,(PE) fixtures or structures which possess features such as exceptionally low tolerances, and which are repeatable and stable over time. The field covers a multiplicity of areas such as optical fabrication, materials, interferometry, precision optics, materials processing, precision controls, nanotechnology, machine design, surface metrology, dimensions metrology, scanning microscopes, precision replication, semiconductor processing and ultra-precision machining. PE is critical in supplying to a range of LRFs such as the UK’s Diamond Synchrotron, CERN and ESO as well as sectors with high technology requirements, for example, automotive, defence, energy, healthcare and space.Pulsed neutron source A scientific apparatus used for neutron scattering research.Refractory metals Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear. These include molybdenum, niobium, zirconium and tantalum.Sintering Sintering is a method used to create objects from powders. It is based on atomic diffusion. Diffusion occurs in any material above absolute zero, albeit much faster at higher temperatures. In most sintering processes, the powdered material is held in a mould and then heated to a temperature below the melting point. The atoms in the powder particles diffuse across the boundaries of the particles, fusing the particles together and creating one solid piece.Small-angle scattering Small-angle scattering is a scattering technique based on the deflection of a beam of particles, or an electromagnetic or acoustic wave, away from the straight trajectory after it interacts with structures that are much larger than the wavelength of the radiation. The deflection is small (0.1–10°) hence the name “small-angle”. Small-angle scattering techniques can give information about the size, shape and orientation of structures in a sample.
  • 100 Large Research Facilities Spacecraft harness Spacecraft harnesses describe the spacecraft structure wiring connecting the various parts of a spacecraft including the power distribution and electronic data. They tend to be large harnesses which need to meet the stringent thermal requirements for functionality at operating temperatures which will be below 50 Kelvin (-223 degree C) at L2, the second Lagrange point, approximately 1.5 million km from Earth. They are also referred to as cryogenic harnesses except that the wiring for cryogenic harnesses used in cryostats and instruments with detectors (especially for ultra low temperature applications) are miniature and generally use resistance alloys for the wiring and miniature connectors. This allows them to minimise the heat load to meet the thermal budget requirements. Cryostats are the ‘fridges’ that cool the systems and detectors need to be cooled to very low temperatures to be able to detect the radiative sources at or near the beginning of time, big bang, star formations, black holes in the various light frequencies. Hence on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the spacecraft harnesses are connecting the spacecraft’s central nervous system. which will link the spacecraft systems to the telescope, controlling its alignment and providing temperature information for health monitoring. The Cryostat and detector harnesses form part of the electronic wiring on the instruments that will be on the JWST such as the Mid InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) which will operate at a temperature of 7 Kelvin (-266° C) using a helium cryocooler system. and the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) and the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) which will operate at a temperature of 39 K (-234° C or -389° F) through a passive cooling system. Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, for example by a prism. Later, the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopic data is often represented by a spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency.
  • Section D – Annexes & references 101Superconductivity Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance occurring in certain materials below a characteristic temperature.Swaging Swaging is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using a die or dies, into which the item is forced. Swaging is usually a cold working process; however, it is sometimes done as a hot working process.Synchrotron A synchrotron is a large machine designed to produce very intense beams of X-rays, infrared and ultraviolet light, called synchrotron light (also referred to as synchrotron radiation). It does this by accelerating particles in a cyclical fashion using an electric field and the magnetic field. Synchrotron light can be as much as 100 billion times brighter than the sun. This allows scientists to study samples in incredible detail, and is used in all types of research, from determining the structure of proteins to understanding how best to conserve historical artefacts.Thermal vacuum A vacuum chamber in which the radiative thermalchamber environment is controlled. They are frequently used for testing spacecraft or parts thereof under a simulated space environment.Third-generation Third-generation synchrotron radiation sources weresynchrotron conceived and optimised from the outset to produce bright X-rays. Fourth-generation sources will include different concepts for producing ultra-bright, pulsed, time-structured X-rays for extremely demanding and also probably yet-to-be- conceived experiments.Tokamak The tokamak is the most developed magnetic confinement system and is the basis for the design of future fusion reactors using this method. The most successful device yet found for magnetic confinement of plasma, its magnetic field is made up from helical lines of force on toroidal surfaces, and is generated both by external field coils and by the current in the plasma.Torus Doughnut-shaped magnet used in JET.Tritium Tritium is another type of hydrogen, called hydrogen 3. Tritium does not occur naturally, because it is unstable to radioactive decay. It is also one of the elements required for fusion energy production.
  • 102 Large Research Facilities Ultraviolet (UV) light UV light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10nm to 400nm, and energies from 3 electron volts to 124 electron volts. It is named ultraviolet because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the colour violet.
  • Section D – Annexes & references 103AnnexTitle 3 - List of websitesAccelerator Science and CentreAdvanced Forming Research Centre, of StrathclydeAdvanced Manufacturing Research, University of SheffieldAllinea www.allinea.comAMEC plc www.amec.comAtkins UK Weapons Establishment International Group and Biological Research CouncilBritish Antarctic Survey Cryogenics Cluster Geological Survey centres for Process Innovation (European Organization for Research)Chilbolton Facility for Atmospheric Radio ResearchClaro Precision Engineering Limited www.clustervision.comCockcroft Institute Linear Collider www.clic-study.orgCranfield University Precision precisionengineeringCryoconnect www.cryoconnect.comCulham Centre for Fusion Energy Ltd Nuclear Institute, University Manchester
  • 104 Large Research Facilities Daresbury Science & Innovation Campus Department for Business, Innovation and Skills Diamond Light Source European Southern Observatory European Space Agency European Strategy Forum on infrastructures/index_en.cfm?pg=esfri- Research Infrastructures roadmap roadmap European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Eurotech Computer Services Ltd Extreme Light Infrastructure Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement FGP Precision Engineering Limited FLAVIIR FMB Oxford Genesis Precision Engineering Ltd Genvolt GOM UK Ltd Harwell Oxford (also referred to as Harwell Science and Innovation Campus) Herose UK High End Computing Terascale Resource High Value Manufacturing Catapult Hutton Engineering (Precision) Ltd ICE Oxford Institute of Animal Health Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences
  • Section D – Annexes & references 105Institute of Food Research Laue-Langevin www.ill.euInstrument Design Technology Ltd Vehicle HealthManagement Centre, Cranfield Newton Group of Telecscopes www.iter.orgJacobs www.jacobs.comJames Clerk Maxwell Telescope Webb Space Telescope www.jwst.nasa.govJohn Innes Centre Astronomy Centre www.jach.hawaii.eduJoint European Torus Aerospace Research Institute, KoreaKurt J Lesker Company www.lesker.comLos Alamos National Laboratory, USA www.lanl.govManufacturing Technology Centre www.the-mtc.orgMedical Research Council Amp Spherical Tokamak Aircraft Braking Systems www.meggitt.comMerc Engineering Ltd Office Sanders Ltd Brothers Ltd Anatomical Neuropharmacology Biomedical NMR Centre Biostatistics Unit Cancer Cell Unit
  • 106 Large Research Facilities MRC/Cancer Research UK/BHF Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit MRC/Cancer Research UK Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology MRC Cell Biology Unit MRC Clinical Sciences Centre MRC Clinical Trials Unit MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit MRC Epidemiology Unit MRC Functional Genomics Unit MRC Human Nutrition Research MRC Institute of Hearing Research MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit & The Mary Lyon Centre MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit MRC National Institute for Medical Research MRC Prion Unit MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit MRC Toxicology Unit MRC Unit, The Gambia MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing MRC/University of Edinburgh Human Genetics Unit MRC/University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research
  • Section D – Annexes & references 107MRC/University of Oxford HumanImmunology Unit (within the Institute of MolecularMedicine)MRC/University of Oxford MolecularHaematology Unit (within the Institute of Molecular molhaemMedicine)MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on www.mrcuganda.orgAIDSNational Aeronautics and Space www.nasa.govAdministrationNational Aerospace Laboratories www.nal.res.inNational Centre for Atmospheric Centre for Earth Observation Composites Centre Laboratory for Particle and www.triumf.caNuclear Physics, CanadaNational Nuclear Laboratory Oceanography Centre Space Organization, Taiwan Environment Research Karolinska Solna UniversityHospital Project (including Research, SwedenNuclear Advanced Manufacturing CentreOak Ridge National Laboratory, USA www.ornl.govObservatory Sciences Ltd plc Cryosystems Ltd www.oxcryo.comOxford Instruments
  • 108 Large Research Facilities Oxford Instruments NanoScience nanoscience/Pages/nanoscience.aspx Oxford Supercomputing Centre osc Oxford Technologies Pace Precision PECO Cyrogenics Phoenix Inspection Systems Ltd Prototech Engineering Ltd Q-par Angus Ltd RAL Space Research Council UK Large Research Infrastructure/ Facilities Roadmap Pages/lfr.aspx Roslin Institute Rothamsted Research Science and Technology Facilities Council STFC Central Laser Facility STFC Computational Science and Engineering Department Scientific Magnetics Scitech Precision Ltd Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India Taylor Hobson Temati Tesla Engineering Ltd Thames Cryogenics Ltd The Babraham Institute The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology The Genome Analysis Centre UK Astronomy Technology Centre UK Biobank
  • Section D – Annexes & references 109UK Trade & Investment Structured Surfaces Knowledge CentreUnited Kingdom Science Park of Huddersfield’s Centre Precision TechnologiesVG Scienta www.vgscienta.comViglen Ltd Manufacturing Group Trust Cryogenics Ltd Ltd www.xyratex.comZeeko Ltd
  • 110 Large Research Facilities Annex 4 - Bibliography European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) (March 2011), Strategy Report on Research Infrastructures Roadmap 2010, European Union roadmap.pdf#view=fit&pagemode=none ESFRI/C. Rizzuto, Research Infrastructures and the Europe 2020 Strategy, European Union excellence.pdf#view=fit&pagemode=none i3-Net (March 2010), Research Infrastructures at the heart of the European Research Area Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum (December 2010), Establishing Large International Research Infrastructures: Issues and Options, OECD OECD Global Science Forum (December 2008), Report on Roadmapping of Large Research Infrastuctures Research Councils UK, Large Facilities Roadmap 2010 Annex 5 - Contact UKTI For more information about business opportunities with LRFs, please contact: Dr Amit Khandelwal UK Trade & Investment Orchard 3, Level 1 1 Victoria Street London SW1H 0ET Tel: +44 (0)20 7215 0977 Email:
  • Section D – Annexes & references 111© Crown copyright 2012.You may re-use this information (excludinglogos and photographs) free of charge in anyformat or medium, under the terms of the OpenGovernment Licence.To view this licence, visit: you can we have identified any third partycopyright information you will need toobtain permission from the copyrightholders concerned.Any enquiries regarding this publication shouldbe e-mailed to us you can call:+44 (0)20 7215 8000This publication is also available
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