ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD AND URUGUAY’S PLAN CEIBAL: IMPACT ON SPECIAL EDUCATION Jennifer Martino, MA OLPC Intern – Uruguay 2009
URUGUAY <ul><li>Population: 3,500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>938,000 inhabitants under 18 years of age (30%) </li></ul><ul><li>...
URUGUAY: EDUCATION <ul><li>Pioneer in education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1887 – Law of Common Education </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
URUGUAY’S PLAN CEIBAL <ul><li>Ceibal = “Educational Connectivity of Basic Computing for Learning On-line” </li></ul><ul><l...
INTERNSHIP - STUDY OBJECTIVE <ul><li>T o assess the impact of the One Laptop per Child model on special education in Urugu...
WHY SPECIAL EDUCATION? <ul><li>Gap in the literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan Ceibal in general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Semi-structured interviews  </li></ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul><ul><li>Textu...
SAMPLE <ul><li>Two schools for students with cognitive disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom for the visually impaired ...
RESULTS
Teacher Training <ul><li>All teachers attended preliminary training when the  XOs  were distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Teac...
Teachers report using the following strategies to learn about and use the XO: <ul><li>Peer-to-peer support </li></ul><ul><...
USE OF THE XO <ul><li>T h e  XOs  are present in curriculum designed by the teachers many teachers use them everyday in th...
STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Student motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
STUDENT MOTIVATION <ul><li>“ A 5th grade student approached me after being told that he would receive a computer but would...
LITERACY <ul><li>“ Reading does not consist of merely decoding the written word or language; rather, it is preceded by and...
Classroom Activity: Internet Research on Uruguayan Products Reading the word and the world
Class trip to a local Supermarket
COMMUNICATION <ul><li>“ Human beings have a need to communicate, and disabled people have a great need to forms links with...
OBSERVATIONS <ul><li>The XO is a tool that motiviates students to improve literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>It has been pa...
<ul><li>Teachers are very willing to incorporate the XO in curriculum design </li></ul><ul><li>Identified by teachers as a...
RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Continue training teachers, preferibly within school hours due to multi-employment  </li></ul><ul>...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Each of the teachers and students that have collaborated with this study </li></ul><ul><li>Plan C...
And last but not least: my fellow interns and the OLPC orientation support team!
CONTACT INFORMATION <ul><li>E-mail: jennifer.j.martino@gmail.com </li></ul>
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Uruguay OLPC Internship 2009

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In 2009 I participated in a 10 week internship with One Laptop per Child in Uruguay. Over the course of the internship I conducted a study on the impact of the initiative on special education. This study was used in partial fulfillment of my M.A. in Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Thank you for this amazing opportunity OLPC!

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Uruguay OLPC Internship 2009

  1. 1. ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD AND URUGUAY’S PLAN CEIBAL: IMPACT ON SPECIAL EDUCATION Jennifer Martino, MA OLPC Intern – Uruguay 2009
  2. 2. URUGUAY <ul><li>Population: 3,500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>938,000 inhabitants under 18 years of age (30%) </li></ul><ul><li>Social performance: “one of the best in Latin America, with many characteristics close to those of industrialized countries” (World Bank 2001) . </li></ul>
  3. 3. URUGUAY: EDUCATION <ul><li>Pioneer in education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1887 – Law of Common Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910 – Inauguration of first school for children with special needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100% primary school enrollment (UNICEF 2007) </li></ul>
  4. 4. URUGUAY’S PLAN CEIBAL <ul><li>Ceibal = “Educational Connectivity of Basic Computing for Learning On-line” </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: “to provide equality of opportunities in access to technology, democratization of knowledge and promotion of learning in both the school and home environment” </li></ul>
  5. 5. INTERNSHIP - STUDY OBJECTIVE <ul><li>T o assess the impact of the One Laptop per Child model on special education in Uruguay. </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHY SPECIAL EDUCATION? <ul><li>Gap in the literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan Ceibal in general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special education in particular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared principals with constructionist learning theory on which OLPC is based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible curricula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on individual needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively free from categorization based on biological age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to be directly relevant to the living context of students </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Semi-structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul><ul><li>Textual analysis </li></ul>
  8. 8. SAMPLE <ul><li>Two schools for students with cognitive disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom for the visually impaired </li></ul><ul><li>School for the hearing impaired </li></ul><ul><li>School for students with mobility impairments </li></ul>
  9. 9. RESULTS
  10. 10. Teacher Training <ul><li>All teachers attended preliminary training when the XOs were distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are very interested in participating in more training sessions. They would like to learn how to develop new “activities” (software for Linux) and take more advantage of the XO as a didactic tool. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Teachers report using the following strategies to learn about and use the XO: <ul><li>Peer-to-peer support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ [The training sessions] weren’t everything that we desired but we were able to support ourselves among us” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning from students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It doesn’t bother me to sit beside a child so they can show me how to use the machine. We discover together, child to teacher and teacher to child” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self directed learning via the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Everything I learned I learned alone on the Internet, because I have Internet at home. I learned by trial and error” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. USE OF THE XO <ul><li>T h e XOs are present in curriculum designed by the teachers many teachers use them everyday in the classroom. Many students also use the XO everyday at home. </li></ul><ul><li>Pricipal didactic uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build literacy skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance communication skills </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Student motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
  14. 14. STUDENT MOTIVATION <ul><li>“ A 5th grade student approached me after being told that he would receive a computer but wouldn’t be able to use it if he didn’t know how to read and write. He asked me to teach him. His attitude changed and he became positive about the challenge” – 4th grade teacher </li></ul>
  15. 15. LITERACY <ul><li>“ Reading does not consist of merely decoding the written word or language; rather, it is preceded by and intertwined with, knowledge of the world” ” – Paulo Freire </li></ul>
  16. 16. Classroom Activity: Internet Research on Uruguayan Products Reading the word and the world
  17. 17. Class trip to a local Supermarket
  18. 18. COMMUNICATION <ul><li>“ Human beings have a need to communicate, and disabled people have a great need to forms links with others. [The XO] is a medium that they have at their reach. It’s a tool that links people.”– National Superintendent of Special Education </li></ul><ul><li>The XO - “A great tool that stimulates written communication” – teacher for the hearing impaired </li></ul>
  19. 19. OBSERVATIONS <ul><li>The XO is a tool that motiviates students to improve literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>It has been particularly useful in reaching students that respond to music more than other mediums </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as a tool for art therapy (school for students with autism) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Teachers are very willing to incorporate the XO in curriculum design </li></ul><ul><li>Identified by teachers as a tool to “open the world” through internet browsing and use during didacitc outings. </li></ul>
  21. 21. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Continue training teachers, preferibly within school hours due to multi-employment </li></ul><ul><li>“ It should be in the classroom with the students to provide real context” – Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Train parents so that they can facilitate didactic activites with their children at home and be more involved with homework completed on the XO </li></ul>
  22. 22. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Each of the teachers and students that have collaborated with this study </li></ul><ul><li>Plan Ceibal, especially volunteer coordinator Laura Bianchi and the department of Evaluation and Monitoring of Social Impact </li></ul><ul><li>One Laptop per Child </li></ul>
  23. 23. And last but not least: my fellow interns and the OLPC orientation support team!
  24. 24. CONTACT INFORMATION <ul><li>E-mail: jennifer.j.martino@gmail.com </li></ul>

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