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Academic writing for special education 2014

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  • 1. Academic Writing (for PG Education) • Self-assessment • Research • Summarising and Quoting • Literature Reviews • APA citations & reference lists
  • 2. SELF-ASSESSMENT • Complete the self-assessment form by ticking the relevant column • When you are ready, discuss your answers in pairs or groups • Try and aim for a balance between the four strategies – and be proactive about getting support with your research and writing
  • 3. RESOURCES Facts & Figures .. about the issue and / or proposed solutions Theories / Models … which have been developed to explain the issue Definitions … of the issue and/or theoretical concepts Examples … of the issue and/or proposed solutions
  • 4. Hierarchy of Credibility of Sources 1. Articles in refereed, international journals 2. Books / chapters in edited books 3. Articles in national, refereed journals 4. Conference papers / Research reports (govt, com, org) 5. PhD theses 6. MA theses 7. Honours theses 8. Websites / articles in non-refereed journals • Check course requirements • Consult with your supervisor Natilene Bowker, Student Learning Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North © 2005 4
  • 5. Steps in a research process • Start off by using your lecture notes and recommended books. Then delve deeper into selected topics using your university library resources • Massey students can click on the ‘Research’ tab on the Massey home page and choose ‘Library’. • Then click on ‘Subject Guides’ and then on your subject to find the library codes, statistics, organisations, videos and research databases that will allow you to search efficiently for high quality educational sources.
  • 6. Use mind-maps, tables etc to organise your ideas as you go along Selfimprovement harmony Shared rituals Obedience benevolence CONFUCIANISM relationships
  • 7. SUMMARISING FROM SOURCES Step 1: highlight relevant information in your source “Confucianism developed from Confucius’s life-long concern for a humanistic government, and a political and social order that was built firmly on the rites, li, developed and implemented in the Zhou dynasty (1122-771 BC). Li, in Chinese means institutional rites and norms that define and regulate political and social behavior. Confucius’ singular contribution to this tradition was to provide a philosophical account of the true nature of li by invoking two quintessential Confucian notions, ren, human benevolence and yi, moral fittingness, as its foundation of legitimacy. These elements were then woven into a coherent moral system that is the core of Confucianism” (de Bettignies, Ip, Bai, Habisch & Lenssen, 2011, p. 625). Step 2: Make very short notes of key ideas C = philosophical view of social order explains and justifies social norms 2 principles: ren = benevolence; yi = appropriate moral behaviour
  • 8. Step 3: These notes need to be clear, because when you write your draft, you need to close the original book, article or webpage C = philosophical view of social order explains and justifies social norms 2 principles: ren = benevolence; yi = appropriate moral behaviour Step 4: Expand your notes into linked sentences Confucianism is a social philosophy which attempts to explain and justify the norms which govern social behaviour. These norms are seen as justified when they embody two underlying moral principles: ren, which means ‘benevolence’ and yi, which can be translated as ‘fittingness’ or ‘appropriateness’. Step 5: Add the reference to the source you used Confucianism is a ....... translated as ‘fittingness’ or ‘appropriateness’ (de Bettignies, Ip, Bai, Habisch, & Lenssen, 2011).
  • 9. QUOTING FROM SOURCES • The key principles for effective quotations are FEW and SHORT Generally only quote: 1) definitions: Stuttering has been defined as “a disruption in the fluency of verbal expression characterized by involuntary, audible or silent, repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables” (Büchel & Sommer, 2004, p. 159). 2) stand-out comments: This is another illustration of the truth of the saying, “Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it” (Santayana, 1905, p. 284). • And, where possible, EMBED the quote as a short phrase inside your own sentence, as in the two examples above.
  • 10. STRUCTURING ACADEMIC TEXTS • Generally, academic writing moves from general to particular (often ending up with a summary) • So, a literature review as a whole, each section, and each paragraph tends to start with a general overview, then expands on the points made in the overview, finishing with a summary of main points and/or gaps or problems • Think of it as a set of Russian dolls – each doll with its own head, body and feet!
  • 11. Table of Contents for a Literature Review (as part of a thesis) 2.1. Introduction 2.1.1. Social consequences of obesity 2.2. Broader communication issues 2.2.1. Advertising • Arranged by key themes or findings • Arranged in headings and sub-headings 2.2.1.1. Advertising expenditure 2.2.1.2. Advertising style 2.3. Likely causes of obesity 2.3.1. Obesity and genetics 2.3.2. Television watching, exercise and obesity Logical grouping of information from your sources 2.3.3. Lifestyles and eating choices 2.3.4. Advertising, children and obesity 2.3.4.1. Communication theory 2.3.4.2. Television content analysis To provide a coherent argument about research on your topic so far 2.3.4.3. Television advertising and nutrition practices 2.4. Proposed public policy changes to reduce obesity 2.4.1. Fat/Sin taxes 2.4.2. Health education Leading to your research question 2.4.3. Advertising restrictons 2.5. Summary of literature and research aims (Hawkins, 2003) 11
  • 12. PARAGRAPH WRITING • Paragraphs are the little dolls of your academic writing – each starting with a topic sentences, expanding on this with arguments and evidence in the next few sentences, and (generally) reaching a conclusion • With their little legs, paragraphs get tired quickly! Generally, keep them between 4 and 8 sentences long (about 100 – 200 words) • Aim to make a paragraph plan before writing – consisting of the number of sections and the number of paragraphs in each section
  • 13. 2.3.4.3. Television advertising and nutrition practices Television advertising may influence children’s nutrition practices, particularly in regard to food requests, purchases and consumption (see for example, Hutchings & Moynihan, 1998; Kotz & Story, 1994; Borzekowski & Robinson, 2001). Story and Faulkner (1990) state that television exposure may impact on actual eating behaviour [but that further research is required to establish causal links]. Similarly, Kotz and Story (1994) note that television is such a ubiquitous medium that it is difficult to measure its behavioural effects. Their report concluded that it was not possible to prove that food advertisements aimed at children cause poor eating habits. Whilst these and other such studies report a positive correlation between television viewing and food requests, purchases and consumption, there is limited conclusive evidence to support a direct cause and effect relationship between the messages portrayed and the actual eating patterns of children. (Source of extract: Hawkins, 2003, p. 29) 13
  • 14. Television advertising may influence children’s nutrition practices, particularly in regard to food requests, purchases and consumption (see for example, Hutchings & Moynihan, 1998; TOPIC SENTENCE Kotz & Story, 1994; Borzekowski & Robinson, 2001). Story and Faulkner (1990) state that television exposure may impact on actual eating behaviour [but that further research is required to establish causal links]. Similarly, Kotz and Story (1994) note that television is such a ubiquitous medium that it is difficult to measure its behavioural effects. Their report concluded that it SUPPORTING ARGUMENTS & EVIDENCE was not possible to prove that food advertisements aimed at children cause poor eating habits. Whilst these and other such studies report a positive correlation between television viewing and food requests, purchases and consumption, there is limited SO WHAT? conclusive evidence to support a direct cause and effect relationship between the messages portrayed and the actual eating patterns of children. 14
  • 15. So BEFORE putting fingers to keys, make sure you’ve worked out what point you’re making and what research you’ve got to back it up – ideally in a simple list. LEADERSHIP IN CONFUCIANISM • Confucianism = philosophical system of social relationships (de Bettignies …). • 5 relationships: emperor-subject, father-son, husband-wife, olderyoung brother, and friend-friend (Li). • Manager like a father (Zhang) • Duty important (Tsui). • Harmony important - Leader – self-improvement – to become junzi = superior man (Ip)
  • 16. To make your paragraphs ‘FLOW’ start sentences by referring back to a previous idea and then building on this – Make THIS and THESE your flow bro’s! In contrast to Fayol’s pragmatic focus on management of organisations, Confucianism is a systematic, philosophical approach to the maintenance of human relationships in society as a whole (de Bettignies, Ip, Bai, Habisch & Lenssen, 2011). These relationships are categorised into five types: emperorsubject, father-son, husband-wife, older-young brother, and friend-friend (Li, 1984). Leadership is central to these relationships because society is viewed as hierarchical, with each member typically having power over some, while being subservient to others. Harmony, is seen as a paramount objective in order to secure the sustainability of the society (Ip, 2009), which otherwise might be riven by power struggles. Therefore, in an organisational context, leaders are encouraged to avoid any extremes and ensure that employees willingly accept their duties (Tsui, Wang, Xin, Zhang, & Fu, 2004). This approach involves a delicate balance between obedience (which is expected of employees) and rewards (which they may expect in return from the manager, in the guise of a benevolent father-figure) (Zhang, Lin, Nonoka, & Beom, 2005). Obedience also depends on the leader’s commitment to continual self-improvement, with the aim of achieving the status of junzi, or superior man, (Ip, 2011).
  • 17. Here is a single introduction paragraph to a literature review. What are the elements that make it ‘introductory’? Without greenhouse gases, there would be no policy-makers to agonise over them. For naturally-produced greenhouse gases are what has made this planet habitable for everyone of us, through an estimated 33°c increase in global temperatures over millions of years (IPCC, 2007). No one disputes this – and few dispute that the last few decades have seen a sharp upturn in this warming process. However, sceptics view this latest temperature increase as no more than a temporary spike in an ancient pattern of natural variation. This review follows the IPCC in referring to such natural variation as „climate variability‟, whereas „global warming‟ will be defined as temperature increases brought about by what are called „anthropogenic‟ (human-produced) greenhouse gas concentrations. Empirical evidence for global warming and for its impact on extreme weather events will be summarised and critically evaluated in the sections which follow.
  • 18. Without greenhouse gases, there would be no policy-makers to agonise over them. For naturallyproduced greenhouse gases are what has made this planet habitable for everyone of us, through an estimated 33°c increase in global temperatures over millions of years (IPCC, 2007). No one disputes this – and few dispute that the last few decades have seen a sharp upturn in this warming process. However, sceptics view this latest temperature increase as no more than a temporary spike in an ancient pattern of natural variation. This review follows the IPCC in referring to such natural variation as „climate variability‟, whereas „global warming‟ will be defined as temperature increases brought about by what are called „anthropogenic‟ (human-produced) greenhouse gas concentrations. Empirical evidence for global warming and for its impact on extreme weather events will be summarised and critically evaluated in the sections which follow. IMPORTANCE PROBLEM BASIC DEFINITION PREVIEW
  • 19. CITATIONS (IN-TEXT REFERENCES) The same basic principle for ALL sources book journal article newspaper article website etc – Surname of author(s) + year of publication – Direct quotations need quotation marks and page number(s) Observational learning can be defined as “the phenomenon whereby people develop patterns of behavior by observing the actions of others” (Mowen & Minor, 1998, p. 147). Surnames of authors Year of publication Page
  • 20. CITATIONS (more than one author) For two authors, always include both: Blah, blah, blah, blah (Chang & Liu, 2009). For three to five authors– include all surnames first time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard, Thomas, & Varnham, 2001). And then use et al. if you refer to the same source again Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard et al., 2001). For six or more authors, use et al. all the time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Singh et al., 2011).
  • 21. CITATIONS (SECONDARY SOURCES) In a recently discovered private diary, Jane Austen describes the character as “my greatest challenge and most uncertain achievement” (as cited in Smith, 2012, p. 231). But avoid these secondary references and, if possible, include a direct reference to the original source (you’ll find the details you need in the book you’ve used). This period during which a learner can complete a task with the support of tools and/ or mentors is known as the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978). In this case, it doesn’t really matter that I haven’t read Vygotsky’s book myself – I read about this theory in a recent book, but I’m including a reference to the original book by Vygotsky [in its first publication in English translation].
  • 22. CITATIONS (three ways) Most of the time, you’ll put the reference in brackets, just after you’ve finished with the information. Cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred to more traditional medical interventions in such cases (Dunbar & Holmes, 2003). But sometimes you can include the author(s) in your sentence and then just put the year in brackets. According to Dunbar and Holmes (2003), cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred ….. Dunbar and Holmes (2003) claim / argue / suggest / state / provide evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred …..
  • 23. END OF TEXT REFERENCES References Finkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A. (2009). Think again: Why good leaders make bad decisions and how to stop it happening to you. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Kahnemann, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioural economics. The American Economic Review 93(5), 1449-1475. Kahnemann, D., Fredrickson, B. I., Schreiber, C.A., & Redelmeier, D.A. (1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science 4(6), 401-405. Krause, T. R. (2008). The role of cognitive bias in safety decisions. Occupational Hazards 70(6), 28. Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioural model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69(1), 99-118. White, E. (2009, February 14). Why good leaders make bad decisions. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123438338010974235.html Use a YouTube video to help you with formatting – e.g. http://tinyurl.com/APAindenting
  • 24. BOOK Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press surname, (year) initial title city publisher For more than one author, include all names with initials (followed by . and ,) Hubbard, J., Thomas, C., & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New Zealand business students (2nd ed.). Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education.
  • 25. CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK Author of chapter and year of publication Title of chapter – not in italics Editors’ names – initial goes before and (Eds.), goes after! Biggins, G. (2009). Why I became a social worker. In P. Te Ara & T. Rogers (Eds.), Social work and social workers in New Zealand/Aotearoa (pp.102-120). Auckland, New Zealand: Insight Press. City & Publisher Title of book – in italics Page numbers of chapter – in brackets with pp. before
  • 26. CITY OF PUBLICATION UK, NZ etc USA Australia city, country Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press city, state initials Either state OR country Upper Saddle River, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Milton, Qld: McGraw-Hill Milton, Australia: McGraw-Hill Check title of book in library catalogue and/or Google if city of publication is not clear from the book itself
  • 27. JOURNAL REFERENCE author’s name year Title (no italics) Silverblatt, A. (2004). Media as a social institution. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 35-42. doi:10.1080/09585190802707433 journal name (italics) doi number (not always needed) volume & page numbers issue number
  • 28. WEB PAGE REFERENCE Year author’s name (if it’s missing put (n.d.) (or organisation that owns the web site) Title of page (in italics) Statistics New Zealand. (2009). Mapping trends in the Auckland region. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/Publication s/PopulationStatistics/mappingtrends-in-the-auckland-region.aspx. Retrieved from followed by full internet address
  • 29. REFERENCING SOFTWARE Microsoft Word 2007 + Use the references tab in the toolbar Click ‘insert citation’ + add new source Take care with names (Hamel, Gary) and type of source Endnote ($36 from library – and make sure you go to a tutorial) http://tinyurl.com/endnoteguide Free Programmes to download (but you’ll need to learn how to use them, through online tutorials etc) http://www.zotero.org/ http://www.mendeley.com
  • 30. Selected guides to Education / PG writing BOOKS Emerson, L. & McPherson, J. (Eds.). (1997). Writing guidelines for education students. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press. Swales, J.M. & Feak, C.B. (1996). Academic writing for graduate students. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. WEBSITES http://tinyurl.com/PGwritingadvice1 http://tinyurl.com/PGwritingadvice2 http://tinyurl.com/PGwritingadvice3 http://tinyurl.com/PGwritingadvice4 http://tinyurl.com/PGwritingadvice5 30
  • 31. Martin McMorrow © 2014 m.s.mcmorrow@massey.ac.nz with grateful acknowledgement of contributions from Vanessa van der Ham (slide 11), Natilene Bowker (slide 4) and Jacinta Hawkins(slides 11 & 13) This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying materials are the intellectual property of the Centre for Teaching and Learning, Massey University and may not be used, except for personal study, without written permission from the copyright owner.

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