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2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
2014 essay writing
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2014 essay writing

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This presentation was designed for students at Massey University, New Zealand. It covers the process of essay writing, using some examples of effective planning and paragraph writing.

This presentation was designed for students at Massey University, New Zealand. It covers the process of essay writing, using some examples of effective planning and paragraph writing.

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  • 1. ESSAY WRITING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Analyse the question Do the research Organise your essay plan Write the first draft Get feedback Revise your draft Submit your completed essay http://tinyurl.com/essaywriting2014 CENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING 09 441-8143 slc-alb@massey.ac.nz LIBRARY 3RD FLOOR
  • 2. STEP 1: QUESTION ANALYSIS • What is main, general academic idea or theory in the question? Topic • What are the elements of this theory and/or the context you need to apply it to? Sub-topic(s) • What do you have to do? Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/essaywriting2014 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts Task(s)
  • 3. SAMPLE QUESTION Discuss the tools and methods available to managers to assist decision-making. (1500 - 2000 words) Topic: Decision-making Sub-topics: Tools and methods for managers Task: Discuss Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/essaywriting2014 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 4. SELECTED TASK WORDS Analyse Discuss Examine Evaluate Break down an idea, concept or statement into its components Define the key topic word, make a claim, then summarise a range of opinions, evidence and arguments for your claim Point out the different aspects of a problem, its causes and possible solutions. See : http://tinyurl.com/commandwords for more task words Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 5. STEP 2: DO THE RESEARCH textbook definitions expert opinions FROM readings journal articles facts & figures high quality web sites
  • 6. BE INTERNET-SAVVY for example .. Use websites for facts and figures (NOT for theory) www.statistics.govt.nz www.unesco.org www.worldbank.org ! If you’re using a company website to research the organisation, treat the information critically Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 7. STEP 3: PARAGRAPH PLAN Sample Question: Discuss the tools and methods available to managers to assist decision-making. (1800 - 2000 words) Average words per paragraph: 120 - 200 So for this essay, start off with a rough plan for: 10 - 15 paragraphs Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 8. SAMPLE PARAGRAPH PLAN 1: Introduction: frequency & importance of management decision-making 2: Overview: Causes of poor management decision-making 3/4 : Cause 1: What is it? What tool can be used? Strengths & limitations? 5/6: Cause 2: What is it? What tool can be used? Strengths & limitations? 7/8: Cause 3: What is it? What tool can be used? Strengths & limitations? 9/10: Cause 4: What is it? What tool can be used? Strengths & limitations? 11: Conclusion: Summary, evaluation and application to present / future of management Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 9. STEP 4: SAMPLE PARAGRAPH (1ST HALF) Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as timepressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 10. STEP 4: SAMPLE PARAGRAPH (2ND HALF) The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead & Campbell, 2009). The nature of these biases will be explored below, together with the appropriate tools that managers can use to identify them and minimise their impact.
  • 11. ESSAY UNITY: keep using topic/focus words Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead & Campbell, 2009). The nature of these biases will be explored below, together with the appropriate tools that managers can use to steer ....
  • 12. PARAGRAPH UNITY: keep using subtopic words Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead & Campbell, 2009). .....
  • 13. PARAGRAPH COHERENCE: keep referring back Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, pre-judgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead & Campbell, 2009). The nature of these biases will be explored below, ....
  • 14. PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). ... LOGICAL LANGUAGE: CAUSE & EFFECT WORDS, QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ETC
  • 15. PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT Given the frequency and importance of management decisions, it is unsurprising that costly errors occur. Recent examples include the disastrous strategy of Lehmann Brothers and the inadequate response to Hurricane Katrina (White, 2009). These errors may be attributed to external factors, such as time-pressures or unpredictable changes in the environment, or internal factors, such as a lack of expertise or tiredness. However, why do managers not identify such factors and address them rationally? The answer appears to be that rationality itself is limited or ‘bounded’ (Simon 1955; Kahnemann, Fredrickson, Schreiber, & Redelmeier, 1993), by a number of psychological constraints which make humans prone to specific ‘cognitive biases’ in their decision-making. These cognitive biases are intuitive (Kahneman, 2003) and essentially automatic tendencies which “shape how human beings select and process information” (Krause, 2008, p. 28). Numerous cognitive biases have been found, but this essay will focus on four particular biases which have been identified as crucial to poor management decision-making: reliance on past experience, self-interest, prejudgements and attachments (Finkelstein, Whitehead & Campbell, 2009) ... LOGICAL ARGUMENT SUPPORTED BY RELEVANT THEORY, RESEARCH FINDINGS & REAL WORLD EXAMPLES – with citations to show the source
  • 16. 4. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHS … put the issue into a context that shows why it’s both important and problematic ... include a brief definition of the topic ... briefly preview the structure of the essay ... present the main argument of the essay in a thesis statement
  • 17. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 18. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH context During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 19. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual of monetary policy flexibility definition reduction at which the currencies cease between the two nations to the point to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 20. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH preview During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 21. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH thesis statement During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 22. 5. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPHS THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH typically ... … rephrases the thesis statement ... highlights the main supporting arguments ... comments briefly on the implications for the present or future (eg for the world, for NZ, for the sector, for the field of study etc)
  • 23. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual cooperation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 24. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH rephrases thesis statement As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 25. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH highlights the main supporting arguments As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 26. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH Comments on implications As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 27. FULL REFERENCES IN A LIST ON THE LAST PAGE References Finkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A. (2009). Think again: Why good leaders make bad decisions and how to stop it happening to you. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Kahnemann, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioural economics. The American Economic Review 93(5), 1449-1475. Kahnemann, D., Fredrickson, B. I., Schreiber, C.A., Redelmeier, D.A. (1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science 4(6), 401-405. Krause, T. R. (2008). The role of cognitive bias in safety decisions. Occupational Hazards 70(6), 28. Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioural model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69(1), 99-118. White, E. (2009, February 14). Why good leaders make bad decisions. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123438338010974235.html Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 28. STEP 5: GET FEEDBACK NOW WEEK 1 research & plan A N A L Y S E WEEK 2 write F E E D B A C K Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts WEEK 3 revise F E E D B A C K
  • 29. STEP 6: REVISE YOUR DRAFT • More use of topic words? • More explanation in your own words? ADD? • Clearer ‘looking back’ with ‘this’ ‘such’ ‘Moreover,..’ etc? • Additional referencing? • Irrelevant points? SUBTRACT? • Text ‘lifted’ from your source? • Repetition of ideas? • Unoriginal examples?
  • 30. STEP 6: REVISE YOUR DRAFT • Does anything in the introduction deserve its own paragraph? MOVE? • Would my examples etc fit better with a different point? • Would my paragraphs flow better if they were in a different order? CHANGE? • Non-academic language? • Thesis-statement (if it no longer matches the essay) • Do direct claims (‘it is’) need to be hedged (‘it could be argued that ..’ ‘it appears that that ..’)?
  • 31. STEP 7: SUBMIT YOUR ASSIGNMENT PROOFREAD • Referencing at the last moment • Monster or Mini-paragraphs • Overuse of commas • Common spelling & grammar mistakes • Date? Check submission • details! Hard copy or only online? • Only through Stream or on Turnitin? Give yourself a big pat on the back! You’ve done it!
  • 32. KEY POINTS •Analyse the question and plan your timeline •Develop a paragraph plan • Fish for definitions, expert opinions, facts & figures from books and articles • Ensure paragraphs have unity, coherence and development •Get feedback and revise your first draft! Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/essaywriting2014 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 33. References and arguments are provided for illustration of writing principles only – not for their content! © 2014 This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying handouts are copyrighted by Centre for Teaching and Learning, Massey University and may not be used, except for personal study, without written permission from the copyright owner. Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/essaywriting2014 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts

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