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  • 1. Structuring a paragraph 1. CTL online resources 2. How many paragraphs? How long? 3. Principles of effective paragraphs 4. Introductory paragraphs 5. Conclusion paragraphsCENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING LIBRARY 3RD FLOOR09 441-8143 slc-alb@massey.ac.nz
  • 2. 1. CTL ONLINERESOURCES http://owll.massey.ac.nz online writing and learning link http://tinyurl.com/albanyctl Centre for Teaching and Learning, Albany http://tinyurl.com/6xy9hy podcast (can also be accessed through OWLL) http://tinyurl.com/slcvideos video presentations (can also be accessed through OWLL)Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 3. 2. HOW MANYPARAGRAPHS Typical essays will consist of 8 – 14 paragraphs (1200 – 2000 words) ONE introductory paragraph Between SIX and TWELVE body paragraphs ONE concluding paragraphHandouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 4. 2. PARAGRAPHPLANNING GUIDE 500 words: 3 – 5 paragraphs 800 words: 5 – 6 paragraphs 1000 words: 6 – 8 paragraphs 1500 words: 8 – 10 paragraphs 1800 words: 9 – 12 paragraphs 2000 words: 10 – 14 paragraphs 2500 words: 12 – 16 paragraphsHandouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 5. 2. SAMPLE PARAGRAPHPLAN Discuss how Auckland is planning for growth. (1200 words) 1: intro 2 & 3: future housing needs & plans 4 & 5: future economic needs & plans 6 & 7: future transport needs & plans 8: conclusionHandouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 6. 2. PARAGRAPH LENGTH No fixed length, but at undergraduate level between 100 and 200 words (4 – 8 sentences) is typical. Shorter than four sentences? It could be ok, but have another look in case you haven’t fully supported your claim. Over 8 sentences? It could be ok, but have another look in case some of the details are unnecessary or it would be better split: two well-focused paragraphs are better than one fuzzy one.Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 7. 3. EXAMPLE PARAGRAPH- GOOD OR BAD?The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered.Firstly, Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republicin the national referendum held on November 6th 1999, with only theState of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change(Campbell, 1999) and New Zealanders are more attached to theMonarchy than Australians (Singh, 2010). Secondly, like New Zealand,Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to theauthority of the ‘Crown’ as the executive branch of Government, anauthority inherited from the colonial power, Britain (Radley & Foreman,2003). In New Zealand, the current Governor General is Sir JerryMataparae (New Zealand Government, n.d.). Thirdly, Brown (2003)points out that Republicanism has traditionally replaced ‘top-down’authority with a concept of a generalised power of the people and thatdiversity and biculturalism are ignored. However, in New Zealand, theTreaty Principles uphold partnership, protection and participation(Massey University, 2009). Therefore, it is even harder for New Zealandto abolish the Monarchy than it was for Australia, where indigenousrights and biculturalism have been less prominent. The AustralianPremier, Julia Gillard, has said the issue is no longer even on theagenda (Behan, 2011).
  • 8. 3. PRINCIPLES OFEFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS By the end of this presentation, you should have a clear understanding of the problems which make this original ‘Republic’ paragraph confusing and hard to read … … and of the principles which make the improved ‘Republic’ paragraph (which you will read in full later) more readable and convincing.
  • 9. 3. PRINCIPLES OFEFFECTIVEPARAGRAPHS Unity The paragraph should focus on ONE claim about ONE topic Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the one before Development The paragraph’s claim must be supported with relevant evidence
  • 10. 3. TOPIC SENTENCE Paragraph UNITY is made stronger by including a TOPIC SENTENCE: usually the first or second sentence makes a clear and concise claim this claim ‘controls’ the rest of the paragraph – nothing should be included in the paragraph which doesn’t support or develop the claim made in the topic sentence
  • 11. 3. TOPIC SENTENCEEXAMPLE Can you identify the topic sentence in this paragraph?Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exerttremendous power. These storms are often a hundredkilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocitieswell in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such windvelocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes havethe potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter ofhours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy releasedby a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed thetotal energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in oneyear (Fowles, 2001).
  • 12. 3. COMPONENTS OF ATOPIC SENTENCE TOPIC + CLAIMHurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exerttremendous power. These storms are often a hundredkilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocitieswell in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such windvelocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes havethe potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter ofhours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy releasedby a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed thetotal energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in oneyear (Fowles, 2001).
  • 13. 3. TYPES OF TOPICSENTENCE A claim is basically an answer to a question: WHO? Hurricanes … mainly affect people of a certain socio-economic class. WHAT? Hurricanes … are powerful weather phenomena. WHERE? Hurricanes … only occur in certain areas. WHEN? Hurricanes … only occur at specific times of the year. WHY? Hurricanes … are caused by certain atmospheric conditions.A sentence is a claim if it’s possible to say, “No, that’s not true”
  • 14. 3. EVALUATION OF TOPICSENTENCES Topic sentence in the Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. … is weak: it introduces the topic (vaguely) but makes no claim about it.Topic sentence in the Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph TOPIC Another barrier to the elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. CLAIM
  • 15. 3. PROBLEMS OF VAGUETOPIC SENTENCE Because the original topic sentence was so vague, the paragraph includes too much irrelevant detail Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change ... ... the current Governor General is Sir Jerry Mataparae Facts are only worth including if they make any difference to the claim made in the topic sentence
  • 16. 3. PRINCIPLES OFEFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS Unity The paragraph should focus on a single claim Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the one before Development The paragraph’s claim must be supported with relevant evidence
  • 17. 3. TECHNIQUES FORGREATER COHERENCE Coherence can be achieved by creating language bridges from one sentence to another. This allows the claim to be supported and developed as the paragraph goes on. This can be done by: Repetition and Variation of topic vocabulary: keeps the focus on the same topic Back-reference devices: Using ‘this’ / ‘these’ / ‘such’ etc means that each sentence builds on the one before, helping your argument move forward Sentence adverbials: Words or phrases like ‘Moreover’ or ‘On the other hand’ highlight important steps in the argument – but should not be used too much or too loosely.
  • 18. 3. EXAMPLE OFPARAGRAPH COHERENCE What makes this paragraph coherent?Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exerttremendous power. These storms are often a hundredkilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocitieswell in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such windvelocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes havethe potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter ofhours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy releasedby a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed thetotal energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in oneyear (Fowles, 2001).
  • 19. 3. EXAMPLE OFPARAGRAPH COHERENCERepetition and Variation of vocabulary aboutthe topic (hurricanes) and the claim (exertpower) means that all the sentences are stronglylinked back to the topic sentenceHurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exerttremendous power. These storms are often a hundredkilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocitieswell in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such windvelocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes havethe potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter ofhours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy releasedby a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed thetotal energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in oneyear (Fowles, 2001).
  • 20. 3. EXAMPLE OFPARAGRAPH COHERENCE Back-reference … means that each sentence builds on the one beforeHurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exerttremendous power. These storms are often a hundredkilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocitieswell in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such windvelocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes havethe potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter ofhours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energyreleased by a single hurricane that it has been estimated toexceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout theworld in one year (Fowles, 2001).
  • 21. 3. EVALUATION OFPARAGRAPH COHERENCE Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. Firstly, Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change (Campbell, 1999). On the other hand, Australians are less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010). Each sentence seems to set off in a new direction, so it’s hard to follow the argument Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. This difficulty is said to explain why Australians, less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010), voted against change in a referendum a decade ago (Campbell, 1999).The clear back-reference and the omission of irrelevant details makesit more coherent and easy to follow.
  • 22. 3. EXAMPLE OFPARAGRAPH COHERENCE Sentence adverbials … highlight key ‘moves’ in the argument (eg important links, contrasts, limitations etc)Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exerttremendous power. These storms are often a hundredkilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocitieswell in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such windvelocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes havethe potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter ofhours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energyreleased by a single hurricane that it has been estimated toexceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout theworld in one year (Fowles, 2001).
  • 23. 3. EVALUATION OFPARAGRAPH COHERENCE Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph …. uses sentence adverbials – in a desperate attempt to cover up the lack of real coherence Firstly, ........ On the other hand, ....... Secondly, ...... Thirdly, ..... However, ....... Therefore, ...... Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph …. uses just a couple of sentence adverbials strategically – to highlight important ‘moves’... the issue is no longer even on the agenda (Behan, 2011). In themeantime, like New Zealand, Canada etc, Australia continues to begoverned according to the authority of the ‘Crown’ .... Republicanismhas traditionally replaced this ‘top-down’ authority with a concept ofpower of the people. However, this ‘people-power’ concept has beencriticised ......
  • 24. 3. PRINCIPLES OFEFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS Unity The paragraph should focus on a single claim Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the one before Development The paragraph’s claim must be supported with relevant evidence
  • 25. 3. CLAIM DEVELOPEDTHROUGH EVIDENCEHurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendouspower. These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter,and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph(Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities, typically accompaniedby heavy rain, hurricanes have the potential to completely destroya small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great, infact, is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has beenestimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankindthroughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001). 1. Its size 2. Its speed 3. Its capacity for destruction 4. Its energy
  • 26. 3. INEFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHDEVELOPMENT Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph … lacks DEVELOPMENT. Its loosely-connected ideas create a ‘shopping-list’ effect through: • Lack of focus on the topic and claim • Overuse of vague adverbials like ‘Firstly’, ‘Secondly’ • Inclusion of irrelevant details • Random shifts between NZ and Australia • Adding one fact after another without explaining how they support the argument A shopping-list paragraph takes the reader on a confusing journey that leads nowhere
  • 27. 3. INEFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHDEVELOPMENT Political challenge must be considered Topic Sentence Supporting Supporting Supporting argument 1 argument 2 argument 3Australians voted Australia etc Sir Jerry Mataparae isagainst - Victoria governed by NZ Governor Generalvoted in favour – authority of CrownAustralia not as keenon monarchy as NZ Supporting argument 5 Supporting NZ’s treaty argument 4 principles mean it’s Conclusion Republics have harder to abolish people power – but Monarchy not diverse or Julia Gillard says the bicultural issue is not on the agenda in Australia
  • 28. 3. EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHDEVELOPMENT Improved version ... Uses the same ideas, but ... • they’ve been more carefully selected (UNITY) • they’ve been clearly built from one sentence to the next (COHERENCE) • the claim made at the beginning is supported, leading up to a strong conclusion (DEVELOPMENT) A well-constructed paragraph tells the reader where they are going, guides them along the way and lets them know they’ve reached the destination
  • 29. 3. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVEPARAGRAPHAnother barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of analternative concept of State power. This difficulty is said to explain whyAustralians, less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh,2010), voted against change in the referendum a decade ago (Campbell,1999). The Australian Premier has recently said the issue is no longereven on the agenda (Behan, 2011). In the meantime, like New Zealand,Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to the authorityof the ‘Crown’ as the executive branch of Government; an authorityinherited from the colonial power, Britain (Radley & Foreman, 2003).Republicanism has traditionally replaced this ‘top-down’ authority with aconcept of power of the people. However, this ‘people-power’ concept hasbeen criticised for suppressing diversity and bi-culturalism in favour of‘One Nation’ (Brown, 2003) and would clearly be especially problematicfor New Zealand, where the Treaty Principles uphold partnership,protection and participation (Massey University, 2009). If Australia,where indigenous rights and biculturalism have been less prominent, hasstruggled to develop an alternative to the power of the Crown, how muchmore difficult would such a process be in New Zealand, where nationalidentity is a complex and central political issue?
  • 30. 3. EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHDEVELOPMENT Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is developing an alternative Topic concept of State power Sentence Supporting Supporting Supporting argument 1 argument 2 argument 3 This barrier led to The alternative concept This criticism is Australians voting to of ‘people power’ has especially valid in the keep the Monarchy, even been criticised for NZ context of though they’re not really being monocultural biculturalism. so keen on it If this barrier was strong enough to stop Australia Conclusion eliminating the monarchy, it’s going to even more difficult for NZ to do so
  • 31. 4. INTRODUCTIONPARAGRAPHS … puts the issue into a context that shows why it’s both important and problematic ... includes a brief definition of the topic ... briefly previews the structure of the essay ... presents the main argument of the essay in a thesis statement
  • 32. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVEINTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 33. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVEINTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do thecontext same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 34. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations todefinition the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 35. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVEINTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects notpreview only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 36. 4. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a few years ago, a majority of New Zealand businesses were said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007), though support has since slipped against the background of ongoing problems with the Euro (Brown, 2011). Currency union would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it isthesis not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and societystatement are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
  • 37. 5. CONCLUSIONPARAGRAPHS THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH typically ... … rephrases the thesis statement ... highlights the main supporting arguments ... comments briefly on the implications for the present or future (eg for the world, for NZ, for the sector, for the field of study etc)
  • 38. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVECONCLUSION PARAGRAPH As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co- operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 39. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVECONCLUSION PARAGRAPHrephrases As we have seen, although a currency union with Australiathesis does offer certain concrete financial advantages to Newstatement Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 40. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVECONCLUSION PARAGRAPH As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poseshighlights unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint.the main Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social andsupporting cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbourarguments which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 41. 5. EXAMPLE OF EFFECTIVECONCLUSION PARAGRAPH As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutualComments co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. Inon particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asiaimplications may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
  • 42. THANKS – AND SEE YOUNEXT TIME! References and arguments are provided for illustration of writing principles only – not for their content! © 2013 This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying handouts are copyrighted by the Centre for Teaching and Learning, Massey University and may not be used, except for personal study, without written permission from the copyright owner.Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts