271.150 ASSIGNMENT 1B• This is a research-based report on a Communication Disorder,divided into six sections (each with its own heading), together with abrief introduction and conclusion.• Each of the main sections will typically consist of between one andfour paragraphs of 4 – 6 sentences each. This will add up to somethinglike 14 – 20 paragraphs in total (giving you your 2000 words).• Because the report is research-based, there should be in-textcitations in each paragraph to support the claims which are made there.• The reference list at the end will typically consist of between 10 and20 references – most of which are academic journal articles, books andbook chapters – matching the in-text citations in the body of the report.
ASSIGNMENT 1B• Every report is different. This is partly because they are aboutdifferent disorders and partly because there are a wide range of optionsabout what to focus on in each section, how much detail to go into etc.For instance, some excellent reports include a preview as part of theintroduction; others have no preview. In the end, it is your decision.• Use the example extracts below as a general guide to writing style,but avoid over-reliance on them: copying and/or ‘filling in the gaps’ withyour own data would be a bad idea!
INTRODUCTIONSome relevant considerationsAim to start as you mean to go on – clear, concise andevidence-based writing.The two most typical elements are a definition / explanationof the basic features of the condition and a preview of therest of the report. In other words, aim to answer these twoquestions:• What is the condition?• What is the purpose, scope and structure of thisreport?
INTRODUCTION: EXAMPLEEXTRACTSyndrome A describes a group of xx difficulties arising from injuryto xx (Smith & Jones, 1994; Singh, 2009). This injury damages xx,affecting the individual’s ability to xx. Physical manifestationsrange from xx to xx. Some individuals with Syndrome A may onlyhave difficulties in xx, while others may be unable to xx. SyndromeA is classified according to the type of movement disorder: B, C, orD (Adams, 2011). This report focuses on the most common ofthese: Disorder B. The key features of the condition itself, itsimpact on individuals and major approaches to speech-languagetherapy interventions are summarised in the sections of the reportwhich follow.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INFORMATIONSome relevant considerations• Is there agreement in the literature regarding issues suchas incidence, prevalence and age of onset?• Are there relevant differences between genders,ethnicities, ages or any other social or cultural groupings?• Where is your data from? Is it NZ-based? Is it universallyapplicable? If not, provide the given country.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INFORMATION:EXAMPLE EXTRACTA number of sources cite a prevalence rate for Syndrome Aof xx among North American children (Brown & Gill, 2003;Marley, 2007), but no prevalence data is available for NewZealand children (Broughton, 2011). The condition appearsslightly more often in boys than in girls (a ratio of X:Y) (Smith,2005). Another identifiable risk factor is family background:siblings of children with Syndrome A are three times morelikely to develop Syndrome A than children without thisfamily connection (Brown & Gill, 2003).
AETIOLOGYSome relevant considerations• Is there agreement in the literature about the cause(s) of thedisorder – e.g. genetic abnormalities, environmental factors,traumatic events etc?• What is the relationship between the different causal factors –e.g. predisposition, co-occurrence, trigger etc?• What are the neurological, physiological, anatomical featuresunderlying the disorder?• Consider a logical way of organising the different causalfactors, so that it doesn’t end up as an undifferentiated ‘laundrylist’ of factors.
AETIOLOGY: EXAMPLE EXTRACTThere is no known cause of Syndrome A. However, several studieshave provided evidence of a hereditary genetic component inSyndrome A (Dean, 2002; Xiang, 2005; Plowright, 2009), whichmay predispose some individuals to develop the condition in anumber of specific contexts . Hays (2006) categorises thesecontexts as birth-related (e.g. perinatal trauma), environmental(e.g poor diet) and illness-related (e.g. rubella). In addition, anumber of studies have highlighted the co-occurrence ofSyndrome A with Condition B (Anderson, 2008; Palmer, 2010),though it is unclear whether there is a common chromosomalabnormality underlying both conditions, or whether it is morelogical to consider Syndrome A and Condition B as part of onesingle disorder, as recently argued by Warrender (2012).
COMMUNICATION PROFILESome relevant considerations• As in other sections, organise your information into logicalsub-sections. These will depend on the nature of the disorderyou’ve chosen – for some conditions, there’ll be more to say aboutphonology; for others, the semantic area will predominate, whilefor others there will be more to say about use.• Consider the degree of impairment in different domains oflanguage and whether these affect receptive and expressive use oflanguage differently.• Also consider whether the impacts of the condition vary in theearly, mid- and late stages – or in any other systematic way (forinstance, according to age).
INTRODUCTION: EXAMPLEEXTRACTSyntactic and morphological deficits are strong markers forSyndrome A. Syntactic development may be delayed forchildren with Syndrome A, resulting in reduced xx andshorter yy (Sleziwicki, 2004). One recent study found thatseven year old children with Syndrome A were significantlyless able to interpret xx than typically-developing children –and this impaired their ability to infer causation andsequencing in texts (Redwood, 2011). At a morphologicallevel, children with Syndrome A have few problemsrecognising xx receptively, but frequently omit them inproductive use, leading to a lack of precision in relation to xxand yy (Sleziwicki, 2004).
IMPACT ON THE PERSON’SFUNCTIONINGSome relevant considerations• Which relevant activities (e.g. educational, professional,social) are affected?• To what degree is participation in these activitiesaffected?
IMPACT ON THE PERSON’SFUNCTIONING: EXAMPLEEXTRACTSyndrome A has significant and long-lasting impacts onchildren’s xx and yy. Children with Syndrome A havedifficulties with xx as a result of yy. Their reduced xx affectsthese children’s performance in (and enjoyment of) yy(Pearson and Gomez, 2008), while their difficulties with zzaffect the pace and clarity of their aa (Gomez, 2009). Thesedifficulties become particularly marked as they entersecondary education as yy becomes increasingly critical to zz(Briggs, 2010).
PROGNOSISSome relevant considerations• Is this a degenerative disease?• What is the likelihood of the improvement / stabilisationin the condition?• How will any changes impact their future in terms ofspeech / language / communication?
PROGNOSIS: EXAMPLE EXTRACTSyndrome A is a persistent disorder. Recent research hasshown that over 60% of children diagnosed with Syndrome Abetween the ages of xx and yy continued to present withSyndrome A at the age of 18 (Dickens, Noone, & Forsell,2011). One indication of the persistent effects of thecondition is an English study which found that 76% ofadolescents with Syndrome A had been issued with a formalstatement of educational needs, entitling them to additionallearning support; what is more, their performance onstandardised assessments of reading and writing wasapproximately half the national average for all students(Atkinson, 2006).
SLT INTERVENTIONSSome relevant considerations• What general approaches to intervention areappropriate?• What particular issues (e.g. domains of communication,aspects of functioning etc) are the focus of intervention?• What strategies, activities, resources have been shown tobe effective?
SLT INTERVENTIONS: EXAMPLEEXTRACTSLT intervention for children with Syndrome A begins with anassessment of the child’s xx. This consists of ……. (Wilkins,2009). Because of xx, most speech-language therapists nowrecommend a yy approach, which focuses on zz, rather thanthe more traditional dd approach (Rayburn, 2008). A yyapproach incorporates ___ For instance, __. In a ddapproach, on the other hand, the therapist would __ (Halbin,2006). While this dd approach may successfully improve anindividual’s __, its limited focus on __ means that __ (Alwyn,2010).
CONCLUSIONSome relevant considerations• As with the introduction, focus strongly on clarity andconciseness.• Aim to summarise the key facts about the condition, itsimpacts and interventions in four or five sentences.
CONCLUSION: EXAMPLE EXTRACTSyndrome A is the most prevalent xx in young adults. Thecondition affects the individual’s …. and therefore impairstheir participation in …. While there is no cure, a number oftreatments and therapies are available which can alleviatethe symptoms and allow an individual to xx. Speech-language interventions focus on bb and have been shown tobe effective in cc.
SLT WRITING TASKSadly, “the impact of xx is not limited to people’scommunicative abilities”. It can have a devastating impact ontheir social lives, and personal relationships can fall apart;according to (Brown, 2002, p. 231).What’s wrong with example 1?
SLT WRITING TASKSadly, “the impact of xx is not limited to people’scommunicative abilities”. It can have a devastating impact ontheir social lives, and personal relationships can fall apart;according to (Brown, 2002, p. 231).• Avoid emotional and slangy / vague language• Only quote definitions
SLT WRITING TASKA number of studies have found that the effects of SyndromeA are not limited to communicative abilities, but impactsignificantly on every area of people’s social life, and inparticular, their ability to maintain personal relationships(Brown, 2002; Davies & Kennedy, 2004; Briggs, 2006).Improved version
SLT WRITING TASKEmbolism happens when a bit of plaque gets broken off andblocks an artery, this prohibits blood from flowing and it’sone of the most common causes of strokes. (Twyford, 2006).What’s wrong with example 2?
SLT WRITING TASKEmbolism happens when a bit of plaque gets broken off andblocks an artery, this prohibits blood from flowing and it’sone of the most common causes of strokes. (Twyford, 2006).• Avoid sentence fragments and run-on sentences
SLT WRITING TASKAn embolism occurs when a detached fragment of plaqueblocks an artery, preventing blood from flowing through it.Embolisms are one of the most common causes of strokes(Twyford, 2006).Improved version
SLT WRITING TASKThe good news is that more than 75% of stroke victims areable to regain sufficient levels of cognitive andcommunicative skills, many of them return to work orresume studies again (Larby, P., Freeman, L., & Porter, B.D.,2000).What’s wrong with example 3?
SLT WRITING TASKThe good news is that more than 75% of stroke victims areable to regain sufficient levels of cognitive andcommunicative skills, many of them return to work orresume studies again (Larby, P., Freeman, L., & Porter, B.D.,2000).• Aim for evidence-based writing
SLT WRITING TASKMore than 75% of people who have had strokes are able toregain sufficient levels of cognitive and communicative skillsto return to work or resume studies (Larby, Freeman, &Porter, 2000).Improved version
SLT WRITING TASKSufferers of this condition may find it hard to communicateor participate in social activities for quite a long period oftime (Ryan and Shaw, 2010).What’s wrong with example 4?
SLT WRITING TASKSufferers of this condition may find it hard to communicateor participate in social activities for quite a long period oftime (Ryan and Shaw, 2010).
SLT WRITING TASKPeople with condition X may find it hard to communicate orparticipate in social activities for periods ranging from one tosix months after onset (Ryan & Shaw, 2010).Improved version• Be as precise as you can
SLT WRITING TASKChildren with ASD generally find social situations harder thannormal children, that is why “Pragmatic skills are a focus ofSLT intervention” (Minnock, 2003, pg. 84).What’s wrong with example 5?
SLT WRITING TASKChildren with ASD generally find social situations harder thannormal children, that is why “Pragmatic skills are a focus ofSLT intervention” (Minnock, 2003, pg. 84).
SLT WRITING TASKChildren with ASD generally find social situations harder thantypically-developing children, which is why SLT interventionsfocus on helping them develop their pragmatic skills(Minnock, 2003).Improved version
SLT WRITING TASKAlso, “The presence of b-methyl-4-phenyl-7,2,4-tetrahydropyridoxide at levels higher than 100 parts permillion has been associated with increased levels ofSyndrome in clinical trials” (Truss, Ward, Franks, Russell,Harby, Reynolds, & Anderson, 2008, p. 28).What’s wrong with example 6?
SLT WRITING TASKAlso, “The presence of b-methyl-4-phenyl-7,2,4-tetrahydropyridoxide at levels higher than 100 parts permillion has been associated with increased levels ofSyndrome A in clinical trials” (Truss, Ward, Franks, Russell,Harby, Reynolds, & Anderson, 2008, p. 28).• Don’t paste in chunks of gobbledygook, with detailswhich, in the context of your report, are meaninglessand/or confusing
SLT WRITING TASKRecent research has found an association between incidenceof Syndrome A and high levels of a specific neurotransmitter,b-methyl-4-phenyl-7,2,4-tetrahydropyridoxide (Truss et al.,2008).Improved version
SLT WRITING TASKThere is no single cause of Syndrome A. Although geneticpredisposition and environmental factors have beenidentified as attributing to their onset (Plaid et. al, 2004).What’s wrong with example 7?
SLT WRITING TASKThere is no single cause of Syndrome A. Although geneticpredisposition and environmental factors have beenidentified as attributing to their onset (Plaid et. al, 2004).• Make sure you check usage of unfamiliar vocabulary ina good dictionary – e.g.http://www.macmillandictionary.com. Otherwise youare asking for trouble (here, the student seems to beconfusing ‘attribute’ and ‘contribute)
SLT WRITING TASKThere is no single cause of Syndrome A, although geneticpredisposition and environmental factors have beenassociated with its onset (Plaid et al., 2004).Improved version
SLT WRITING TASKAutistic children either repeat words immediately after theyhear it or repeat whole lines he or she heard before, knownas delayed echolalia (SpeechDisorders.com, 2003).What’s wrong with example 8?
SLT WRITING TASKAutistic children either repeat words immediately after theyhear it or repeat whole lines he or she heard before, knownas delayed echolalia (SpeechDisorders.com, 2003).• Person-first language!• Make sure the parts of your sentences match (‘he orshe’ can’t refer back to ‘children’ and ‘it’ can’t refer to‘words’)
SLT WRITING TASKChildren with autism may either repeat words immediatelyafter they hear them or repeat whole lines they heard before(a phenomenon known as delayed echolalia) (SpeechDisorders Association, 2003).Improved version
SLT WRITING TASKFinally, here’s an example in-text citation and end-of-textreference for a YouTube Video – just in case you end upusing an online video sources. This example is based onpage 215of the APA Manual (6th ed.).Smith, P. (2005, April 5). Living with aphasia. [Video file].Retrieved fromhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=de03KHPNSEzAccording to Smith (2005), three communication strategiesare particularly effective in this context ….