Part 1: AVOIDING PLAGIARISM
Part 2: IN-TEXT REFERENCING /
Part 3: END OF TEXT REFERENCING
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WHAT IS PLAGIARISM
• Copying words without telling the reader where those
words came from
• Copying words without putting them inside quotation
• Paraphrasing another source, but only changing a few
• Using the facts or ideas from another source without
telling the reader where they came from
From Massey Online Writing and Learning Link (OWLL)
1. AVOIDING PLAGIARISM
EXAMPLE OF POOR
A section from an Art & Design report, in which the student is supposed to
discuss the history of an artefact they have chosen
As can be seen in figure 1 (below), the gold frame contains the
openwork inscription +Aelfred mec heht gewyrcan („Alfred ordered
me to be made‟), which suggests a strong association with King
Alfred the Great (871–99 AD). The seated figure who holds the
flowers is considered to represent the sense of sight. This
corresponds with the use which is preferred nowadays for the
jewel – that of a terminal or handle for an aestel or pointer which
people used to follow the text of a manuscript. King Alfred sent
around precious aestels with copies of his Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral
care, which he had translated. Its original owner, Nathaniel
Palmer, bequeathed it to the Ashmolean Museum, where it still
remains, in 1718 (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum,
“The gold frame bears the openwork inscription +Aelfred mec
heht gewyrcan („Alfred ordered me to be made‟), suggesting
strongly the association with King Alfred the Great (871–99 AD).
The seated figure holding the flowers is thought to represent the
sense of sight, an allusion which corresponds with the function
currently favoured for the jewel – that of a terminal or handle
for an aestel or pointer for following the text of a manuscript.
King Alfred distributed precious aestels with copies of his
translation of Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care. The jewel was found
in 1693 at Newton Park, four miles south of Athelney, Somerset,
an area associated with Alfred, and bequeathed by Nathaniel
Palmer in 1718” (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum,
This is from the museum website that the student has used for their
Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
The gold frame bears ...
suggesting strongly the association
The seated figure holding the
flowers is thought to represent
the function currently favoured.
King Alfred distributed ...
His translation of Pope Gregory‟s
bequeathed by Nathaniel Palmer
the gold frame contains ...
which suggests a strong association
The seated figure who holds the
flowers is considered to represent
the use which is preferred nowadays
King Alfred sent around ...
his Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care,
which he had translated.
Nathaniel Palmer, bequeathed it
ORIGINAL SOURCE STUDENT’S ASSIGNMENT
MUCH TOO CLOSE FOR COMFORT!
Two major problems with
John Smith (1823-1872) proposed the Bungalarian theory, which
uses the dingle-dongle principle to resolve haplidoodality – the
tendency of haples to doodle under conditions of wowdicity.
The Bungalarian theory, which was proposed by John Smith
(1823-1872), involves the use of the dingle-dongle principle in
the resolution of haplidoodality, or the fact that haples tend to
doodle when subjected to wowdicity.
For example, compare this original….
With this close paraphrase …
1. It doesn’t show your understanding
2. It is too detailed and lengthy for your essay (because you’re
keeping the same length as the original sentences which come
from a much longer text)
By just playing around with the original text, the only knowledge the student is
showing is about English grammar!
HOW TO USE IDEAS
FROM YOUR RESEARCH
1. Pick out the relevant ideas from the original source
2. Make very brief notes
3. Put away the original source
4. Expand each of your notes into one sentence
5. Include a reference to the original source of your ideas
EXAMPLE OF GOOD
History of the Alfred Jewel
A) Basic facts
Newton Pk, Somerset, 1693 – Nathaniel Palmer – bequeathed to Ashmolean
Mus in 1718
B) Why it is thought to be connected with King Alfred
1) Alfred made me – inscription
2) Prob. head of an aestel / pointer – they were made for K. Alf’s
translation of Pope Gregory’s Pastoral Care
3) Area has strong links to K. Alf
The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology. (2005). The Alfred jewel. Retrieved March 23,
2012 from: http://www.ashmolean.org/collections/?type=highlights&id=24&department=1
EXAMPLE OF WRITING
The history of the Alfred Jewel, since it came to light over three
hundred years ago, is clear and straightforward. It was found at
Newton Park in Somerset in 1693 and bequeathed to the
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford less than twenty years later by its
original owner, Nathaniel Palmer. It has been there ever since.
There are strong reasons, too, for accepting its traditional
association with King Alfred. Most obviously, the inscription
which forms the frame reads (in translation), „Alfred made me‟.
There is credible indirect evidence that this refers to King
Alfred. The image is thought to represent the sense of sight and
to indicate that the jewel originally formed the head of an
aestel – or pointer – used when reading manuscripts. It is
known that such artefacts were made to accompany King
Alfred‟s translation of Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care. In addition,
the area where the jewel was found had strong links to King
Alfred (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 2005).
Using the five-step approach with the same research, a possible
FAIL can become a potential DISTINCTION.
2. IN-TEXT REFERENCING
Strategic planning is “the process of establishing
an organisational mission and formulating
goals, corporate strategy, marketing
objectives, marketing strategy and a marketing
plan” (Pride et al., 2006, p. 31).
Strategic planning is a comprehensive approach to
marketing, which aims to align overall corporate
strategy with the more specific goals of strategic
business units and the marketing plans which are
intended to realise these goals (Pride et al., 2006).
Summary in your own words
QUOTATIONS ARE RARE
IN GOOD ESSAYS
Definitions of key concepts
Stuttering has been defined as “a disruption in the fluency of
verbal expression characterized by involuntary, audible or
silent, repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables”
(Büchel & Sommer, 2004, p. 159).
• Especially memorable phrases from experts
This is another illustration of the truth of the saying, “Those who do
not remember the past are condemned to repeat it” (Santayana,
1905, p. 284).
Altogether , a 1500 word essay would typically include 2 - 4 short quotes
Efficient management of human
resources, likewise, requires knowledge and ability to
implement macroeconomic principles. For
instance, according to the Principle of Comparative
Advantage, “everyone does best when each concentrates
on the activity for which he or she is relatively most
productive” (Frank & Bernanke, 2001, p. 23). This
suggests that the underlying purpose of human
resources ought to be to ensure that employees are
trained, motivated and managed so that they can spend
most of their time contributing to the company’s mission
at the highest skill level they are capable of. In other
words, human resources management needs to be
proactive, rather than reactive.
THEORY – PRACTICE
According to the model presented by Quester,
Macguiggan, Perrault and McCarthy (2004, p.
108), brand preference is a dynamic process
consisting of five different stages. This model
provides a highly useful basis for evaluation of
marketing strategy. For instance, Benneton, in the
1990’s, embarked on a highly controversial global
campaign, which certainly raised their level of
brand recognition. Their failure to translate this
recognition into matching sales (Hamilton, 1997),
may be because the whole campaign was narrowly
targeted at one single stage of brand preference.
– Surname of author(s) + year of publication
– Direct quotations need quotation marks and page
Observational learning can be defined as “the
phenomenon whereby people develop patterns of
behavior by observing the actions of others”
(Mowen & Minor, 1998, p. 147).
book journal article website
newspaper article etc
The same basic
principle for ALL
CITATIONS (more than one
For two authors, always include both:
Blah, blah, blah, blah (Chang & Liu, 2009).
For three to five authors– include all surnames first time
Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard, Thomas, & Varnham, 2001).
And then use et al. if you refer to the same source again
Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard et al., 2001).
For six or more authors, use et al. all the time
Blah, blah, blah, blah (Singh et al., 2011).
In a recently discovered private diary, Jane Austen describes the character
as “her greatest challenge and most uncertain achievement” (as cited in
Smith, 2012, p. 231).
But avoid these secondary references and, if possible, include a
direct reference to the original source (you’ll find the details you
need in the book you’ve used).
Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
This period during which a learner can complete a task with the support of
tools and/ or mentors is known as the Zone of Proximal Development
(ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978).
In this case, it doesn’t really matter that I haven’t read
Vygotsky’s book myself – I read about this theory in a recent
book, but I’m including a reference to the original book in which
Vygotsky explained this theory
CITATIONS (three ways)
According to Dunbar and Holmes (2003), cognitive
behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred …..
Dunbar and Holmes (2003) claim / argue / suggest / state /
provide evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy is
increasingly preferred …..
Cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred to more
traditional medical interventions in such cases (Dunbar &
Most of the time, you’ll put the reference in brackets, just after
you’ve finished with the information.
But sometimes you can include the author(s) in your sentence and
then just put the year in brackets.
3. END OF TEXT
Finkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A. (2009). Think again: Why good leaders
make bad decisions and how to stop it happening to you. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Business School Press.
Kahnemann, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioural
economics. The American Economic Review 93(5), 1449-1475.
Kahnemann, D., Fredrickson, B. I., Schreiber, C.A., & Redelmeier, D.A. (1993). When
more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science 4(6),
Krause, T. R. (2008). The role of cognitive bias in safety decisions. Occupational
Hazards 70(6), 28.
Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioural model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of
Economics 69(1), 99-118.
White, E. (2009, February 14). Why good leaders make bad decisions. The Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from:
Use a YouTube video to help you with formatting – e.g. http://tinyurl.com/APAindenting
Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press
(year) title city
For more than one
author, include all
names with initials
(followed by . and ,)
Hubbard, J., Thomas, C., & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New
Zealand business students (2nd ed.). Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson
Biggins, G. (2009). Why I became a social worker. In P. Te Ara & T. Rogers
(Eds.), Social work and social workers in New Zealand/Aotearoa (pp.102-120).
Auckland, New Zealand: Insight Press.
Title of chapter – not
Editors’ names – initial
goes before and (Eds.),
Title of book –
Page numbers of chapter – in
brackets with pp. before
Author of chapter
and year of
CITY OF PUBLICATION
UK, NZ etc
Palmerston North, New
Zealand: Dunmore Press
Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Check title of book in library catalogue and/or Google if
city of publication is not clear from the book itself
Milton, Qld: McGraw-Hill
Silverblatt, A. (2004). Media as a social
institution. American Behavioral
Scientist, 48(1), 35-42.
year Title (no italics)
(not always needed)
WEB PAGE REFERENCE
Statistics New Zealand. (2009).
Mapping trends in the Auckland
region. Retrieved from
(or organisation that owns the web site)
(if it’s missing put (n.d.)
followed by full internet address
Title of page
Endnote ($36 from library – and make sure you go to a tutorial)
Free Programmes to download (but you’ll need to learn how to
use them, through online tutorials etc)
Use the references tab in the toolbar
Microsoft Word 2007 +
Click ‘insert citation’ + add new source
Take care with names (Hamel, Gary) and type of source