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Slides from a presentation given at Massey University, New Zealand in March 2013.

Slides from a presentation given at Massey University, New Zealand in March 2013.

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2013 apa referencing Presentation Transcript

  • 1. APA REFERENCING Part 1: AVOIDING PLAGIARISM Part 2: IN-TEXT REFERENCING / CITATIONS Part 3: END OF TEXT REFERENCING CENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING LIBRARY 3RD FLOOR 09 441-8143 slc-alb@massey.ac.nz Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/APAreferencing2013 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 2. WHAT IS PLAGIARISM • Copying words without telling the reader where those words came from • Copying words without putting them inside quotation marks • Paraphrasing another source, but only changing a few words • Using the facts or ideas from another source without telling the reader where they came from From Massey Online Writing and Learning Link (OWLL) 1. AVOIDING PLAGIARISM Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/APAreferencing2013 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 3. EXAMPLE OF POOR PARAPHRASING A section from an Art & Design report, in which the student is supposed to discuss the history of an artefact they have chosen As can be seen in figure 1 (below), the gold frame contains the openwork inscription +Aelfred mec heht gewyrcan („Alfred ordered me to be made‟), which suggests a strong association with King Alfred the Great (871–99 AD). The seated figure who holds the flowers is considered to represent the sense of sight. This corresponds with the use which is preferred nowadays for the jewel – that of a terminal or handle for an aestel or pointer which people used to follow the text of a manuscript. King Alfred sent around precious aestels with copies of his Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care, which he had translated. Its original owner, Nathaniel Palmer, bequeathed it to the Ashmolean Museum, where it still remains, in 1718 (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 2005). Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/APAreferencing2013 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 4. ORIGINAL SOURCE “The gold frame bears the openwork inscription +Aelfred mec heht gewyrcan („Alfred ordered me to be made‟), suggesting strongly the association with King Alfred the Great (871–99 AD). The seated figure holding the flowers is thought to represent the sense of sight, an allusion which corresponds with the function currently favoured for the jewel – that of a terminal or handle for an aestel or pointer for following the text of a manuscript. King Alfred distributed precious aestels with copies of his translation of Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care. The jewel was found in 1693 at Newton Park, four miles south of Athelney, Somerset, an area associated with Alfred, and bequeathed by Nathaniel Palmer in 1718” (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 2005). This is from the museum website that the student has used for their research. Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 5. COMPARISON: SOURCE AND ASSIGNMENT The gold frame bears ... suggesting strongly the association The seated figure holding the flowers is thought to represent the function currently favoured. King Alfred distributed ... His translation of Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care. bequeathed by Nathaniel Palmer the gold frame contains ... which suggests a strong association The seated figure who holds the flowers is considered to represent the use which is preferred nowadays King Alfred sent around ... his Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care, which he had translated. Nathaniel Palmer, bequeathed it ORIGINAL SOURCE STUDENT’S ASSIGNMENT MUCH TOO CLOSE FOR COMFORT!
  • 6. Two major problems with CLOSE paraphrasing John Smith (1823-1872) proposed the Bungalarian theory, which uses the dingle-dongle principle to resolve haplidoodality – the tendency of haples to doodle under conditions of wowdicity. The Bungalarian theory, which was proposed by John Smith (1823-1872), involves the use of the dingle-dongle principle in the resolution of haplidoodality, or the fact that haples tend to doodle when subjected to wowdicity. For example, compare this original…. With this close paraphrase … 1. It doesn’t show your understanding 2. It is too detailed and lengthy for your essay (because you’re keeping the same length as the original sentences which come from a much longer text) By just playing around with the original text, the only knowledge the student is showing is about English grammar!
  • 7. HOW TO USE IDEAS FROM YOUR RESEARCH 1. Pick out the relevant ideas from the original source 2. Make very brief notes 3. Put away the original source 4. Expand each of your notes into one sentence Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/APAreferencing2013 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts 5. Include a reference to the original source of your ideas
  • 8. EXAMPLE OF GOOD NOTE-TAKING History of the Alfred Jewel A) Basic facts Newton Pk, Somerset, 1693 – Nathaniel Palmer – bequeathed to Ashmolean Mus in 1718 B) Why it is thought to be connected with King Alfred 1) Alfred made me – inscription 2) Prob. head of an aestel / pointer – they were made for K. Alf’s translation of Pope Gregory’s Pastoral Care 3) Area has strong links to K. Alf The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology. (2005). The Alfred jewel. Retrieved March 23, 2012 from: http://www.ashmolean.org/collections/?type=highlights&id=24&department=1
  • 9. EXAMPLE OF WRITING FROM NOTES The history of the Alfred Jewel, since it came to light over three hundred years ago, is clear and straightforward. It was found at Newton Park in Somerset in 1693 and bequeathed to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford less than twenty years later by its original owner, Nathaniel Palmer. It has been there ever since. There are strong reasons, too, for accepting its traditional association with King Alfred. Most obviously, the inscription which forms the frame reads (in translation), „Alfred made me‟. There is credible indirect evidence that this refers to King Alfred. The image is thought to represent the sense of sight and to indicate that the jewel originally formed the head of an aestel – or pointer – used when reading manuscripts. It is known that such artefacts were made to accompany King Alfred‟s translation of Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care. In addition, the area where the jewel was found had strong links to King Alfred (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 2005). Using the five-step approach with the same research, a possible FAIL can become a potential DISTINCTION.
  • 10. 2. IN-TEXT REFERENCING / CITATIONS Strategic planning is “the process of establishing an organisational mission and formulating goals, corporate strategy, marketing objectives, marketing strategy and a marketing plan” (Pride et al., 2006, p. 31). Strategic planning is a comprehensive approach to marketing, which aims to align overall corporate strategy with the more specific goals of strategic business units and the marketing plans which are intended to realise these goals (Pride et al., 2006). Summary in your own words Quotation
  • 11. QUOTATIONS ARE RARE IN GOOD ESSAYS Definitions of key concepts Stuttering has been defined as “a disruption in the fluency of verbal expression characterized by involuntary, audible or silent, repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables” (Büchel & Sommer, 2004, p. 159). • Especially memorable phrases from experts This is another illustration of the truth of the saying, “Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it” (Santayana, 1905, p. 284). Altogether , a 1500 word essay would typically include 2 - 4 short quotes Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/APAreferencing2013 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
  • 12. THE QUOTATION SANDWICH Efficient management of human resources, likewise, requires knowledge and ability to implement macroeconomic principles. For instance, according to the Principle of Comparative Advantage, “everyone does best when each concentrates on the activity for which he or she is relatively most productive” (Frank & Bernanke, 2001, p. 23). This suggests that the underlying purpose of human resources ought to be to ensure that employees are trained, motivated and managed so that they can spend most of their time contributing to the company’s mission at the highest skill level they are capable of. In other words, human resources management needs to be proactive, rather than reactive. Your point Supporting quote Your Comment
  • 13. THEORY – PRACTICE PING-PONG According to the model presented by Quester, Macguiggan, Perrault and McCarthy (2004, p. 108), brand preference is a dynamic process consisting of five different stages. This model provides a highly useful basis for evaluation of marketing strategy. For instance, Benneton, in the 1990’s, embarked on a highly controversial global campaign, which certainly raised their level of brand recognition. Their failure to translate this recognition into matching sales (Hamilton, 1997), may be because the whole campaign was narrowly targeted at one single stage of brand preference. real-world example – journalistic source theory – academic source
  • 14. CITATIONS (IN-TEXT REFERENCES) – Surname of author(s) + year of publication – Direct quotations need quotation marks and page number(s) Observational learning can be defined as “the phenomenon whereby people develop patterns of behavior by observing the actions of others” (Mowen & Minor, 1998, p. 147). Surnames of authors Year of publication Page book journal article website newspaper article etc The same basic principle for ALL sources
  • 15. CITATIONS (more than one author) For two authors, always include both: Blah, blah, blah, blah (Chang & Liu, 2009). For three to five authors– include all surnames first time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard, Thomas, & Varnham, 2001). And then use et al. if you refer to the same source again Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard et al., 2001). For six or more authors, use et al. all the time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Singh et al., 2011).
  • 16. CITATIONS (SECONDARY SOURCES) In a recently discovered private diary, Jane Austen describes the character as “her greatest challenge and most uncertain achievement” (as cited in Smith, 2012, p. 231). But avoid these secondary references and, if possible, include a direct reference to the original source (you’ll find the details you need in the book you’ve used). Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts This period during which a learner can complete a task with the support of tools and/ or mentors is known as the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978). In this case, it doesn’t really matter that I haven’t read Vygotsky’s book myself – I read about this theory in a recent book, but I’m including a reference to the original book in which Vygotsky explained this theory
  • 17. CITATIONS (three ways) According to Dunbar and Holmes (2003), cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred ….. Dunbar and Holmes (2003) claim / argue / suggest / state / provide evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred ….. Cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred to more traditional medical interventions in such cases (Dunbar & Holmes, 2003). Most of the time, you’ll put the reference in brackets, just after you’ve finished with the information. But sometimes you can include the author(s) in your sentence and then just put the year in brackets.
  • 18. 3. END OF TEXT REFERENCES References Finkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A. (2009). Think again: Why good leaders make bad decisions and how to stop it happening to you. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Kahnemann, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioural economics. The American Economic Review 93(5), 1449-1475. Kahnemann, D., Fredrickson, B. I., Schreiber, C.A., & Redelmeier, D.A. (1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science 4(6), 401-405. Krause, T. R. (2008). The role of cognitive bias in safety decisions. Occupational Hazards 70(6), 28. Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioural model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69(1), 99-118. White, E. (2009, February 14). Why good leaders make bad decisions. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123438338010974235.html Use a YouTube video to help you with formatting – e.g. http://tinyurl.com/APAindenting
  • 19. BOOK Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press surname, initial (year) title city publisher For more than one author, include all names with initials (followed by . and ,) Hubbard, J., Thomas, C., & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New Zealand business students (2nd ed.). Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education.
  • 20. CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK Biggins, G. (2009). Why I became a social worker. In P. Te Ara & T. Rogers (Eds.), Social work and social workers in New Zealand/Aotearoa (pp.102-120). Auckland, New Zealand: Insight Press. Title of chapter – not in italics Editors’ names – initial goes before and (Eds.), goes after! Title of book – in italics Page numbers of chapter – in brackets with pp. before Author of chapter and year of publication City & Publisher
  • 21. CITY OF PUBLICATION UK, NZ etc city, country Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press USA city, state initials Upper Saddle River, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Check title of book in library catalogue and/or Google if city of publication is not clear from the book itself Australia Either state OR country Milton, Qld: McGraw-Hill Milton, Australia: McGraw-Hill
  • 22. JOURNAL REFERENCE Silverblatt, A. (2004). Media as a social institution. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 35-42. author’s name year Title (no italics) journal name (italics) volume & issue number page numbers doi:10.1080/09585190802707433 doi number (not always needed)
  • 23. WEB PAGE REFERENCE Statistics New Zealand. (2009). Mapping trends in the Auckland region. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/Publication s/PopulationStatistics/mapping- trends-in-the-auckland-region.aspx. author’s name (or organisation that owns the web site) Year (if it’s missing put (n.d.) Retrieved from followed by full internet address Title of page (in italics)
  • 24. REFERENCING SOFTWARE Endnote ($36 from library – and make sure you go to a tutorial) http://tinyurl.com/endnoteguide http://www.zotero.org/ Free Programmes to download (but you’ll need to learn how to use them, through online tutorials etc) Use the references tab in the toolbar Microsoft Word 2007 + Click ‘insert citation’ + add new source Take care with names (Hamel, Gary) and type of source http://www.mendeley.com
  • 25. References Frank, R., & Bernanke, B. (2001). Principles of macroeconomics. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Hubbard J., Thomas, C. & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New Zealand business students. Auckland, New Zealand: Prentice Hall. Parry J., Black, C., & Bennett, A. (2000). Fundamentals of finance. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education. Quester, P., McGuiggan, R., Perreault, W. , & McCarthy, J. (2004). Marketing: Creating and delivering value. Sydney, NSW: McGraw-Hill Australia. The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology. (2005). The Alfred jewel. Retrieved from: http://www.ashmolean.org/collections/?type=highlights&id=24&department=1 This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying handouts are copyrighted by the Centre for Teaching and Learning, Massey University and may not be used, except for personal study, without written permission from the copyright owner. Please note that references and arguments are provided for illustration of writing principles only – not for their content! © 2013 Presentation: http://tinyurl.com/APAreferencing2013 Handouts: http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts