APA REFERENCINGPart 1: AVOIDING PLAGIARISMPart 2: IN-TEXT REFERENCING / CITATIONSPart 3: END OF TEXT REFERENCING CENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING LIBRARY 3RD FLOOR 09 441-8143 email@example.com
1. AVOIDING PLAGIARISMWHAT IS PLAGIARISM • Copying words without telling the reader where those words came from • Copying words without putting them inside quotation marks • Paraphrasing another source, but only changing a few words • Using the facts or ideas from another source without telling the reader where they came fromFrom Massey Online Writing and Learning Link (OWLL)Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
EXAMPLE OFPLAGIARISMA section from an Art & Design report, in which the student is supposed to discuss thehistory of an artefact they have chosenAs can be seen in figure 1 (below), the gold frame contains theopenwork inscription +Aelfred mec heht gewyrcan („Alfred orderedme to be made‟), which suggests a strong association with KingAlfred the Great (871–99 AD). The seated figure who holds theflowers is considered to represent the sense of sight. Thiscorresponds with the use which is preferred nowadays for thejewel – that of a terminal or handle for an aestel or pointer whichpeople used to follow the text of a manuscript. King Alfred sentaround precious aestels with copies of his Pope Gregory‟s Pastoralcare, which he had translated. Its original owner, NathanielPalmer, bequeathed it to the Ashmolean Museum, where it stillremains, in 1718 (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum,2005).Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
ORIGINAL SOURCE This is from the museum website that the student has used for their research.“The gold frame bears the openwork inscription +Aelfred mecheht gewyrcan („Alfred ordered me to be made‟), suggestingstrongly the association with King Alfred the Great (871–99 AD).The seated figure holding the flowers is thought to represent thesense of sight, an allusion which corresponds with the functioncurrently favoured for the jewel – that of a terminal or handlefor an aestel or pointer for following the text of a manuscript.King Alfred distributed precious aestels with copies of histranslation of Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care. The jewel was foundin 1693 at Newton Park, four miles south of Athelney, Somerset,an area associated with Alfred, and bequeathed by NathanielPalmer in 1718” (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum,2005).Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
COMPARISON: SOURCEAND ASSIGNMENT ORIGINAL SOURCE STUDENT’S ASSIGNMENTThe gold frame bears ... the gold frame contains ...suggesting strongly the association which suggests a strong associationThe seated figure holding the The seated figure who holds theflowers is thought to represent flowers is considered to representthe function currently favoured. the use which is preferred nowadaysKing Alfred distributed ... King Alfred sent around ...His translation of Pope Gregory‟s his Pope Gregory‟s PastoralPastoral care. care, which he had translated.bequeathed by Nathaniel Palmer Nathaniel Palmer, bequeathed itPLAYING AROUND WITH TEXT = PLAGIARISM!
HOW TO USE IDEASFROM YOUR RESEARCH 1. Pick out the main ideas from the original source 2. Make very brief notes 3. Put away the original source 4. Think about your main purpose in the paragraph and write an introductory sentence 5. Expand each of your notes into one sentence 6. Link the sentences so that they ‘flow’Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
EXAMPLE OF GOODNOTE-TAKING History of the Alfred Jewel A) Provenance Newton Pk, Somerset, 1693 – Nathaniel Palmer – bequeathed to Ashmolean Mus in 1718 B) Connection with King Alfred 1) Alfred made me – inscription 2) Prob. head of an aestel / pointer – they were made for K. Alf’s translation of Pope Gregory’s Pastoral Care 3) Area has strong links to K. AlfThe Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology. (2005). The Alfred jewel. Retrieved March 23, 2012 from: http://www.ashmolean.org/collections/?type=highlights&id=24&department=1
EXAMPLE OF WRITINGFROM NOTES The Alfred Jewel‟s immediate provenance has never been in doubt. It was found at Newton Park in Somerset in 1693 and bequeathed to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford shortly afterwards (in 1718) by its original owner, Nathaniel Palmer. It has stayed there ever since. There are strong reasons, too, for accepting its traditional association with King Alfred. Most obviously, the inscription which forms the frame reads (in translation), „Alfred made me‟. There is credible indirect evidence that this refers to King Alfred. The image is thought to represent the sense of sight and to indicate that the jewel originally formed the head of an aestel – or pointer – used when reading manuscripts. It is known that such artefacts were made to accompany King Alfred‟s translation of Pope Gregory‟s Pastoral care. In addition, the area where the jewel was found had strong links to King Alfred. (University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 2005).With the same research and appropriate note-taking and writing apotential E becomes a possible A.
IN-TEXT REFERENCING/ CITATIONSSummary in your own wordsStrategic planning is a comprehensive approach tomarketing, which aims to align overall corporatestrategy with the more specific goals of strategicbusiness units and the plans which are intended torealise these goals (Pride et al., 2006).QuotationStrategic planning is “the process of establishingan organisational mission and formulatinggoals, corporate strategy, marketingobjectives, marketing strategy and a marketingplan” (Pride et al., 2006, p. 31).
QUOTATIONS ARE RAREIN GOOD ESSAYS Only quote if the original language is special. • a definition of a key concept • an especially memorable phrase from an expert So, a 1500 word essay would typically include 2 - 4 short quotesHandouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
THE QUOTATIONSANDWICHEfficient management of human resources, likewise,requires knowledge and ability to implement Your pointmacroeconomic principles. For instance, according to thePrinciple of Comparative Advantage, “everyone does bestwhen each concentrates on the activity for which he or Supportingshe is relatively most productive” (Frank & Bernanke, quote2001, p. 23). This suggests that the underlying purpose ofhuman resources ought to be to ensure that employeesare trained, motivated and managed so that they canspend most of their time contributing to the company’s Your Commentmission at the highest skill level they are capable of. Inother words, human resources management needs to beproactive, rather than reactive.
THEORY – PRACTICEPING-PONGAccording to the model presented by theory –Quester, Macguiggan, Perrault and McCarthy academic(2004, p. 108), brand preference is a dynamic sourceprocess consisting of five different stages. Thismodel provides a highly useful basis for evaluationof marketing strategy. For instance, Benneton, inthe 1990’s, embarked on a highly controversial real-worldglobal campaign, which certainly raised their level example –of brand recognition. Their failure to translate this journalisticrecognition into matching sales (Benneton sales sourcewoe, 1997), may be because the whole campaignwas narrowly targeted at one single level of brandpreference.
CITATIONS (IN-TEXTREFERENCES) The same basic book journal article website principle for ALL newspaper article etc sources – Surname of author(s) + year of publication – Direct quotations need quotation marks and page number(s) Observational learning can be defined as “the phenomenon whereby people develop patterns of behavior by observing the actions of others” (Mowen & Minor, 1998, p. 147). Surnames Year of Page of authors publication
CITATIONS (more than oneauthor) For two authors, always include both: Blah, blah, blah, blah (Chang & Liu, 2009). For three to five authors– include all surnames first time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard, Thomas, & Varnham, 2001). And then use et al. if you refer to the same source again Blah, blah, blah, blah (Hubbard et al., 2001). For six or more authors, use et al. all the time Blah, blah, blah, blah (Singh et al., 2011).
CITATIONS (SECONDARYSOURCES)In a recently discovered private diary, Jane Austen describes thecharacter as “her greatest challenge and most uncertainachievement” (as cited in Smith, 2012, p. 231). But wherever possible, give the original reference (you’ll find it in the book you’ve used)Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts
CITATIONS (three ways)Most of the time, you’ll put the reference in brackets, just afteryou’ve finished with the information.Cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred to moretraditional medical interventions in such cases (Dunbar &Holmes, 2003).But sometimes you can include the author(s) in your sentence andthen just put the year in brackets.According to Dunbar and Holmes (2003), cognitive behaviouraltherapy is increasingly preferred …..Dunbar and Holmes (2003) claim / argue / suggest / state / provideevidence that cognitive behavioural therapy is increasingly preferred…..
3. END OF TEXTREFERENCESReferencesFinkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A. (2009). Think again: Why good leaders make bad decisions and how to stop it happening to you. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Kahnemann, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioural economics. The American Economic Review 93(5), 1449-1475.Kahnemann, D., Fredrickson, B. I., Schreiber, C.A., & Redelmeier, D.A. (1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science 4(6), 401-405.Krause, T. R. (2008). The role of cognitive bias in safety decisions. Occupational Hazards 70(6), 28.Simon, H. A. (1955). A behavioural model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69(1), 99-118.White, E. (2009, February 14). Why good leaders make bad decisions. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123438338010974235.html
BOOK REFERENCEHamel, G. (2000). Leading the revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press title city surname, (year) publisher initial For more than one author, include all names with initials (followed by . and ,)Hubbard, J., Thomas, C., & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New Zealand business students (2nd ed). Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education.
EDITED BOOK CHAPTERREFERENCE Title of chapter – not in italics Author of chapter Editors’ names – initial and year of goes before and publication (Eds.), goes after!Biggins, G. (2009). Why I became a social worker. In P. Te Ara & T. Rogers (Eds.), Social work and social workers in New Zealand/Aotearoa (pp.102-120). Auckland, New Zealand: Insight Press. Page numbers of chapter – in Title of book – brackets with pp. beforeCity & in italicsPublisher
CITY OF PUBLICATION city, country Harmondsworth, England: UK, NZ etc Penguin Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press Upper Saddle River, NJ: USA, Au, Can city, state Lawrence Erlbaum initials Associates Milton, Qld: McGraw-HillCheck title of book in library catalogue and/or Google if city ofpublication is not clear from the book itself
JOURNAL REFERENCE author’s name year Title (no italics) Silverblatt, A. (2004). Media as a social institution. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(1), 35-42. doi:10.1080/09585190802707433 journal name (italics) doi number volume & page numbers (not always needed) issue number
WEB PAGE REFERENCE Yearauthor’s name (if it’s missing put (n.d.)(or organisation that owns the web site) Title of page (in italics)Statistics New Zealand. (2009). Mapping trends in the Auckland region. Retrieved from: http://www.stats.govt.nz/Publication s/PopulationStatistics/mapping- trends-in-the-auckland-region.aspx. Retrieved from: followed by full internet address
REFERENCINGSOFTWAREMicrosoft Word 2007 + Use the references tab in the toolbar Click ‘insert citation’ + add new source Take care with names (Hamel, Gary) and type of sourceEndnote ($36 from library – and make sure you go to a tutorial) http://tinyurl.com/endnoteguideFree Programmes to download (but you’ll need to learn how touse them, through online tutorials etc) http://www.zotero.org/ http://www.mendeley.com
ReferencesFrank, R., & Bernanke, B. (2001). Principles of macroeconomics. Burr Ridge, Il: McGraw-Hill Higher EducationHubbard J., Thomas, C. & Varnham, S. (2001). Principles of law for New Zealand business students. Auckland, New Zealand: Prentice HallParry J., Black, C., & Bennett, A. (2000). Fundamentals of finance. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education.Quester, P., McGuiggan, R., Perreault, W. , & McCarthy, J. (2004). Marketing: Creating and delivering value. Sydney, NSW: McGraw-Hill AustraliaThe Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology. (2005). The Alfred jewel. Retrieved August 4, 2009 from: http://www.ashmolean.org/collections/?type=highlights&id=24&department=1Handouts available from http://tinyurl.com/albanyhandouts