Structuring a  Paragraph
1.  What the CTL can do for you 2.  How many paragraphs? How long? 3.  Body paragraphs 4.  Introductory paragraphs 5.  Con...
CTL Online Resources tinyurl.com/6xy9hy  podcast  (can also be accessed through OWLL) tinyurl.com/slcvideos  video present...
Study Skills Presentations Wednesdays  12 pm  QB5 Jul 27 th       Paragraph writing Aug 3 rd       Essay writing Aug 10 th...
30-minute Tutorials available for these subjects: Book on 09 414 0800 ext. 9143 or slc-alb@massey.ac.nz Also, 30-minute As...
1.  What the CTL can do for you 2.  How many paragraphs? How long? 3.  Body paragraphs 4.  Introductory paragraphs 5.  Con...
Typical essays will consist of 8 – 12 paragraphs  (1200 – 2000 words) ONE  introductory paragraph ONE  concluding paragrap...
2 & 3 :  future housing needs & plans 4 & 5 :  future economic needs & plans 6 & 7 :  future transport needs & plans 1 : i...
How long should these paragraphs be? No fixed length, but at undergraduate level  between 100 and 200 words (4 – 8 sentenc...
1.  What the CTL can do for you 2.  How many paragraphs? How long? 3.  Body paragraphs 4.  Introductory paragraphs 5.  Con...
Read this paragraph from the body of a Social Policy essay about whether New Zealand should become a republic. What’s good...
The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. Firstly, Australians voted by 55% to 45% against be...
By the end of this presentation, you should have a clear understanding of the  problems  which make this original ‘Republi...
Unity The paragraph should focus on ONE claim about ONE topic Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logica...
Paragraph  UNITY  is made stronger by including a  TOPIC SENTENCE:   makes a clear and concise claim usually the first or ...
Can you identify the topic sentence in this paragraph? Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous po...
Components of a Topic Sentence TOPIC CLAIM + Hurricanes , also known as cyclones or typhoons,  exert tremendous power . Th...
A claim is basically an answer to a question: WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? Hurricanes … mainly affect people of a certain ...
…  is incomplete – it introduces the topic (vaguely) and makes no claim about it. Topic sentence in the Original ‘Republic...
And because the original paragraph lacks an effective topic sentence, it suffers from too much irrelevant detail Facts are...
Unity The paragraph should focus on a single claim Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the ...
Coherence  can be achieved by creating language bridges from one sentence to another.  This allows the claim to be support...
What makes this paragraph  coherent? Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power. These storms ...
Repetition  and  Variation  of vocabulary about the topic ( hurricanes )   and the claim ( exert power )   means that all ...
Back-reference  … means that each sentence  builds on the one before Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert...
Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of Stat...
Sentence adverbials  … highlight key ‘moves’ in the argument (eg important links, contrasts, limitations etc) Hurricanes, ...
… . uses sentence adverbials – in a desperate attempt to cover up the lack of real coherence Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph...
Unity The paragraph should focus on a single claim Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the ...
Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power. These storms are often a hundred kilometres in dia...
…  lacks  DEVELOPMENT . Its loosely-connected ideas create a ‘shopping-list’ effect through:  <ul><li>Lack of focus on the...
Political challenge must be considered Australians voted against - Victoria voted in favour – Australia not as keen on mon...
... Uses the same ideas, but ... <ul><li>they’ve been more carefully selected ( UNITY ) </li></ul><ul><li>they’ve been cle...
Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. This difficulty is sa...
Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is developing an alternative concept of State power This barrier led to Aus...
1.  What the CTL can do for you 2.  How many paragraphs? How long? 3.  Body paragraphs 4.  Introductory paragraphs 5.  Con...
THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH  .. typically …  puts the issue into a  context  that shows why it’s both important and problem...
During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi,...
During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi,...
During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi,...
During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi,...
During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi,...
1.  What the CTL can do for you 2.  How many paragraphs? How long? 3.  Body paragraphs 4.  Introductory paragraphs 5.  Con...
THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH  typically ... …  rephrases the thesis statement  ... highlights the main supporting arguments .....
As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand,...
As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand,...
As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand,...
As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand,...
© 2011 This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying handouts are copyrighted by the Centre for Teaching and Learning,...
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  • 2011 paragraph structuring slideshare

    1. 1. Structuring a Paragraph
    2. 2. 1. What the CTL can do for you 2. How many paragraphs? How long? 3. Body paragraphs 4. Introductory paragraphs 5. Conclusion paragraphs
    3. 3. CTL Online Resources tinyurl.com/6xy9hy podcast (can also be accessed through OWLL) tinyurl.com/slcvideos video presentations (can also be accessed through OWLL) tinyurl.com/slcalbany Centre for Teaching and Learning owll.massey.ac.nz online writing and learning link
    4. 4. Study Skills Presentations Wednesdays 12 pm QB5 Jul 27 th Paragraph writing Aug 3 rd Essay writing Aug 10 th Report writing Aug 17 th APA referencing Sept 28 th , Oct 5 th , Oct 12 th Exam skills
    5. 5. 30-minute Tutorials available for these subjects: Book on 09 414 0800 ext. 9143 or slc-alb@massey.ac.nz Also, 30-minute Assignment Writing/Study Skills Consultations – available any time 8.30 – 4.30 Monday to Friday 10am – 11am 11am – 12pm 12pm – 1pm 1pm – 2pm 2pm – 3pm MON ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING FINANCE ACCOUNTING FINANCE TUES MATHS MATHS STATISTICS BIOLOGY STATISTICS BIOLOGY WEDS FINANCE MATHS FINANCE MATHS BIOLOGY STATISTICS BIOLOGY STATISTICS THURS MATHS ACCOUNTING MATHS ACCOUNTING STATISTICS FINANCE STATISTICS FINANCE FRI BIOLOGY BIOLOGY
    6. 6. 1. What the CTL can do for you 2. How many paragraphs? How long? 3. Body paragraphs 4. Introductory paragraphs 5. Conclusion paragraphs
    7. 7. Typical essays will consist of 8 – 12 paragraphs (1200 – 2000 words) ONE introductory paragraph ONE concluding paragraph Between SIX and TEN body paragraphs
    8. 8. 2 & 3 : future housing needs & plans 4 & 5 : future economic needs & plans 6 & 7 : future transport needs & plans 1 : intro 8 : conclusion Discuss how Auckland is planning for growth. (1200 words) Example Essay Question and Paragraph plan
    9. 9. How long should these paragraphs be? No fixed length, but at undergraduate level between 100 and 200 words (4 – 8 sentences) is typical. Shorter than four sentences? It could be ok, but have another look in case you haven’t fully supported your claim. Over 8 sentences? It could be ok, but have another look in case some of the details are unnecessary or it would be better split: two well-focused paragraphs are better than one fuzzy one.
    10. 10. 1. What the CTL can do for you 2. How many paragraphs? How long? 3. Body paragraphs 4. Introductory paragraphs 5. Conclusion paragraphs
    11. 11. Read this paragraph from the body of a Social Policy essay about whether New Zealand should become a republic. What’s good or bad about it? Share your ideas in pairs or groups.
    12. 12. The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. Firstly, Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6 th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change (Campbell, 1999). On the other hand, Australians are less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010). Secondly, like New Zealand, Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to the authority of the ‘Crown’ as the executive branch of Government, an authority inherited from the colonial power, Britain (Radley & Foreman, 2003). In New Zealand, the current Governor General is Anand Satyanand (New Zealand Government, n.d.). Thirdly, Brown (2003) points out that Republicanism has traditionally replaced ‘top-down’ authority with a concept of power of the people and that diversity and biculturalism are ignored. However, in New Zealand, the Treaty Principles uphold partnership, protection and participation (Massey University, 2009). Therefore, it is even harder for New Zealand to abolish the Monarchy than it was for Australia, where indigenous rights and biculturalism have been less prominent. The Australian Premier, Julia Gillard, has recently said the issue is no longer even on the agenda (Behan, 2011).
    13. 13. By the end of this presentation, you should have a clear understanding of the problems which make this original ‘Republic’ paragraph confusing and hard to read … … and of the principles which make the improved ‘Republic’ paragraph (which you will read in full later) more readable and convincing.
    14. 14. Unity The paragraph should focus on ONE claim about ONE topic Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the one before Development The paragraph’s claim must be supported with relevant evidence PRINCIPLES of effective paragraph writing
    15. 15. Paragraph UNITY is made stronger by including a TOPIC SENTENCE: makes a clear and concise claim usually the first or second sentence this claim ‘controls’ the rest of the paragraph – nothing should be included in the paragraph which doesn’t support or develop the claim made in the topic sentence
    16. 16. Can you identify the topic sentence in this paragraph? Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power. These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes have the potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001).
    17. 17. Components of a Topic Sentence TOPIC CLAIM + Hurricanes , also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power . These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes have the potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001).
    18. 18. A claim is basically an answer to a question: WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? Hurricanes … mainly affect people of a certain socio-economic class. Hurricanes … only occur in certain areas. Hurricanes … are powerful weather phenomena. Hurricanes … only occur at specific times of the year. Hurricanes … are caused by certain atmospheric conditions. A sentence is a claim if it’s possible to say, “No, that’s not true”
    19. 19. … is incomplete – it introduces the topic (vaguely) and makes no claim about it. Topic sentence in the Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph Topic sentence in the Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph Another barrier to the elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. TOPIC CLAIM
    20. 20. And because the original paragraph lacks an effective topic sentence, it suffers from too much irrelevant detail Facts are only worth including if they make any difference to the claim made in the topic sentence ... the current Governor General is Anand Satyanand Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6 th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change ...
    21. 21. Unity The paragraph should focus on a single claim Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the one before Development The paragraph’s claim must be supported with relevant evidence Three qualities of effective paragraphs
    22. 22. Coherence can be achieved by creating language bridges from one sentence to another. This allows the claim to be supported and developed as the paragraph goes on. This can be done by: Repetition and Variation of topic vocabulary: keeps the focus on the same topic Back-reference devices: Using ‘this’ / ‘these’ / ‘such’ etc means that each sentence builds on the one before, helping your argument move forward Sentence adverbials: Words or phrases like ‘Moreover’ or ‘On the other hand’ highlight important steps in the argument – but should not be used too much or too loosely. They don’t provide ‘instant coherence’!
    23. 23. What makes this paragraph coherent? Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power. These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes have the potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001).
    24. 24. Repetition and Variation of vocabulary about the topic ( hurricanes ) and the claim ( exert power ) means that all the sentences are strongly linked back to the topic sentence Hurricanes , also known as cyclones or typhoons , exert tremendous power . These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities , typically accompanied by heavy rain , hurricanes have the potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001).
    25. 25. Back-reference … means that each sentence builds on the one before Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power. These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes have the potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great , in fact, is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001).
    26. 26. Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. This difficulty is said to explain why Australians, less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010), voted against change in a referendum a decade ago (Campbell, 1999). The clear back-reference and the omission of irrelevant details makes it coherent and easy to follow. The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. Firstly, Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6 th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change (Campbell, 1999). On the other hand, Australians are less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010). Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph Each sentence seems to set off in a new direction, so it’s hard to follow the argument
    27. 27. Sentence adverbials … highlight key ‘moves’ in the argument (eg important links, contrasts, limitations etc) Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power. These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes have the potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact , is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001).
    28. 28. … . uses sentence adverbials – in a desperate attempt to cover up the lack of real coherence Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph Firstly, ........ Despite this, ....... Secondly, ...... Thirdly, ..... However, ....... Therefore, ...... Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph … . uses just a couple of sentence adverbials strategically – to highlight important ‘moves’ ... the issue is no longer even on the agenda (Behan, 2011). In the meantime , like New Zealand, Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to the authority of the ‘Crown’ .... Republicanism has traditionally replaced this ‘top-down’ authority with a concept of power of the people. However , this ‘people-power’ concept has been criticised ......
    29. 29. Unity The paragraph should focus on a single claim Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the one before Development The paragraph’s claim must be supported with relevant evidence Three qualities of effective paragraphs
    30. 30. Hurricanes, also known as cyclones or typhoons, exert tremendous power. These storms are often a hundred kilometres in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities well in excess of 120 kph (Snowdon, 2006). With such wind velocities, typically accompanied by heavy rain, hurricanes have the potential to completely destroy a small town in a matter of hours (Jameson, 1987). So great, in fact, is the energy released by a single hurricane that it has been estimated to exceed the total energy consumed by mankind throughout the world in one year (Fowles, 2001). The claim made at the beginning is developed into an argument through different kinds of evidence 4. Its energy 1. Its size 2. Its speed 3. Its capacity for destruction
    31. 31. … lacks DEVELOPMENT . Its loosely-connected ideas create a ‘shopping-list’ effect through: <ul><li>Lack of focus on the topic and claim </li></ul><ul><li>Overuse of vague adverbials like ‘Firstly’, ‘Secondly’ </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of irrelevant details </li></ul><ul><li>Random shifts between NZ and Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Adding one fact after another without explaining </li></ul><ul><li>how they support the argument </li></ul>A shopping-list paragraph takes the reader on a confusing journey that leads nowhere Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph
    32. 32. Political challenge must be considered Australians voted against - Victoria voted in favour – Australia not as keen on monarchy as NZ Australia etc governed by authority of Crown Supporting argument 1 Supporting argument 2 Supporting argument 3 Julia Gillard says the issue is not on the agenda in Australia Anand Satyanand is NZ Governor General Republics have people power – but not diverse or bicultural Supporting argument 4 NZ’s treaty principles mean it’s harder to abolish Monarchy Supporting argument 5 Conclusion Topic Sentence
    33. 33. ... Uses the same ideas, but ... <ul><li>they’ve been more carefully selected ( UNITY ) </li></ul><ul><li>they’ve been clearly built from one sentence to the next ( COHERENCE ) </li></ul><ul><li>the claim made at the beginning is supported, leading up to a strong conclusion ( DEVELOPMENT ) </li></ul>Improved version A well-constructed paragraph tells the reader where they are going, guides them along the way and lets them know they’ve reached the destination
    34. 34. Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. This difficulty is said to explain why Australians, less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010), voted against change in the referendum a decade ago (Campbell, 1999). The Australian Premier has recently said the issue is no longer even on the agenda (Behan, 2011). In the meantime, like New Zealand, Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to the authority of the ‘Crown’ as the executive branch of Government, an authority inherited from the colonial power, Britain (Radley & Foreman, 2003). Republicanism has traditionally replaced this ‘top-down’ authority with a concept of power of the people. However, this ‘people-power’ concept has been criticised for suppressing diversity and bi-culturalism in favour of ‘One Nation’ (Brown, 2003) and would clearly be problematic for New Zealand, where the Treaty Principles uphold partnership, protection and participation (Massey University, 2009). If Australia, where indigenous rights and biculturalism have been less prominent, has struggled to develop an alternative to the power of the Crown, how much more difficult would such a process be in New Zealand, where national identity is a complex and central political issue?
    35. 35. Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is developing an alternative concept of State power This barrier led to Australians voting to keep the Monarchy, even though they’re not really so keen on it The alternative concept of ‘people power’ has been criticised for being monocultural This criticism is especially valid in the NZ context of biculturalism. Supporting argument 1 Supporting argument 2 Supporting argument 3 If this barrier was strong enough to stop Australia eliminating the monarchy, it’s going to even more difficult for NZ to do so Conclusion Topic Sentence
    36. 36. 1. What the CTL can do for you 2. How many paragraphs? How long? 3. Body paragraphs 4. Introductory paragraphs 5. Conclusion paragraphs
    37. 37. THE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH .. typically … puts the issue into a context that shows why it’s both important and problematic ... includes a brief definition of the topic ... briefly previews the structure of the essay ... presents the main argument of the essay in a thesis statement
    38. 38. During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a majority of New Zealand businesses are said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007). Such a move would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour.
    39. 39. During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a majority of New Zealand businesses are said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007). Such a move would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour. context
    40. 40. During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a majority of New Zealand businesses are said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007). Such a move would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour. definition
    41. 41. During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a majority of New Zealand businesses are said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007). Such a move would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour. preview
    42. 42. During the early 2000s, the apparent success of the Euro increased global interest in regional common currencies (Siddiqi, 2003). As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “if it’s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” Especially, it might be added, when those countries have such strong cultural, social, economic and historical ties as Australia and New Zealand. It is unsurprising, therefore that a majority of New Zealand businesses are said to support a move to a currency union (Baker, 2007). Such a move would involve the gradual reduction of monetary policy flexibility between the two nations to the point at which the currencies cease to be independent (Obiyathulla, 2008) – and can be merged. This essay will examine the arguments for and against this proposed currency union, evaluating its possible effects not only on the economy but also on key sectors of New Zealand society. It will be argued that although the adoption of a single currency with Australia might strengthen New Zealand’s financial system and ease international trade, it is not in New Zealand’s interests because its economy and society are fundamentally different from those of its more powerful neighbour. thesis statement
    43. 43. 1. What the CTL can do for you 2. How many paragraphs? How long? 3. Body paragraphs 4. Introductory paragraphs 5. Conclusion paragraphs
    44. 44. THE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH typically ... … rephrases the thesis statement ... highlights the main supporting arguments ... comments briefly on the implications for the present or future (eg for the world, for NZ, for the sector, for the field of study etc)
    45. 45. As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle.
    46. 46. As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle. rephrases thesis statement
    47. 47. As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle. highlights the main supporting arguments
    48. 48. As we have seen, although a currency union with Australia does offer certain concrete financial advantages to New Zealand, it is not in the wider national interests. We have argued that the loss of control over fiscal policies and the different profile of the Australian economy within international trade mean that such a currency union poses unacceptable risks even from a purely economic viewpoint. Moreover, a currency union would threaten the social and cultural differentiation from its more powerful neighbour which New Zealand has worked hard to achieve. However, the strongest argument against such a move is the fact that it is unnecessary, given the effectiveness of the current interrelationship between the two economies. Whether this positive evaluation will continue to hold in the future will depend both on the commitment of the two nations to mutual co-operation as well as the broader monetary environment. In particular, the emergence of a common currency within Asia may well require a reconsideration of this question, though the broader national interests must remain our guiding principle. comments on implications
    49. 49. © 2011 This PowerPoint Presentation and the accompanying handouts are copyrighted by the Centre for Teaching and Learning, Massey University and may not be used, except for personal study, without written permission from the copyright owner. References and arguments are provided for illustration of writing principles only – not for their content!

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