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Presentation on Piranesi's Vedute del Campidoglio di fianco (1761)

Presentation on Piranesi's Vedute del Campidoglio di fianco (1761)

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Presentatie Gent Presentatie Gent Presentation Transcript

  • Where were we?Vedute del Campidoglio di fianco (1761)
  • What did I tell sofar?• The Capitol in Roman times• Michelangelo’s renovation• How didrealistic, butdepict the site? In general Piranesi with specific distortions, especially the sculptural decoration• Possible interpretation? as an icon for the The sculpture on Piranesi’s print achievements of the Roman’s
  • What will I present today?• Refresh our view on the classical Capitolium• Deepen our knowledge of the development of the Campidoglio in Medieval and Renaissance time• With a focus on the role of sculptural decoration
  • Main message: The Campidoglio and its sculptural decoration play a key role in the appropriation of Roman power ....... a role on which Piranesi continues to build ... at least ... in a certain way
  • Mons Capitolinus in Roman times• Smallest of the 7 hills and the religious and political centre of Rome• Several important temples: - Arx - where the omens were read - Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus - Temple of Juno• Tabularium 16th century impression of Mons Capitolinus
  • The hill in Medieval times « remaining a political centre »• 12th century: Building the Van Heemskerk, Capitoline Hill, ca. 1535-36 Palazzo del Senatore on the Tabularium ruins• Enlargements in 1299-1303 and 1348 (interior court, projecting corner towers and a campanile)• Ca. 1400: construction of the Palazzo dei Conservatori, to house the legislators, major guilds and bandieri (keepers of the banners of Roman quarters)
  • Key papal interventions• Nicholas V (r. 1447-55) - remodelling of the Palazzo dei Conservatori in the style of the Roman Renaissance (arcaded colonnade)• Sixtus IV (r. 1471-84); donation of antique sculptures to the Capitoline Hill• Paul III (r. 1534-49) - transfer the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius to the Capitoline Hill and commission Michelangelo for a renovation of the area
  • Vasari’s Vite di Michelangelo “The Roman people, with the sanction of that Pope [Paul III], had a desire to give some useful, commodious, and beautiful form to the Campidoglio, and to furnish it with colonnades, scents, and inclined approaches with and without steps, and also with the further adornment of the ancient statues that were already there, in order to embellish that place.”
  • Michelangelo’s disegno• Creation of two separate spaces, with two flight of stairs• Alterations of the facades of Palazzo del Senatore and Palazzo dei Conservatori• Building of the Palazzo Nuovo• Placement of the equistrian statue of Marcus Aurelius in the middle• Statues on the balaustrade Plan of the Capitoline Hill, after Michelangelo, 1567
  • Étienne Dupérac, Prepatorio drawing for the Campidoglio, after Michelangelo, 1569
  • The Campidoglio and its classical roots
  • “Michelangelo’s” Campidoglio « a vision build in phases » • 1538: Marcus Aurelius arrives (Paul III) • 1539: first commission for Michelangelo - work on the facade of the Palazzo del Senatore • 1561 start of the building of the concordata (Pius IV) • 1563 start new portico Palazzo dei Conservatori (G. Guidetti) • 1554-59 construction of the balaustrada • 1564-86 Giacomo della Porta oversees further construction, building on Michelangelo’s plans • 1570 reconstruction of the concordata • 1650 Palazzo Nuovo • 1928 construction of pavement following Michelangelo’s design
  • The first steps in picturesHieronymus Cock, Capitoline Hill, ca. 1549, Operum Antiquorum Anonimo, Frontal view of the Palazzo del Senatorio, with completedRomanorum Reliquiae, Antwerp, 1562 staircase (c. 1555-56), Louvre
  • 2x Étienne Dupérac, München,Staatliche Graphische Sammlung 1568 1583
  • Étienne Dupérac, ca.1590« The definitive sculptural decoration in place »
  • View of the Campidoglio1598-1603 (private collection)
  • Shifting accents in sculptural decoration• Sixtus IV (r. 1471-84): retribution of antique sculpture to the Roman people as a “reparation of injustice” for the destruction of antique sculpture by Gregory the Great• Leo X (r. 1513-21): remembrance to the glorious history of the Capitoline Hill• Paul III (r. 1534-49): emphasis on the glorification of exemplary rulers (emperors) and the continuation of the Roman empire in the Christian Church, especially through Pope “Alessandro Farnese”• Conservators of Rome (after 1549): glorification of the Roman Republic
  • Sixtus IV - 1447« retribution for injustice »
  • Leo X - 1515« glorious history of the Capitol »
  • Paul III - starting 1538« glorification of exemplary rulers »
  • Conservators of Rome« glorification of the Roman Republic and the Roman people » 1582 1590
  • And then Piranesi arrives ...
  • Piranesi and the Campidoglio « “good old friends” »
  • Trofei di Ottaviano Augusto (1753)
  • Campidoglio di fianco (1761)
  • Conclusions• The Campidoglio and its sculptural decoration play a key role in the appropriation of Roman successes and power• It starts with a retribution (Sixtus IV), followed by a rememberance of the great Capitoline history (Leo X)• Then follows a personal glorification, emphasizing the continuation from the Greek (Alexander the Great), through Roman emperors to Alexander Farnese (Paul III)• Which was followed by a communal glorification, emphasizing the successes of the Roman Republic and the Roman people (supported, so it seems, by Michelangelo)
  • Conclusions 2 & Q’s• In the Vedute di Campidoglio di fianco (1761) Piranesi builds on this appropriation• He focusses on - stresses - the Trofei di Mario• However, he doesn’t seem to stress the “republican value” of the Trofei, but the artistic value• Therefore, one could argue that Piranesi in the Vedute appropriates “Roman artistic power” but not “Roman power”• In doing so, he probably was also aiming at appropriating the artistic power of the divine Michelangelo’s• It remains unclear whether Piranesi was aware of the shifting accents in sculptural decoration of the Campidoglio