0
Approaches to
Standards
Warm-up task
What is the standard …
–
–
–
–

size of a school ruler?
width of a room door?
height of a bathroom sink?
widt...
What is a standard?
• A rule or requirement that is determined
by a consensus opinion of users and that
prescribes the acc...
Why are standards important?
• The general benefits of a standard are
safety, quality, interchangeability of parts
or syst...
• What level of English are you currently
teaching?
• How do you assess if your students are
achieving that level?
• Are y...
Why is there a need
for language use
and learning
standards?
The need for language use and
learning standards
• Globalization
• Linguistic diversity
• Increasing importance of langue ...
THE COMMON EUROPEAN
FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE
FOR LANGUAGES (CEFR)
By
Background -The Council of Europe
• Founded in 1949
• 45 member states
• Promotes languages for:
• mutual understanding
• ...
Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages
Detailed model for describing and
scaling language use and the
differ...
What is it?
• A document which describes in a
comprehensive manner:
– the competences necessary for
communication,
– the r...
How was it developed?
• Through a process of scientific
research (10 years) by leading
applied linguists and pedagogical
s...
Who is it addressed to?
•
•
•
•

Course designers
Textbook and materials writers
Testers
Teachers and teacher trainers
(al...
What does it provide?
• A practical tool for setting clear
standards to be attained at successive
stages of learning
• A t...
Six Levels of Proficiency
Principles on Language Learning &
Teaching derived from CEFR
 Base language teaching/learning on
learners’ needs, motivat...
Important Considerations for
Language Learning
•It is part of a social, political, economic,
educational, cultural context...
How do we standardize language
knowledge?
• Look at competences
• Assess those competences
What are competences???
• According to the Council of Europe:
Competences are the sum of knowledge, skills
and characteris...
Communicative Language Competence:
• Linguistic:
– Lexical, phonological, syntactical knowledge and skills

• Socio-lingui...
Components of Linguistic Competence
 Phonological competence

 Orthographic competence
 Lexical competence
 Orthoepic ...
Components of Linguistic Competence
1. D
2. E
3. A
4. F
5. B
6. C
 Look at the following exercises from
a variety of coursebooks and try to
identify what linguistic competence(s)
they hel...
Orthographic Competence

Source: English in Mind level 1
Orthoepic competence

Source: English in Mind level 1
Grammatical competence

Source: English in Mind level 2
Lexical competence

Source: Touchstone level 1
Semantic competence

Source: English in Mind level 2
Orthoepic
competence
Phonological
competence

Source: English
in Mind level 2
Grammatical
competence
Lexical
competence

Source: face2face level pre-intemediate
Phonological competence

Source: face2face level pre-intemediate
Lexical competence

Source: Touchstone level 1
Are you familiar with these?
• What’s your percentage of English?
• Is your English level preintermediate or high basic?
•...
What is your level of
English?
I lived 5 years in the
UK.
So, it must be
advanced…
Not really, I worked as a
living statue...
CEFR Global descriptors
• Please match the “global” descriptors with
the CEFR level they correspond to.

1. B2
2. C1
3. A2...
• Do you think these descriptors are helpful
for you as an individual? How?
• Are they helpful for you as a teacher or as
...
Skills described at each Level
Listening
Reading
Spoken Interaction
Spoken Production
Writing
Spoken production task
The context of language use - Domains
personal

public

occupational

educational
Can do statements
• Performance-related scales describing what
learners can actually DO in the foreign
language
• There ar...
• Look at the following exercises on screen and try
to identify on your handout the multiple choice
option that contains t...
1.

A language user at A1 and A2 can:

Source: face2face elementary
2.

A language user at A1 and A2
Brochures, leaflets, guides.
can understand and find simple
information in:

Source: face...
3.

AForms
language user at A1 and A2 can write:

Source: face2face elementary
4.
.

Understand the mainA1 and A2 can:
A language user at point in short, clear
messages and announcements.

Source: face...
Order a meal
5. A language user at A1 and A2 can:
.

Source: Interchange level 1
6.
.

A language user atsigns, notices and
Directions, A1 and A2 can understand and
find simple information in:
instructio...
7.
.

Make simple purchases by stating
A language user at A1 and A2 can:
what is wanted and asking the price

Source: Inte...
8. A language user at level B1 can:
Reply in written form to adverts
.

Source: Interchange level 2
A language user at A1 and A2 can
Personal simple types of
9. write these correspondencetext:
.

Source: Interchange level ...
A language user at A1 and
10. Directions, signs, notices
A2 can understand and find
and instructions
simple information in...
What do these have in common?

Common
European
Framework
The European Language Portfolio
(ELP)
• Devised by the Council of Europe's Modern
Languages Division
• Piloted in 15 Counc...
Parts of the Porfolio
• Language Passport
• Language Biography
• Dossier
• Instructions: look at the following slide of
the Language Passport and try to identify
the information contained in it.
The Language Passport section:
•

•

gives information about a student's
proficiency in one or more languages at
given poi...
The Language Biography (aims)
• Encourage students to get involved in the
planning, reflecting upon and assessing of
their...
The Dossier
• A collection of materials and data put
together by students to document and
illustrate their proficiency and...
Look at the following slides and identify
what part of a Language Portfolio they
belong to.
Source: English in
Mind level 1
Source: English in
Mind level 1
Source: English in
Mind level 1
Portfolio
•
• Language Passport
• Language Biography •
• Dossier
• Self-assessment
• Peer-assessment
• Teacher’s assessmen...
The downside
• Think of your own
teaching situation. What
are the obstacles you could
find?
Effects:
• Collaboration between different teachers and
subjects
• Bilingual teaching
• Language learning outside school
•...
Students’ feedback
"I felt like studying harder
because the portfolio is my
own [product]."

"I have come to like English ...
Is the CEFR relevant to Latin America?
• Council of Europe has 45 member states: not just
EU
• CEFR applies to European la...
• Research going on for over 30 years, with a
large investment of resources by some of
the most experienced researchers
• ...
Mexico
• An increasing number of universities are
incorporating the CEFR into their language
programmes
• CEFR used and qu...
DIALANG Diagnostic Test

Free diagnostic test (online)
www.dialang.org
CEF and Cambridge ESOL Exams
Background-Cambridge ESOL
 Non-profit making department of Cambridge
University
 Has designed exams for learners of Engl...
Cambridge ESOL Examinations
• The most comprehensive range of ESOL
examinations in the world
• Assessment of all four lang...
ESOL Examinations
• Fill the gaps in the ESOL examinations
chart with the corresponding examination
name from the box.
IEL...
Cambridge Young Learners English
CPE
Level C2
CAE
Level C1
FCE
Level B2
PET
Level B1
Young
Learners
English

Flyers
Movers...
TEACHERS
METHODOLOGY

DELTA, CELTA, CELTYL,
IDLTM, ICELT & TKT
The Next Step in Standards
What is English Profile?
• A long term, collaborative program of
interdisciplinary research, designed to
enhance the learn...
How does it work?
• It builds on existing resources such as the
Common European Framework of Reference
for Languages to pr...
For more information…

www.englishprofile.org
Wrap up task
• How many levels does the CEF have?
• Which are the exams from ESOL main
suite?
• For what age range are Cam...
References
Council of Europe www.coe.int
Council of Europe (2001) Common European
Framework of References for Languages: L...
Ramiro Gracia
Academic Consultant
Cambridge University Press
rgracia@cambridge.com.mx
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
Approaches to standardsalex
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  • Ruler-12 inches (30 cm) door- 30” to 32” sink- 33” Chevrolet Matiz 1.496 m, Chrysler Stratus 1.793, Volkswagen Beetle 1.721 Ford Lobo 2.004
  • No standards in regards to transportation size and spelling!!!
  • This slide aims to make teachers reflect on the need for:
    Question 1 - Standards (CEF)
    Question 2 – Assessment based on standards (ESOL)
    Question 3 – CUP material
  • If people professionally involved in language teaching agree on objectives, they can work coherently, even if quite separately, to help learners achieve them.
  • These are the components of communicative language competence. After showing the three components elicit from audience what abilities they involve and then show the rest. Pages 108 -130 CEF (CUP) Book for more details.
  • Participants do the task on the handout, either in pairs or small groups.
  • You can highlight to students that after completing the task they must have noticed that there are many things besides knowing words and grammar that need to be taught to make competent language users.
  • These are the competences in task 1.
  • There are descriptors on the global scale provided for understanding, spoken interaction and production and written production. A distinction is then made between spoken and written production and spoken and written interaction.
  • Divide participants in pairs (speaker A and speaker B). Speaker A looks at the screen and speaker B at the opposite side. Speaker A describes the picture. Then they change positions and speaker B describes the other picture. After the task comment the descriptions with another pair.
  • Look how this material guides students to a better performance of the task through possible questions and answers to think about.
  • These are the instructions for the same task.
  • The need and the desire to communicate arise in a particular situation and the form as well as the content of the communication is a response to that situation. The CEF refers to 4 domains of language use.These 4 domains in the slide are referred to within the descriptors when they are relevant e.g. in oral interaction so that different types of interaction can be identified.
  • Example of KET Reading and Writing Paper (part 1)
  • Started to widespread in th 90’s in higer language education.Describe students’ progress in terms of competencies rater than just content, skills or knowledge.
  • This task is done entirely on screen
  • Also, evidence of proficiency e.g. Certificates
  • Feedback: most quotes here come from Latin American candidates
  • Free diagnostic assessment available in 14 languages.
    www.dialang.org
  • Answers to previous task (Scan CESOL exams chart)
  • Scan CESOL exams chart
  • The arrows show pathways to the exams. Flyers is the same level as KET. Choice of exam between Flyers and KET depends on the age of students when they get to A2 level
  • Explain that these are the exams offered by Cambridge ESOL and that you will come back to them later. First, you are going to explain the principles behind good practice in testing and show how Cambridge ESOL does this.
  • Transcript of "Approaches to standardsalex"

    1. 1. Approaches to Standards
    2. 2. Warm-up task What is the standard … – – – – size of a school ruler? width of a room door? height of a bathroom sink? width of a car (compact, luxury, SUV)?
    3. 3. What is a standard? • A rule or requirement that is determined by a consensus opinion of users and that prescribes the accepted and (theoretically) the best criteria for a product, process, test, or procedure. 
    4. 4. Why are standards important? • The general benefits of a standard are safety, quality, interchangeability of parts or systems, and consistency across international borders.
    5. 5. • What level of English are you currently teaching? • How do you assess if your students are achieving that level? • Are you sure you are using the adequate material to help them get to that level?
    6. 6. Why is there a need for language use and learning standards?
    7. 7. The need for language use and learning standards • Globalization • Linguistic diversity • Increasing importance of langue skills e.g. use of L1 + 2 or 3 other languages • Mobility and acquisition of additional linguistic competences is important for: work, study and leisure (social reasons, tourism, etc.)
    8. 8. THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES (CEFR) By
    9. 9. Background -The Council of Europe • Founded in 1949 • 45 member states • Promotes languages for: • mutual understanding • personal mobility • access to information
    10. 10. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages Detailed model for describing and scaling language use and the different kinds of knowledge and skills required.
    11. 11. What is it? • A document which describes in a comprehensive manner: – the competences necessary for communication, – the related knowledge and skills and – the situations and domains of communication. It defines levels of attainment in different aspects of its descriptive scheme with illustrative descriptors scale.
    12. 12. How was it developed? • Through a process of scientific research (10 years) by leading applied linguists and pedagogical specialists • Ongoing work on communicative objectives • Wide consultation
    13. 13. Who is it addressed to? • • • • Course designers Textbook and materials writers Testers Teachers and teacher trainers (all who are directly involved in language teaching and testing)
    14. 14. What does it provide? • A practical tool for setting clear standards to be attained at successive stages of learning • A tool for evaluating outcomes in an internationally comparable manner. • A basis for the mutual recognition of language qualifications, thus facilitating educational and occupational mobility.
    15. 15. Six Levels of Proficiency
    16. 16. Principles on Language Learning & Teaching derived from CEFR  Base language teaching/learning on learners’ needs, motivations, characteristics, resources  Define worthwhile/realistic/explicit objectives  Develop appropriate methods & materials  Develop suitable means of evaluating learning programs
    17. 17. Important Considerations for Language Learning •It is part of a social, political, economic, educational, cultural context •It is a lifelong endeavour, not just a school subject
    18. 18. How do we standardize language knowledge? • Look at competences • Assess those competences
    19. 19. What are competences??? • According to the Council of Europe: Competences are the sum of knowledge, skills and characteristics that allow a person to perform actions In other words: “the stress is on what learners can do with language rather than on what they know about it”
    20. 20. Communicative Language Competence: • Linguistic: – Lexical, phonological, syntactical knowledge and skills • Socio-linguistic: – Sociocultural conditions of language use • Pragmatic: – Functional use of linguistic resources
    21. 21. Components of Linguistic Competence  Phonological competence  Orthographic competence  Lexical competence  Orthoepic competence  Grammatical competence  Semantic competence
    22. 22. Components of Linguistic Competence 1. D 2. E 3. A 4. F 5. B 6. C
    23. 23.  Look at the following exercises from a variety of coursebooks and try to identify what linguistic competence(s) they help to develop.
    24. 24. Orthographic Competence Source: English in Mind level 1
    25. 25. Orthoepic competence Source: English in Mind level 1
    26. 26. Grammatical competence Source: English in Mind level 2
    27. 27. Lexical competence Source: Touchstone level 1
    28. 28. Semantic competence Source: English in Mind level 2
    29. 29. Orthoepic competence Phonological competence Source: English in Mind level 2
    30. 30. Grammatical competence Lexical competence Source: face2face level pre-intemediate
    31. 31. Phonological competence Source: face2face level pre-intemediate
    32. 32. Lexical competence Source: Touchstone level 1
    33. 33. Are you familiar with these? • What’s your percentage of English? • Is your English level preintermediate or high basic? • Requirement: 70 % English
    34. 34. What is your level of English? I lived 5 years in the UK. So, it must be advanced… Not really, I worked as a living statue twelve hours a day.
    35. 35. CEFR Global descriptors • Please match the “global” descriptors with the CEFR level they correspond to. 1. B2 2. C1 3. A2 4. A1 5. C2 6. B1
    36. 36. • Do you think these descriptors are helpful for you as an individual? How? • Are they helpful for you as a teacher or as an English Co-ordinator? How? • Do you think they could be of any use for your students? How?
    37. 37. Skills described at each Level Listening Reading Spoken Interaction Spoken Production Writing
    38. 38. Spoken production task
    39. 39. The context of language use - Domains personal public occupational educational
    40. 40. Can do statements • Performance-related scales describing what learners can actually DO in the foreign language • There are currently 400 ‘can do’ statements organized into three areas: Social and Tourist, Work, and Study • They can be used as a checklist of what language users can do and thus define the stage they are at
    41. 41. • Look at the following exercises on screen and try to identify on your handout the multiple choice option that contains the “can do” statement to which each one relates. Task 3 on handout
    42. 42. 1. A language user at A1 and A2 can: Source: face2face elementary
    43. 43. 2. A language user at A1 and A2 Brochures, leaflets, guides. can understand and find simple information in: Source: face2face WB elementary
    44. 44. 3. AForms language user at A1 and A2 can write: Source: face2face elementary
    45. 45. 4. . Understand the mainA1 and A2 can: A language user at point in short, clear messages and announcements. Source: face2face elementary level
    46. 46. Order a meal 5. A language user at A1 and A2 can: . Source: Interchange level 1
    47. 47. 6. . A language user atsigns, notices and Directions, A1 and A2 can understand and find simple information in: instructions Source: face2face elementary level
    48. 48. 7. . Make simple purchases by stating A language user at A1 and A2 can: what is wanted and asking the price Source: Interchange level 1
    49. 49. 8. A language user at level B1 can: Reply in written form to adverts . Source: Interchange level 2
    50. 50. A language user at A1 and A2 can Personal simple types of 9. write these correspondencetext: . Source: Interchange level 1
    51. 51. A language user at A1 and 10. Directions, signs, notices A2 can understand and find and instructions simple information in: Source: Objective KET
    52. 52. What do these have in common? Common European Framework
    53. 53. The European Language Portfolio (ELP) • Devised by the Council of Europe's Modern Languages Division • Piloted in 15 Council of Europe member countries • Launched during the European Year of Languages in 2001.
    54. 54. Parts of the Porfolio • Language Passport • Language Biography • Dossier
    55. 55. • Instructions: look at the following slide of the Language Passport and try to identify the information contained in it.
    56. 56. The Language Passport section: • • gives information about a student's proficiency in one or more languages at given points of time students record formal qualifications and give information about their language competencies with regard to the common reference levels in the CEF.
    57. 57. The Language Biography (aims) • Encourage students to get involved in the planning, reflecting upon and assessing of their own learning process and progress • Give students an opportunity to state what they can do in their foreign language(s) • List and reflect upon important language and intercultural learning experiences
    58. 58. The Dossier • A collection of materials and data put together by students to document and illustrate their proficiency and the learning experiences which are listed and reflected upon in the Language Passport and the Biography
    59. 59. Look at the following slides and identify what part of a Language Portfolio they belong to.
    60. 60. Source: English in Mind level 1
    61. 61. Source: English in Mind level 1
    62. 62. Source: English in Mind level 1
    63. 63. Portfolio • • Language Passport • Language Biography • • Dossier • Self-assessment • Peer-assessment • Teacher’s assessment • • • Benefits Demonstrates a learner's progress in the target language Gives learners the opportunity to reflect on their own progress and work Promotes collaborative work with peers Encourages learners to become active, reflexive learners Enhances motivation
    64. 64. The downside • Think of your own teaching situation. What are the obstacles you could find?
    65. 65. Effects: • Collaboration between different teachers and subjects • Bilingual teaching • Language learning outside school • Task-based learning, teaching and assessment • Self-directed learning • Self-assessment • Lifelong learning • Out-come oriented
    66. 66. Students’ feedback "I felt like studying harder because the portfolio is my own [product]." "I have come to like English and watch NHK English programs, study independently at home, and so on." "Creating a kind of booklet is fun and so I felt like working more actively." "A portfolio is not something you create by yourself. You have to consider others' opinions. You write articles in a group. I think completing a work with others rather than completing it by yourself is more likely to lead to active learning." "I thought I would have to work on all the assignments [in the semester]." Matthew Apple (Dokkyo University) & Etsuko Shimo (Miyazaki University)
    67. 67. Is the CEFR relevant to Latin America? • Council of Europe has 45 member states: not just EU • CEFR applies to European languages • Many points in the rationale for developing CEFR which apply equally outside Europe – need for communication & understanding global issues – stress on functional uses of language – common domains
    68. 68. • Research going on for over 30 years, with a large investment of resources by some of the most experienced researchers • Widespread adoption by international stake-holders: curriculum developers, publishers, examination providers, Ministries of Education
    69. 69. Mexico • An increasing number of universities are incorporating the CEFR into their language programmes • CEFR used and quoted by SEP; current initiative to help all English teachers nationwide reach a minimum of B1 level English
    70. 70. DIALANG Diagnostic Test Free diagnostic test (online) www.dialang.org
    71. 71. CEF and Cambridge ESOL Exams
    72. 72. Background-Cambridge ESOL  Non-profit making department of Cambridge University  Has designed exams for learners of English since 1913  Largest English language testing agency in Europe  Internationally recognized exams
    73. 73. Cambridge ESOL Examinations • The most comprehensive range of ESOL examinations in the world • Assessment of all four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) in practical contexts • Internationally recognised • Taken by around 1.5 million candidates in 2005 in over 130 countries worldwide
    74. 74. ESOL Examinations • Fill the gaps in the ESOL examinations chart with the corresponding examination name from the box. IELTS Starters CPE Flyers KET Movers FCE CAE PET
    75. 75. Cambridge Young Learners English CPE Level C2 CAE Level C1 FCE Level B2 PET Level B1 Young Learners English Flyers Movers Starters KET Level A2 Cambridge Main Suite Examinations
    76. 76. TEACHERS METHODOLOGY DELTA, CELTA, CELTYL, IDLTM, ICELT & TKT
    77. 77. The Next Step in Standards
    78. 78. What is English Profile? • A long term, collaborative program of interdisciplinary research, designed to enhance the learning, teaching and assessment of English worldwide.
    79. 79. How does it work? • It builds on existing resources such as the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages to produce the Reference Level Descriptions for English. • These will provide a uniquely detailed and objective analysis of what levels of achievement in language learning actually mean (the grammar, vocabulary and discourse features that learners can be expected to have mastered at each level)
    80. 80. For more information… www.englishprofile.org
    81. 81. Wrap up task • How many levels does the CEF have? • Which are the exams from ESOL main suite? • For what age range are Cambridge YLE designed? • To what exam of the main suite is YLE – Flyers equivalent? • What are the “can do statements”? • How can you make sure English language teaching materials are aligned with the CEF?
    82. 82. References Council of Europe www.coe.int Council of Europe (2001) Common European Framework of References for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment Cambridge University Press Cambridge ESOL Mexico www.CambridgeESOLMexico.org English Profile www.englishprofile.com
    83. 83. Ramiro Gracia Academic Consultant Cambridge University Press rgracia@cambridge.com.mx
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