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Who needs leadership mooc


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  • 1. Dr. Martha Cleveland-Innes Who Needs Leadership? Problem solving, change and education futures MOOC 2012
  • 2. Why talk about leadership? a) We are all affected by leadership b) Many of us will be leaders c) Any of us can be leadersWhat we see and define as valuable is perceptually, personally and contextually sounique it is difficult to find common conceptual ground.Leadership by current theories is important to consider buthopelessly inadequate to support leadership action or thechanging context in which it currently occurs. MOOC 2012
  • 3. How is leadership defined?Leadership is a set of characteristics and behaviors that togetherenable organizations, and the individuals in them, to create optimalorganizational conditions for realizing organizational goals(Beaudoin, 2007).Innovative education leadership characteristics and behaviors (See Latchem and Hanna, 2001, pp. 236-237)BUT is known to be situational, contextual andcollaborative, not a set of characteristics held uniquely by anindividual. These characteristics, then, may be applied in thethinking and doing of leadership such that followers engage.Followers enable and sustain change in organizations. (Adaptedfrom Cleveland-Innes, 2009) MOOC 2012
  • 4. How is leadership defined?Leadership can be “dyadic, shared, relational, strategic, global,and [operates in] a complex social dynamic.”“Authentic leadership: a pattern of transparent andethical leader behavior that encourages openness in sharinginformation needed to make decisions while accepting followers’inputs” (Avolio, Walumban & Weber, 2009, p. 423). Does this mean other theories represent non-authentic leadership? MOOC 2012
  • 5. How is leadership defined?Trait-based leadership Contingency theory and Transactional leadership leadershipEmergent leadership Complexity leadership Transformational leadershipDistributed leadership Servant leadership Shared leadershipSituational leadership Leader-member exchange E-leadership theory MOOC 2012
  • 6. What are the barriers?“…. difficulties in distinguishing leadership frommanagement; tensions between leadership,influence and power; the potential redundancy ofleadership in the face of possible substitute factors;leader-followerships presumption of a division oflabour; the prevailing myth of exceptionality; anddisciplined subjectivity achieved through emergentforms of designer leadership. Embedded in each ofthese criticisms is the claim that, if leadership is toretain its conceptual and practical utility, then it hasto be reconstituted in a distributed, as opposed to afocused, form.” Gronn, 2003, p. 267 MOOC 2012
  • 7. Are we postindustrial?…. leadership in the knowledge era musttake new forms to meet the needs of neweconomic structures (Child and McGrath2001; Prewitt 2004). Changes in broadersocial and economic trends have not goneunnoticed by institutions of higher education.However, as Garrison and Kanuka note,“higher educational institutions, especiallyuniversities, are notorious resisters tochange” (2004: 102). MOOC 2012
  • 8. Are we postmodern? oderndefined.htmlMaking things happen:“Leadership that is founded in service to the vision held by otherpeople in the organization. This is a style of leadership that buildson humility rather than hubris. It is a style of leadership that fosterscollaboration rather than competition. It is a style of leadership thatbuilds on a foundation of generativity and generosity rather thanstagnation and resentment.”THE GREAT CONTEXT [PERSON AND SYSTEM ININTERACTION: RIGHT PERSON AT RIGHT TIME IN RIGHTPLACE Bergquist, 2010 MOOC 2012
  • 9. Are we postmodern?“…… there are no more heroes, and the charismaticleaders who would enslave us in cult plays and self-lesstheatrics. There is a loss of self, a headless identity forboth leader and bit player in the postmodern society.Individuals are subordinated in modern bureaucracy tothe common unity of strong culture and inpostmodernity to the fragmentation of isolatedindividuals, brought together on occasions in safelyadministered, but temporary designer spectacles” How do we make things happen in a post-modern education? MOOC 2012
  • 10. Can you teach postmodern leadership?….. a social issue is raised, education isdetermined to be one remedy, and leadershipensues to implement the education innovation. Inthis case, leadership can be seen as problem-based, solution-centered, ethical, shared anddistributed, working continuously toward thegreatest good for the greatest number, beyond thereproduction of the status quo toward increasedequity. Intro to EDDE 804, Leadership In Distance Education Athabasca University MOOC 2012
  • 11. Norine Wark EDDE 804Athabasca University March 23, 2012
  • 12. Social Problem: A Need for Water StewardshipThe Global Context Human water rights and Indigenous Treaty rights versus government and industry.• UN Resolution on Human Rights for Water and Sanitation (August, 2011) versus struggles by First World governments to protect private market industries (Barlow, 2011)• UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007, September 13)• American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (1998, June 2)
  • 13. Concerns about fracking.Water use: collection, use, disposal.Explosions: earthquakes. Wildlife/endangeredHealth risks. species.
  • 14. The FNFN Dilemma Historical conflict: industrial use of Liard waters. Current conflict: large-scale fracking in FNFN territory. Exacerbated by the role of federal and provincial governments.
  • 15. Project Design.Vision.– FNFN people have knowledge, understanding and responsible stewardship of Liard watershedMission.– Develop an educational plan that enables FNFN people to remain in their communities, while learning how to improve local environmental conditions in partnership with recognized academic water institutions
  • 16. The role of distance education (DE).Why DE?– Remote FNFN location – DE reduces time, space barriers– Technological infrastructure exists– FNFN people used to online communication, and learn new online technologies quickly – visual and kinesthetic– Youth (initial targeted learning audience) conversant with mobile technology; will teach Elders– DE learning networks structured similarly to existing cultural and environmental networks; sense of familiarity– FN people are highly mobile (BC Stats 2006, Census 2001)– Access to qualified DE educators/media developers
  • 17. Determining a DE paradigm.- constructivism, eco-constructivism or connectivism (web of life)- Need to blend Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) with Western science and academia
  • 18. Leadership Theories and StrategiesShortcomings of Traditional Leadership Theories and Strategies.• Western hierarchal leadership structures incompatible with FN cultures• Geographic isolation = “us and them” mentality• A single leader, leadership theory or leadership strategy will not work with this diverse, geographically and socio-culturally dispersed population• Leadership must be fluid, complex and adaptive
  • 19. Core (hub) – the design team. (Micro level)– Wilton + Wark – transformational, servant and e- leadership– FNFN – Lana Lowe, Lands Director - transformational leadership– Dr. Gilles Wendling, key academic institute stakeholders – transformational and transactional leadershipConnected to distributed network. (Meso/macro level)– Keepers of the Water - transformational, distributed and transactional leadership; Elders as sages– Academic scientists and institutes – transformational, distributed and transactional
  • 20. Challenges in LeadershipLeadership processes. – Determining what form of leadership is needed when, and who should leadSolution – Situational leadership, or “leadership by design” – a bio-cluster network – Bio-cluster network definition - a local, or regional network, which “is part of the larger, global community, forming a mutually- beneficial, symbiotic relationship.” (Technology Management, 2009.)
  • 21. Leadership processes. Distributed Leadership Bio-cluster Network Model Need: Collaboration/ networking Effect: Equality/ SynergyFigure 13. Distributed leadership bio-cluster network model. Adapted from “Bio-cluster networks.” Copyright 2009by Technology Management, and Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions” by B. Avoilo, F.Walumbwa and T. Weber, 2009. Copyright 2009 by University of Nebraska – Lincoln.
  • 22. Leadership in Mobile Learning:Connecting the Disconnected in Nepal By Susan Bainbridge Yeung Sze-Kiu Tony Tin EDDE 804 Class Project
  • 23. Our Project GoalsM-learning can be used to: – promote literacy and achieve universal education – bridge the learning divide – improve access to learning resources – promote Global Awareness and Understanding – empower learner
  • 24. Leadership in Mobile Learning:Connecting the disconnected in NepalEmergent LeadershipConsistent with Misolek and Heckman’s (2005)definition:“Through the interactions of the group that one ormore individuals emerge to perform theleadership behaviours that the group requires.”(p.3).More than anything, we have accommodatedeach other’s strengths and weaknesses.
  • 25. To realize our education futures?See the phenomenon we used to call leadershipas“a dynamic interactive process among individuals ingroups for which the objective is to lead one anotherto the achievement of group, or organizational goals,or both.” Bligh et al., 2006In a context which is•a network of interacting individuals and partnerships•flexibility, boundary openness•dispersed complexity, variability•concerted, collaborative action through relationships•central support MOOC 2012 Adapted from Bennett, 2002
  • 26. To realize our education futures?…… design to serve the greater good. It is notpossible to provide effective leadership without anunderstanding of the purpose of education, and its rolein society. Education is fundamentally characterizedby a quest for improving the human condition. It is toovercome social and economic challenges, resolveinequities, promote societal power and prowess andallow for individual development. Schofield, 1999….. the newly emerging society requires an educationsystem that takes advantage of the democratizationand contestation of knowledge and promotestechnological and cross-cultural citizenship. Bloland, 2006 MOOC 2012
  • 27. What leadership navigation for education?The higher education leader All those involved ineducation of the 21st century will exhibit strongcharacter, well-developed personal skills and theability to create and communicate vision (Garrison& Vaughan 2008). In addition to these personaltraits, this new leader these people will be willingand able to 1. manage change and innovation 2.listen to and assist stakeholders, maintaining andenhancing relationships between the institution andrelevant partners, 3. embrace the realities ofnetwork environments and 4. ensure transformationto a new model of teaching and learning.(Cleveland-Innes & Sangra, 2011). MOOC 2012