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"ITS VALUE, CRITERIA, CHARACTERISTICS, AND TYPES"

"ITS VALUE, CRITERIA, CHARACTERISTICS, AND TYPES"
PARTEN'S STAGES OF PLAY

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  • Way of living that satisfies a child
  • Play begins with social affective play, where in infants take pleasure in relationships with people. As the adults talk, touch, nuzzle etc.. to get response from the infant the child soon learns to provoke personal emotions / responses with such behaviours smiling , cooing, or initiating games
  • A non social stimulating experience. Objects in the environment like light & color, taste & odors , textures and consistencies attract children’s attention stimulates their senses & give pleasure  Pleasurable experiences are derived from handling raw materials ( water , sand & food…), from body motions (swinging, bouncing , rocking… ) & from other uses of senses and abilities (smelling , humming..)
  • After infants develops the ability to grasp and manipulates, they demonstrate & exercise their newly acquired abilities through skill play. Determination to practice a skill may be evident Pain and frustration may be felt. ( e.g. bicycle riding)
  • Talking to her doll or a ny toy before going to bed.
  • She supervised children between two and five years old for intense one-minute periods. In these time frames, she could see the different children's behavior and documented them accordingly. She noted that most of the play is by themselves, in the first four stages. The latter two are more extensive sets of play, and occur in older age groups which involve more interaction between children.
  • Referring mostly to newborns and infants, the term unoccupied play refers to activity when a child actually isn't playing at all. He may be engaged in seemingly random movements, with no objective. Despite appearances, this is definitely play and setting the stage for future play exploration. Here children are not playful but focuses their attention on anything that strikes their interest. Children may daydream, fiddle with cloths(touch things with no particular purpose) / other objects or walks aimlessly. This is different from onlooker play (who actively observes others activity.) 
  • Children spend most of their time watching others; may make comments but do not interact Also common in younger children who are working on their  developing vocabulary , onlooker play is when a child simply observes other children playing and doesn't partake in the action. Don't worry if your little one is behaving this way -- it could be that the child feels shy or needs to learn the rules or maybe is the youngest and wants to just take a step back for a while.
  • Children play alone with toys; make no attempt to interact Just what it sounds like -- when your child plays alone. This type of play is important because it teaches a child how to keep himself entertained, eventually setting the path for being self sufficient. Any child can play independently, but this type of play is the most common in younger children ages two or three. Part of it has to do because they are still pretty self-centered, but a lack of good communication skills also plays a role. If a child is on the  shy side  and doesn't know the person who he is playing with well, he may prefer this type of play.
  • Children play beside but not really with other children Put two three year olds in a room together and this is what you are likely to see: the two children having fun, playing side by side in their own little world. It doesn't mean that they don't like one another, they are just engaging in parallel play. Despite having little social contact with her playmate, children who parallel play actually learn quite a bit from one another like taking turns and other social niceties, because even though it appears they aren't paying attention to each other, they truly are and often mimic the other one's behavior. As such, this type of play is viewed as an important bridge to the later stages of play.
  • Children engage in rather disorganized play with other children   Slightly different than parallel play, associative play also features children playing separately from one another, but in this mode of play they are involved with what the others are doing -- think children making a city with blocks. As they build their individual buildings, they are talking to one another, and engaging each other. This is an important stage of play because it helps little ones develop a whole host of skills -- socialization (what should we build now?) and problem solving (how can we make this city bigger?), cooperation (if we work together we can make our city even better!) and language development (learning what to say to get their messages across to one another). Through associative play is how children begin to make real friendships.
  • Children engage in an organized form of play Where all the stages come together and children truly start playing together. Common in older preschoolers (or in younger preschoolers who have older siblings or have been around a lot of children), cooperative play brings together all of the social skills your child has been working on and puts them into action. Whether they are building a  puzzle  together, playing a  board game , "house" or an  outdoor game  with a group, cooperative play really sets the stage for future interactions as your child matures into an adult.
  • Also known as symbolic / pretend play Begins in late infancy (11- 13 months) to preschool age. By acting out events of daily life children learn and practice the role and identities , modeled by members of their family & society
  • Many children who choose this type of medical play later progress to using medical equipment.   No specialized materials are required for this type of medical play. 

PLAY PLAY Presentation Transcript

  • Presented by: CHRISTIAN D. EVANGELISTA MARIANNE T. EVANGELISTA, MSHRM “PLAY”
  • PLAY • Range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with pleasure and enjoyment • Also known as “Work of the Children” / Daily work of a child • Act as a tool for assessing stress
  • CRITERIA • Voluntary • Internally Motivated • Unique to each child • Active with Motion and Cognition
  • CONTENT OF PLAY • This involves physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual aspects of the play along with the social relationships. • It follows a directional trend of simple to complex 
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF
  • THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAY • Play is child-chosen. • Play is child-invented. • Play is pretend but done as if the activity were real. • Play focuses on the doing (process, not product). • Play is done by the players (children), not the adults (caregivers, teachers, or parents). • Play requires active involvement. • Play is pleasurable • It is marked by flexibility
  • VALUES OF
  • VALUES OF PLAY •  PHYSICAL VALUE • INTELLECTUAL VALUE • MORAL VALUE • CREATIVE VALUE • THERAPEUTIC VALUE • SOCIALIZATION 
  • PHYSICAL VALUE • Muscular & sensory abilities are developed . Infants & young children develop their sensory abilities through the tactile, visual and auditory sensations derived from playing with rattles balls & other toys • Toddlers & preschool children enjoy large muscle activity such as running, climbing & exploring the environment . School age children organize their movements into more complex forms like bicycle riding, racing.
  • INTELLECTUAL VALUE • Children learn the differences in sizes, shape, colours, textures, numbers, & names of the objects. • They learn to understand special relationships, to do abstract thinking ,& to engage in problem solving activities. • Distinguished what is real & what is unreal/ fantasy.
  • MORAL VALUE • Cultural values like honesty , integrity, sportsmanship, & compassion are learned. • They assumes responsibility for their own actions. should adhere to the group values & can be expelled if they don’t.  
  • CREATIVE VALUE • Playing with materials like clay , paper & finger paints. • Children are most creative when they are playing alone. • They carry their new discoveries to the outside world of play.
  • THERAPEUTIC VALUE • Play provides the release of stress and tension. Children express their emotions and test out frightening situations in a way that peers and adults can accept. They reveal themselves through play. • Nurses can carefully observe the play of children & determine needs , concerns & feelings that cannot be put in to words. Children should be protected if they become aggressive & should be guided into less aggressive type of play
  • SOCIALIZATION • Social & emotional development is enhanced through play. • When they play with adults , parents and peers they develop social relationship.
  • TYPES OF
  • SOCIAL AFFECTIVE PLAY
  • SENSE PLEASURE PLAY
  • PLAY WITH OBJECTS
  • PLAY WITH LANGUAGE
  • SKILL PLAY
  • PLAY WITH MOTION AND INTERACTION
  • PLAY WITH NATURE
  • PLAY WITH SOCIAL MATERIAL-EXPLORE, RELATION BETWEEN OBJECTS, ACTIONS, AND PEOPLE
  • PLAY WITH CHILD’S INTEREST AND SKILLS
  • RITUALISTIC PLAY-IT IS THE CONTROLLED RHYTHMIC REPETITION OF ACTIVITIES
  • PLAY WITH ANIMALS
  • PLAY WITH RULES
  • PLAY WITH GADGETS / TECHNOLOGY
  • PARTEN’S STAGES OF PLAY
  • MILDRED PARTEN • Mildred Parten (1902–after 1932) was an American sociologist, a researcher at University of Minnesota's Institute of Child Development. • She completed her doctoral dissertation in 1929. She developed the theory of SIX stages of child's play • Parten was one of the first to conduct extensive studies on children for the case of play.
  • UNOCCUPIED • The child is not playing or watching anyone or anything in particular. • They might stand or sit and just do nothing.
  • • The child spends most of their time watching others play. • They might look or talk to the players, but will not engage in the actual play activity ONLOOKER
  • • The child plays alone. • No connection or conversation is made with anyone nearby. SOLITARY PLAY (Independent Play)
  • • The child plays alone but with toys that are shared with others. • The child plays beside other children but communication might be limited or none at all. PARALLEL PLAY
  • • The child plays with other children. • The play is not coordinated. They may talk and share toys but they are still independent players. ASSOCIATIVE PLAY
  • • Children come together and play. • A group of children with a common goal or similar interests, acting out adult situations or playing formal games. COOPERATIVE PLAY
  • OTHER TYPES OF PLAY THAT CONTRIBUTES TO A CHILD MATURITY
  • Continuation: • While these stages are important and necessary for a child's social development, there are other types of play that also contribute to a child's maturity. • These types of play usually develop as a child begins to engage in cooperative play and include:
  • DRAMATIC / FANTASY PLAY • Got a kid who loves to play dress up? How about pretending to be an “Artist" or “Lawyer?" That's dramatic, or fantasy play. • Through this type of play, not only does your child's imagination get a workout, but they learn how to take turns, cooperate, share and work on language development. • Through role play, kids are also able to learn about functioning in the greater community.
  • COMPETITIVE PLAY • Whether she's beating her brother at raceway and Ladders or playing on a local soccer team, your child is engaging in competitive play. • Rules and turn taking are the big lessons taken from this type of play, but so are taking turns and functioning as part of a team (if that is the type of play involved). • This can be a very fun type of play if your child wins, but be prepared to talk your child through it if she loses.
  • PHYSICAL PLAY • This type of play is less about being social (although it certainly involves that) and more about being physical. Gross and fine motor skills really come into play here, whether your child is throwing a ball or riding a bike. • Physical play is important because it encourages kids to be active, something they are likely to do as they get older.
  • CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY • Building with blocks. Making a road for some toy cars. Constructing a fort out of couch pillows. All forms of constructive play. • Constructive play teaches kids about manipulation, building and fitting things together. Cognitive skills are important here too as a child learns to figure out how to make something work best, whether it is a block tower that won't stand up or a sand castle that keeps collapsing.
  • PLAY
  • • It is a type of play which concentrates on events in health care settings such as injection, or procedures MEDICAL PLAY
  • PLAY IN ILLNESS • PLAY THERAPY – it is a form of psychotherapy since 1900. Play therapy is generally employed with children aged 3 through 11 and provides a way for them to express their experiences and feelings through a natural, self-guided, self- healing process. As children’s experiences and knowledge are often communicated through play, it becomes an important vehicle for them to know and accept themselves and others. • THERAPEUTIC PLAY – It is the use of play specially as a language for sick children to communicate their thoughts and feeling
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDICAL PLAY 1. Part of its content medically themed and / or it includes the use of medical equipment.  2. Play may be offered or initiated by an adult/parent, but is voluntarily maintained by the child.  3. Medical play is usually enjoyable for the child and is accompanied by laughter and relaxation. However, the process of play can be intense and aggressive.  4. Medical play and preparation are not the same. They are not interchangeable.  When an adult attempts to prepare a child for a medical event by demonstrating a procedure or familiarizing a child with equipment, education may occur, but not necessarily play.  Play may follow familiarization if play opportunities are made available.
  • PURPOSE OF MEDICAL PLAY • Provides diversion and brings interaction • Helps to feel more secure in strange environment • Lessens stress of a sick child • Release of tension and expression of feeling • Encourage interaction and development of positive attitude • An expressive outlet for creative ideas • Means for accomplishing therapeutic goal • Provide the child an active role
  • TYPES OF MEDICAL PLAY
  • ROLE REHEARSAL / ROLE REVERSAL PLAY • This is the most traditional medical play. Children take on the roles of health care professionals, acting out medical procedures and events on dolls, puppets, stuffed animals or other people (children or adults).   • Real medical materials and equipment is used, as well as specially made toys created for medical play, such as toy doctor kits, a patient puppet, a doll sized MRI or hospital bed.  Children often use this type of medical play to re-enact events they have experienced. 
  • • This also involves role playing medical themes.  However, traditional play materials, blocks, doll houses, cars, trucks and stuffed animals are used to create roles and stories for medical play, instead of actual medical equipment.  • In medical fantasy play, children avoid contact with feared objects, but can still play out topics of concern.  MEDICAL FANTASY PLAY
  • • Hospital themed activities such as puzzles, games and songs enable familiarization, exploration and education relating to medical experiences. • This type of play also uses medical materials in non- traditional ways, such as using syringes to squirt water, and using IV tubing as drinking straws.  INDIRECT MEDICAL PLAY Indirect Medical Play
  • • This offers many different ways for a child to express themselves, their understanding of and reactions to their medical experience.  Art activities can vary greatly, including painting, drawing, collage and 3D sculptures.   • Basic art materials are appropriate: paint, paper, markers and glue offer a wide range of choices.  Including some medical materials, such as band aids, plasters, gauze and tongue depressors can enhance the medical theme.  MEDICAL ARTS PLAY
  • TOY
  • DEFINITION • The word “Toy” comes from an old English term that means :TOOL • Toys are TOOLS for a child. • With these tools, children are allowed to use their senses, fine and gross motor skills, and their imaginations. • Cognitive and social skills are also increased as a child plays with toys. • Toys are valuable TEACHING tools.
  • TYPES of TOYS • Soft & Cuddling Toys – Dolls, stuffed animals, etc. • Manipulation/Small Motor Skill Toys – Blocks, puzzles, snap, gears, games, etc. • Large Motor Skill Toys – Tricycles/bikes, balls, jump ropes, scooters, etc. • Dramatic Play – Dress-up clothes, furniture and accessories, etc.
  • SELECTION OF TOYS • Make sure the toy is DAP Toys for age-appropriate development of the child • SIZE of toy and pieces • Larger than the child’s two fists • No SHARP edges or points • Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away • NON-TOXIC materials • Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers • DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN • Toy’s that won’t break easily • Toys that can be cleaned easily • TEACH a Skill or Concept – Aide in one of the 5 areas of Child Development
  • TOYS SAFETY • Regularly check toys for damage that may have created sharp edges or loose small parts. Damaged or dangerous toys should be repaired or thrown away immediately. • Keep toys intended for older children away from younger children – such toys may injure younger children. • Store toys safely. Teach children to put toys away so they are not tripping hazards.
  • TOYS SAFETY • Safe toys for young children are: – well-made (with no shared parts or splinters and do not pinch) – painted with nontoxic, lead-free paint – shatter-proof – easily cleaned
  • TOYS FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUP AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATION INFANCY SOFT STUFFED ANIMALS,DOLLS, SOFT BALLS, BATH TOYS, •BABY LIKES TO HUG TOYS •IT SHOULD BE BRIGHT COLOURED AND WASHABLE •IT SHOULD BE LARGE AND HAVE SMOOTH EDGES
  • AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATION TODDLER POTS AND PANS,PUSH AND PULL TOYS, DOLLS TELEPHONE, ROCKING HORSE OR CHAIR, BALLS •THEY WILL HAVE A FAVOURITE TOY •THEY LIKE TO PLACE THINGS IN CONTAINERSAND TAKE THEM OUT •THEY MAY INJUR OTHERS WITH TOYS SO IT SHOULD BE WITHOUT SHARP EDGES TOYS FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUP
  • AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATION PRE SCHOOLER CRYONS, SIMPLE PUZZLES,PAINT WITH LARGE BRUSH, FINGER PAINT, DOLLS, DISHES, HORNS, DRUMS, SIMPLE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, VIDEO TAPES •THEY ENJOY PARALLEL AND COOPERATIVE PLAY •THEY WILL EXCHANGE IDEAS WITH OTHERS •THEY WILL ENGAGE IN ACTIVITIES , INITIATIVE, IMAGINATIVE •INTERESTED IN CREATIVE AND DRAMATIC PLAY TOYS FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUP
  • AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATION SCHOOLER DOLLS,DOLL HOUSE, HANDI CRAFTS, TABLE GAMES, JUMP ROPE, BICYCLE, DRESS UP MATERIAL, PUPPETS,MUSIC •ATTENTION SPAN INCREASES •PLAY IS MORE ORGANIZED AND COMPETATIVE •INTERESTED IN HOBBIES OR COLLECTION OFTHINGS TOYS FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUP
  • AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATION ADOLOSCENT BALLS. TELEPHONE, RADIOS, EASY PUZZLES, HAND PUPPETS, CUTOUTS •REQUIRES A GREAT EXPENDITURE OF ENERGY •PAY ATTENTION TO SPECIAL INTERESTS TOYS FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUP
  • THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS THAT PARENTS CAN PROVIDE ARE: • Time • Space • Materials • Caring Adults
  • Ways to support play: PROVIDE OPEN-ENDED PLAY TIME • Allow your child the time that he/she needs to explore, discover and control the environment. They need long, uninterrupted periods for spontaneous free play. The period should be at least 45 minutes to one hour • Parents can involve themselves in play but should mentor of coach rather than interfere • Children should be the prime architects of play • Create a playful atmosphere. It is important for the adults to provide materials which children can explore and adapt in play and to reach their full potential.
  • END OF PRESENTATION