PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
MARIANNE T. EVANGELISTA, MSHRM
APPROPRIATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES
• Once you have established your broad course objectives and
considered how you will evaluate progress, you need to think about
the learning activities you will employ to enable students to achieve
• The learning activities you use in teaching should provide students
with an opportunity to develop the skills they need to demonstrate
their mastery of the material.
• In addition to alignment with students’ knowledge and skills, your
teaching and learning activities should also demonstrate alignment
in terms of course content, course structure, and instructional
approaches (lecture, discussion, demonstration, etc.)
TYPES OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES
• INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES – This is usually
done at the start of the school year or the
start of every new lesson.
• Beginning training sessions with warm introductions starts
you off on the right foot.
• It invites people to actively participate. It encourages them to
get to know one another.
• It sets the stage for having everyone learn from one another.
And, it helps build connections and community – it warms and
livens up the room.
• Large gatherings and too little time may make introductions
difficult, but, even with limited time, you can have people
introduce themselves to one or two others they are sitting
• Activities can come in the form of:
2. Action songs
4. Anecdote or story telling
5. or posing a question to the learners
INTRODUCTION CAN BE DONE IN A
NUMBER OF WAYS:
• In the large group, start with a volunteer and then move in a circle
• Pair people together. You can ask people to do introductions with
the person they are sitting next to. If you want to ensure that
people who do not know one another get a chance to meet and talk,
have people call out numbers to half of the total class, and then
start at one again. Then, have people pair with the person who
called out the same number for the exercise. It can also be good
to have partners introduce the person they spoke with during
• Form people into small groups of 3-5 people to do the
introductions. This may work well with a large group. Select the
option that will work best with your time-frame and your sense of
how shy people are and how challenging they will find speaking
with one another.
Types of learning activities
Type Technique Interaction Roles Tools & Resources Assessment
Drill & practice
Question & answer
1 – many
1-1 S to S
1-1 S to T
• The most fundamental level, development activities
• This change must be cumulative and systematic; random
change is not considered to be developmental in nature.
• Whereas the concept of growth refers to the addition of
new components or skills through the appearance of new
cells, development refers to the refinement, improvement,
and expansion of existing skills through the refinement of
cells already present (Schuster, 1992).
• Data Gathering Activity
• Organizing and Summarizing activities
• Application Activities
• Creative and Expressive Activities
• Concluding Activities
DATA GATHERING ACTIVITIES
• Teachers can now use a great number of tools for
learning and which students can engage in. In the
hands-on approach to learning, students are given
a free hand in the selection of tools for data
• This type of involvement in data gathering provides
more opportunities for meaningful learning as well
as independent study.
TOOLS FOR DATA GATHERING
• The tools are what they usually make use of in
actual life situations and can be made readily
available for gathering information such as:
4. Video cameras.
ORGANIZING AND SUMMARIZING
• Teacher draws plan or structures the lesson
plan by assigning impromptu activities.
• This will be helpful in measuring the extent of
understanding of the experiences during the
activities and it will measure as well if
objectives have been met.
ORGANIZING AND SUMMARIZING
• This can be done by:
1. Vocabulary words or drawing an object or animal
related to the lesson proper.
2. Riddles and puzzles can also be used for a start.
3. After the activities, students may be asked to
summarize, analyze in written form.
4. The new concepts and insights gathered from the
• Activities that are done during the
application of the concepts.
• The intention here is to enable the
students to master and improve their
performance and identify the content
areas that have to be improved.
CREATIVE AND EXPRESSIVE
• These activities provide the use of imagination
and expression of one’s feelings, thoughts, and
ideas about the insights acquired.
• Activities of these nature are normally done
after the lesson proper and are designed to find
out the amount of new knowledge acquired and
how well it can be related to actual situations.
• Usually are activities students engaged in as part
of the application of the newly acquired
• They may come in the form of wrap up, after
which students submit the summary in outline
• Teacher may also summarized the important
points to be remembered by the learners.
ASPECTS THAT ARE IMPROVED
BY MEANS OF