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Designing Search For Humans
 

Designing Search For Humans

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    Designing Search For Humans Designing Search For Humans Presentation Transcript

    • Designing Search for Humans Dr. Marti Hearst UC Berkeley Enterprise Search Summit Keynote Speech May 11 2010
    • Consider the Human Feelings Language, Memory, and Planning Sociability
    • Feelings Aesthetics Emotional Stages Flow
    • Feelings: The Importance of Aesthetics
      • With an aesthetically pleasing design:
        • People will enjoy working with it more
        • People will persist searching longer
        • People will choose it even if it is less efficient
      Nakarada-Kordic & Lobb, 2005, Ben-Basset et al. 2006, Parush et al. 1998, van der Heijden 2003
    •  
    • Feelings: The Importance of Aesthetics
      • Small details matter
        • A left hand side line vs. a box for ads
          • The line integrates the results into the page
        • Balancing white space with content
        • Balancing font color, shape, and weight
      Hotchkiss 2007
    • Feelings
      • Kuhlthau on informational AND emotional stages in search
      (Assuming novice researchers engaged in challenging tasks) Uncertainty and apprehension Optimism (after deciding) Confusion, uncertainty, doubt, frustration Confidence dawning * Confidence growing Relief and satisfaction (or disappointment) Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation
    • Feelings: The Importance of Flow
    • Feelings: The Importance of Flow
      • From Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1991). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. HarperCollins
      • via Bederson, Interfaces for staying in the flow, ACM Ubiquity 5(7), 2004
    • Properties of Interfaces with Flow
      • Inviting
      Support interrupt-free engagement in the task No blockages Easy reversal of actions
      • Next steps seem to suggest themselves
    • Language, Memory, & Planning Address Anchoring and Vocabulary Problems Provide Memory Aids Suggest Helpful Next Steps
    • Language
    • Language: The Vocabulary Problem
      • There are many ways to say the same thing.
      • People remember the gist but not the actual words used.
    • Language: The Vocabulary Problem
      • With no other context, people generate different words for the same concepts.
        • The probability that two typists would suggest the same word for a given function: .11
        • The probability that two college students would name an object using the same word: .12.
      Furnas et al., 1987
    • Language: The Problem of Anchoring
      • Try this experiment:
        • Tell people to think of the last 2 digits of their SSN
        • Then have them bid on something in auction
        • The SSN numbers they thought of influences their bids.
      Ariely, Predictably Irrational, 2008, Harper
    • The Problem of Anchoring
      • Anchoring in search
      • A user starts with a set of words, then anchors on them
          • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince sales
          • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince amount sales
          • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince quantity sales
          • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince actual quantity sales
          • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince sales actual quantity
          • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince all sales actual quantity
          • all sales Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
          • worldwide sales Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
      • Contrast with the Vocabulary Problem!
      Russell, 2006
    • Provide Memory Aids Support “Recognition Over Recall”
    • Provide Memory Aids
      • Suggest the Search Action in or near the Query Form
      www.yelp.com, www.powerset.com
    • Memory Aids
      • Provide Access to Recent Actions
      PubMed amazon.com Dumais et al., Stuff I’ve Seen, SIGIR 2003
    • Memory Aids; Anchoring Aids
      • Dynamic Query Suggestions
      http://netflix.com http://google.com
    • Memory Aids; Anchoring Aids
      • Augment suggestions with images or faceted classes.
      http://www.imamuseum.org/ http://nextbio.com
    • Suggest Next Steps: Query suggestions
      • Show suggestions after the query has been issued.
      http://bing.com http://yahoo.com
    • Suggest Next Steps: Query suggestions http://nextbio.com PubMed
    • Suggest Next Steps: Query Destinations
      • Recorded search sessions for 100,000’s of users
      • For a given query, where did the user end up?
        • Users generally browsed far from the search results page (~5 steps)
        • On average, users visited 2 unique domains during the course of a query trail, and just over 4 domains during a session trail
      • Show the query trail endpoint information at query reformulation time
        • Query trail suggestions were used more often (35.2% of the time) than query term suggestions.
      White et al., SIGIR 2007
    • Suggest Next Steps: Related Documents
      • In some circumstances, related items work well
      PubMed amazon.com
    • Putting It All Together: Faceted Navigation
      • Suggests next steps
      • Helps with Vocabulary Problem and Anchoring Problem
      • Promotes Flow
        • Show users structure as a starting point, rather than requiring them to generate queries
        • Organize results into a recognizable structure
        • Eliminates empty results sets
    • A New Development: Faceted Breadcrumbs
      • Nudelman, http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/faceted-finding-with
    • Sociability People are Social; Computers are Lonely. Don’t Personalize Search, Socialize it!
    • Social Search Implicit: Suggestions generated as a side-effect of search activity. Asking: Communicating directly with others. Collaboration: Working with other people on a search task. Explicit: knowledge accumulates via the actions of many.
    • The DARPA Network (Red Balloon) Challenge The ultimate in social question answering
    • Social Search: Asking
      • What do people ask of their social networks?
      Morris et al., CHI 2010 Type % Example Recommendation 29% Building a new playlist – any ideas for good running songs? Opinion 22% I am wondering if I should buy the Kitchen-Aid ice cream maker? Factual 17% Anyone know a way to put Excel charts into LaTeX? Rhetorical 14% Why are men so stupid? Invitation 9% Who wants to go to Navya Lounge this evening? Favor 4% Need a babysitter in a big way tonight… anyone?? Social connection 3% I am hiring in my team. Do you know anyone who would be interested? Offer 1% Could any of my friends use boys size 4 jeans?
    • Social Search: Implicit Suggestions
      • Human-generated suggestions still beat purely machine-generated ones
        • Spelling suggestions
        • Query term suggestions
        • Recommendations of book, movies, etc
        • Ranking (clickthrough statistics)
    • Social Search: Explicit Help Question-Answering Sites
      • Content produced in a manner amenable to searching for answers to questions.
      • Search tends to work well on these sites and on the internet leading to these sites
        • This suggests that for the intranet, content is best generated and written this way.
        • Like an FAQ but with many authors and with the questions that the audience really wants the answers to.
    •  
    • Explicit Suggestions: Building Knowledge
      • Social knowledge management tools seem promising
      • Utilize the best of social networks, tagging, blogging, web page creation, wikis, and search.
      Millen et al., CHI 2006
    • Collaborative Search Pickens et al., SIGIR 2008
    • Summary: Consider the Human
      • Feelings
        • Emotional responses to information seeking
        • Aesthetics
        • Flow
      • Language / Memory / Planning
        • Scaffold memory by suggesting next steps, providing context and feedback
        • Tools to aid with the anchoring and the vocabulary problems
      • Sociability
        • Search as a social experience
        • Turning to others for certain types of task
        • Sharing information for next-generation knowledge management
    • Thank you! Full text freely available at: http://searchuserinterfaces.com