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Review of related literature

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  • 1. Review of Related Literature JOSOL APDONGENCIANEOROLANDO I.Definition of Wastes II.Classification of Wastes A. Solid WasteB. Liquid WasteC.SludgeD. Hazardous Waste III.Waste Management A. Waste Management in Developed Nations1. Solid WasteA) LandfillsB) RecyclingC) Incineration2.Liquid WasteA) Management PlansB) Waste Water Treatment FacilitiesC) Injection Wells3.Hazardous WasteA) LandfillB) IncinerationB.Waste Management in Developing Nations1.Solid WasteA) LandfillsB) RecyclingC) Incineration2.Liquid WasteA) Management PlansB) Waste Water Treatment FacilitiesC) Injection Wells3.Hazardous WasteA) LandfillB) IncinerationC. Waste Management: The Philippine Setting1. Solid Waste Management2.Liquid Waste Management3. Hazardous Waste Management IV.Threats of Improper Waste ManagementV. Initiatives for Liquid Wast e Management I.Definition of Wastes Waste can be described as "any substance or object the holder discards, intends tod i s c a r d o r i s r e q u i r e d t o discard", as defined by the Waste Framework Directive (European Directive (WFD) 20 06/12/EC), (amended by the ne w W F D ( D i r e c t i v e 2008/98/EC, coming into force in December 2010).I n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s ’ Republic Act No. 9275 (An Act Providing For a Comprehensive Water Quality management and for Other Purposes), waste means “anym a t e r i a l e i t h e r s o l i d , l i q u i d , semisolid, contained gas or ot her forms resulting fromindust rial, commercial, mining or agr icultural operations, or from c o m m u n i t y a n d household activities that is devoid of usage and discarded.” II. Classification of Wastes The classification of wastes varies and depends country by country. Waste canbedivided into many different types. The most common method of classification is by their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.1. Solid WasteSolid waste is broadly defined as including non-hazardous industrial, commercialand domestic refuse including household organic trash, street sweepings, hospital andinstitutional garbage, and construction wastes; generally sludge and human waste areregarded as a liquid waste problem outside the scope of MSW (Zerbock, 2003).These arewaste materials that contain less than 70% water. Example of this type of waste arethedomestic or household garbage, some industrial wastes, some mining wastes, and oilfieldwastes such as drill cuttings. . Liquid WasteThese are usually wastewaters that contain less than 1%. This type of waste mayc o n t a i n h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of dissolved salts and metals.
  • 2. L i q u i d w a s t e s a r e o f t e n classifie d into two broad types: sewage and toxic wastes. Generally, there are varioust y p e s o f l i q u i d w a s t e g e n erated in urban centers: human e x c r e t a , d o m e s t i c s w a s t e s produ ced in households, hospital wastes, industrial effluents, agricultural liquid wastesa n d n u c l e a r w a s t e s . When improperly handled and disposed of, liquid wastes pose aserious threat to human health and the environment because of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e n t e r watersheds, pollute ground water and drinking water (US EPA, 2009). 3. Sludge It is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between 3%and 25% solid, while the rest of the material is dissolved water.4. Hazardous WasteHazardous wastes are wastes which, by themselves or after coming into contactw i t h o t h e r w a s t e s , h a v e characteristics, such as ch emical reactivity, toxicity,c orrosiveness or a tendency t o explode, that pose a risk t o human health or theenviro nment. Hazardous wastes are generated from a wide range o f i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, agricultural, and to a much less extent, domestic activities. They may takethe form of solids, liquids or sludges, and can pose both acute and chronic public healthand environmental risks. III. Waste Management A.Waste Management in Developed Countriesb r o u g h t b a s i c a l l y b y their more developed industr ies and more advancedt e c h n ology, developed nations have more efficient and st a n d a r d l i q u i d w a s t e manageme nt plans.Developed countries, however, still employ different methods of waste disposal(which largely depends on a country‟s policies and preferences). The large amount of solid waste (including its collection, transfer and disposal) generated in developed nationshas been generally assumed by municipal governments. The format varies, however, inmost urban areas, where garbage is collected either by a government agency or privatec o n t r a c t o r , a n d t h i s c o nstitutes a basic and expecte d government function in the developed world. (Zerbock, 2003)1 . S o l i d W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t A ) L a n d f i l l The placement of solid waste in land fills is probably the o l d e s t a n d definitely the most prevalent form of ultimate garbage disposal (Zerbock,2003). It is to be noted, however, that most landfills refer to nothing more thanopen dumps. Nonetheless, in the case of developed countries, waste disposali s o f t e n i n t h e f o r m o f sanitary landfills , which differ from open dumps bytheir higher degree of engineering, planning and administration.L a n d f i l l s a c c o u n t for the disposal of 90%
  • 3. o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ‟ s o l i d wastes . It is also the most common disposal method in the United Kingdomwhere annually, approximately 111 million tones of controlled wastes aredisposed in their 4000 landfill sites (Baker, 2005).In a modern landfill, refuse is spread thin, compacted layers covered by alayer of clean earth. Pollution of surface water and groundwater is minimized by lining and contouring the fill, compacting and planting t h e u p p e r m o s t cover layer, diverting drainage, and selecting proper soil in sites not subject toflooding or high groundwater levels. The best soil for a landfill is clay becausec l a y i s l e s s p e r m e a b l e t h a n o t h e r t yp e s o f soil. Materials disposed of in a landfill can be further secured from leakage by solidifying them in materialss u c h a s c e m e n t , f l y a s h from power plants, asphalt, or o r g a n i c p o l ym e r s (Bassis, 2005)Landfills can also be shifted to another use after their capacities have beenreached. The city of Evanston, Illinois, built a landfill up into a hill and thenow-complete “Mt. Trashmore” is a ski area. Golf courses built over landfillsites are also increasingly common (Montgomery, 2000).B ) R e c yc l i n g o r t h e 3R‟sA n o t h e r m e t h o d , w h i c h s ets off before waste disposal i s w a s t e reduction through recycling or often coined as the 3 R‟s: reuse, reduce, and recycle. On the local or regional level, r educing wastes is accomplishedt hrough these methods by source separation and subsequent material recovery.Currently, the United States recycles about 10% of its glass and 25%of its paper wastes; in countries such as Switzerland and the Netherlands, the proportion in the glass recycled approaches to 50% while Japan recycles 50%of its paper wastes (Montgomery, 2000).C ) I n c i n e r a t i o n Some countries, on the other hand, manage most of their solid waste through incinerators . Incineration, or the controlled burning of waste at high temperaturesto produce steam and ash, is another waste disposal option and an alternative tol a n d f i l l i n g ( U S E n v i r o n m e n t a l Protection Agency, 2009). Inci n e r a t o r s a r e designed for the destruction of wastes and are commonly employed in developednations who could afford the costs of the burning facilities, plus its operation andmaintenance (McCracken, 2005).T h i s t yp e o f w a s t e d i s p o s a l is the second largest disposal m e t h o d i n m o s t developed countries and ranks next to landfills in the United States and the UnitedKingdom. In the UK, approximately 5% of household waste, 75 % of commercialw a s t e a n d 2% of industrial waste is disposed of through this method ( B a k e r , 2005)I n s p i t e o f i t s h u g e capital requirements, incin e r a t i o n p r e s e n t s t o b e a prom ising option for developed islan d nations whose small land area makesl a n d f i l l i n g a n u n s u i t a b le method for their waste dis p o s a l . R e d u c t i o n b y incineration, along with sanitary disposal of the
  • 4. residue, has been proven useful innations such as Bermuda and the British Virgin Islands (Lettsome 1998 as cited by Zerbock 2003). A further benefit of incineration can be realized if the heatg e n e r a t e d t h e r e b y i s r e c o vered. For years, European c i t i e s h a v e g e n e r a t e d electricity using waste-disposal incinerators as sources of heat (Mon tgomery,2000).There are negative issues, however, in the use of this burning method andmuch of that circulate around its safety for the environment and to the humanhealth. It is argued that the combustion process creates air pollution, ash, and waste water, all of which must be properly managed using technical monitoring,containment, and treatment systems. Harmful pollutants are released into theenvironment whenever these by-products are not controlled (US EPA, 2009).Operators of these facilities must be well-trained and certified to ensure proper management.1 . L i q u i d Waste ManagementA)Management P l a n s Management of liquid waste in developed nations often follows rigoroussteps and phases which commonly involves treatment processes. In BritishC o l u m b i a , m u n i c i p a l i ties are allowed to develop t h e i r L i q u i d W a s t e Management Plans. The country adopts a proactive strategy that intends toachieve their Ministry of Environment‟s long-term goal of achieving zero pollution. Part of that strategy includes: pollution prevention, Best AvailableControl Technology (BACT) and the principle of polluter pay. This strategyr e p r e s e n t s a m a j o r c hange in the traditional re g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h t o enviro nmental protection, which attem pted to deal with pollution after ito c c u r r e d . T h e f u t u r e e m p h asis will be on pollution pre vention and oni n v o l v i n g a l l stakeholders in an open a nd consultative approach t o environmental protection (Environ mental Protection Division, Ministr y of Environment, Government of British Columbia, 2009).B ) W a s t e w a t e r TreatmentT h e s t r a t e g y e m p l o yed by the government of Br i t i s h C o l u m b i a combines a number of processes and programs to achieve zero pollution. However, when it comes to liquid waste management, the simplest approachis to control the quality of wastewater at its point of treatment and discharge.This places regulation and control at the institutional level as treatment isnormally conducted by a public agency. The quality of the discharge can then be regulated to fit the type of use. This alternative assumes that the treatmentsystem is well managed and maintained and produces a reliable quality of effluent. This approach is utilized in the United States, Canada, and Europea n d i n m a n y c a s e s r e q u
  • 5. ires an advanced level of tre a t m e n t t e c h n o l o g y (Zerbock, 2003).C ) I n j e c t i o n w e l l s In the USA, industrial wastes that are primarily liquid are usually disposedof in injection wells. Injection wells receiving aqueous wastes can be placedin highly permeable, underground geological formations. These formationsare well below 1000 m underground, which is lower than the depth of mostaquifers used as sources of drinking water. Before injection, liquid wastes aref i l t e r e d t o r e m o v e s u s p e n d ed solids and skimmed for p h a s e d o r g a n i c compounds. Filtration prevents the plugging of the injection formation. If thewaste is reactive, it is converted to less reactive compounds before injection.1 . H a z a r d o u s W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t Much of the concern of many countries regarding their waste managementcirculates around the disposal of hazardous wastes. Due to their toxicity and larget h r e a t t o h u m a n a n d e n v i r onment health, this type of w a s t e r e q u i r e s m o r e stringent and sophisticated methods of disposal. Basically, the United States‟s federal regulations classify their waste intot w o t y p e s : h a z a r d o u s a n d solid. In 1976, congress ado pted the ResourceConservati on and Recovery Act, the pri mary national law for addres s i n g production waste (waste generated in the course of ongoing activity or business).I n s u c h a c t , t h e t e r m „solid‟ does not necessarily refer to a waste‟s p h ys i c a l p r o p e r t y a n d t h u s t h e waste can also be a liquid or a contained gas ( N a t i o n a l Society of Professional Engineers, USA, 2009). The RCRA provides a stringentclassification of hazardous wastes and the necessary treatment that such wastess h o u l d u n d e r g o . U n d e r t h e law, a „comprehensive national “cradle-tograve” program for regulating t he generation, transportation, tr e a t m e n t , s t o r a g e a n d disposal of hazardous wastes is established. Such program includes a system for tracking the wastes‟ point sources and point of disposal, and a permitting systemt o c o n t r o l t h e o p e r a t i o n of treatment, storage and di s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s ( U S Environme ntal Protection Agency). A. Waste Management in Developing CountriesAlthough largely limited in terms of budget and technology as compared to thed e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s , d e v e l o p i n g countries also take their share i n i m p l e m e n t i n g w a s t e manageme nt policies.1 . S o l i d W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t In developing countries, it is common for municipalities to spend 20-50 percent of their available recurrent budget on solid waste management.Yet, it is also common that 30-60 percent of all the urban solid waste ind e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s u n c ollected and less than 50 per cent of the
  • 6. population is served. In som e cases, as much as 80 perce n t o f t h e collection and transport equipment is out of service, in need of repair or m a i n t e n a n c e . I n m o s t d e v e l o p ing countries, open dumping wit h o p e n burning is the norm (The World Bank, 2009).A ) O p e n D u m p s D u m p s are long-established method of w a s t e d i s p o s a l i n m a n y countries. Although this method have been largely phased-out in mostdeveloped countries and replaced by sanitary landfills, many developingnations still rely on this form of disposal. Open dumps are not much to beendorsed though. They are unsightly, unsanitary and generally smelly,they attract rats, insects and other pests; they are also fire hazards.Still, behind these negative aspects, open dumps continue to be prevalent in countries like India, the Philippines and Indonesia. B) Landfill is also a common method of solid waste disposal i n m o s t developing countries, although many of them harbors open dumps.C ) R e c y c l i n g I n m a n y developing countries and countries with economies i n transition there are two types of recycling sectors, a formal sector andinformal sector. Formal recyclin g sector, using efficient technologiesand state-of-the-art recycling facilities are rare. As a result, recyclablematerials are managed through various informal sectors with lowendm a n a g e m e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s s u c h a s m a n u a l s e p a r a t i o n o f r e c yc l ablecomponents, burning of som e components in open pits to recover precious metals, and dumping of residues into surface water bodies.T h i s i n f o r m a l s e c t o r o f t h e e c o n o m y e m p l o ys t h o u s a n d s o f p o o r people who are not aware of the hazard of exposure or hazards thatexist in some recyclable materials (Basel Convention Report Paper,2009).1 . L i q u i d W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t In spite of the continuing efforts of many developing nations tocope with the standards of the developed nations, finance and technology p l u s p o l i c i e s s t i l l p ut limit to what they have ge n e r a l l y a c h i e v e d . According to the World Resources Institute, it has been estimated thatover 90% of the sewage in developing countries is discharged into surfacewaters with no treatment conducted. In India, with its 3,100plus cities andtowns, only 209 have even partial sewage treatment (Montgomery, 2000).2 . H a z a r d o u s W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t In many countries, current emphasis is more on preventing andminimizing the production of hazardous wastes by adopting the „pollution prevention hierarchy‟.T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p r o b l ems that could be associated wit h p o o r disposal techniques and management. One of these problems could be thef a c t t h a t m a n y d e v e l o p i n g c o untries and countries with econ omies intransition do not have
  • 7. the expertise to manage hazardous wastes in ane n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s o u n d m a nner, and most may not empl o y p r o p e r technologies. Furthermore, many of these countries may not have a systema n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o e n s u r e that hazardous wastes a r e m a n a g e d i n a manner which will protect human health and the environment against thea d v e r s e effects which may result from such wastes. The g o v e r n m e n t s often lack information about how much and what types of pollutants arereleased, and what risk they pose to people and the environment (BaselConvention Paper, 2009).A.Waste Management: The Philippine Setting1 . P h i l i p p i n e S o l i d W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t In our country, solid waste management is embodied in RA 9003 or theEcological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. This law provides “the legalframework for the country‟s systematic, comprehensive and ecol ogical solidwaste management program that shall ensure protection of public health and theenvironment” (Environmental Management BureauDENR, 2009).2. Philippine Liquid Waste ManagementI n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s e t t i ng, disposal of wastewater is tu r n i n g t o b e a n enormous challenge. This is the concern of NEDA Board Resolution No. 5, serieso f 1 9 9 4 which stated the national policf orurban sewerage and sanitation ( M a g t i b a y, 2 0 0 6 ) . T h e m a n a g e m ent of liquid wastes requires a c o o r d i n a t e d system of policies which covers requisites on drainage, sewers, and wastewater treatment facilities. It is also a complex issue as it traverses across various sectors:domestic, industrial, agricultural, etc.Unfortunately, with the current situation of the country, with its politicalclashes and poverty situation, liquid waste management had largely been centeredonly in the private sectors (Contreras, 2005). Treatments are largely carried out byindustrial groups. Effective domestic liquid waste management occurs mostly in private households.I n t h i s a r e a , p o l i c i e s o nce again govern the a c t i o n s o f t h e c o n c e r n e d agencies . The treatment and discharge of commercial wastewater (liquid wastegenerated by trading or business establishment and or any other related firms or c o m p a n i e s ) i s r e g u l a t e d a n d monitored through the provision s o f t h e D E N R Administrative Order No. 2002-16 or the DENREMB National EnvironmentalUser‟s Fee of 2002, which authors the DENR Wastewater Discharge PermittingSystem.2 . P h i l i p p i n e Hazardous Waste ManagementB e f o r e t h e e n a c t ment of the Clean Air Act (w h i c h i n c l u d e d i n i t s provisions the banning of incinerators in the country), hazardous wastes such asmedical and laboratory wastes are subjected to burning processes.
  • 8. Some of thewastes are also recycled. In 2003, hazardous waste management shifted to landfills and open dumping as an answer to the banning of burning. In a case studyconducted in hospitals in the Cagayan Valley Region, Northern Luzon, the mostcommon method of hazardous waste disposal in the area is through dumping.Results indicated that proper waste management is not fully implemented due to budget constraint (Bernardo, 2008). A. Threats and Impacts of Improper Waste ManagementW i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f population comes too the increase in consumption, a n d consequently, in the amount of wastes we generate. Through time, problems resultingfrom improper and irresponsible management of our wastes have arisen and continuet o d o s o . H u m a n a n d e c o s ys t e m h e a l t h can be adversely affected by all forms of w a s t e , f r o m i t s g e n e ration to its disposal. Over t h e y e a r s , w a s t e s a n d w a s t e ma nagement responses such as policies, legal, financial, and institutional instruments;cradle-to-cradle or cradle-tograve technological options; and sociocultural practiceshave impacted on ecosystem health and human wellbeing.Examples are evident in all countries.A popular example of how improper waste management and lack of coordinationi n p o l i c i e s c a n b r i n g huge environmental and human impacts is the “Love C a n a l Incident”. The Love Canal is an area situated at Niagara Falls, New York. In 1953, t h e H o o k e r Chemical Company, then the owners and operators of the p r o p e r t y, covered the canal with earth and sold it to the city for one dollar. In the late '50s, about 100 homes and a school were built at the site. Twenty five years after the Hooker Chemical Company stopped using the Love Canal as an industrial dump, 82d i f f e r e n t c o m p o u n d s , 1 1 o f t h em suspected carcinogens, have b e e n p e r c o l a t i n g upward through the soil, their drum containers rotting and leaching their contents into the backyards and basements of 100 homes and a public school built on the banks of the canal. What followed was a catastrophe that caused several deaths, birth defect sand abnormalities, lawsuits and ultimately, the evacuation of the residents. Locally, here in the Philippines, the 2001 Smoky Mountain tragedy in the PayatasDumpsite is a constant reminder of how disastrous the country‟s waste management has been regarding the case of that open dumpsite. The collapse of that “mountain of trash” due to the severe rainfall had claimed the lives of many people, both young andold.Aside from such disaster caused by the irresponsible management of a former dumping site, wastewater discharges, as shown by studies, can also bring harmfulimpacts to coastal areas and other bodies of water.In Fiji Island, for example, it has been concluded
  • 9. that the disposal of untreatedhuman and domestic waste has been the major contributor to the degradation of theisland‟s marine environment. Development to the island had brought a shift in speciesdominance from hard coral to macro-algae (Mosley and Aalbersberg, 2005 as cited inthe 2005 WHO Liquid Waste Monitoring Project).There is also no need to mention the numerous incidences of mine tail depositsand radioactive discharges in many rivers, lakes and shores that have undoubtedlycaused detrimental effects to marine and even human life.The list goes on and on. VII. Initiatives for Liquid Waste Management Waste management practices and policies over the last three decade have resulted in p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s i n t e r m s o f i m p r o v e m e n t o f e c o s ys t e m s . S o m e p o s i t i v e i m p a c t s o f t h e respons es identified are: (Information lifted from Sridhar and Baker, 2004) • Waste recycling activities have been found to result in improved resource conservation andreduced energy consumption as well as reduction of heavy metal contamination of water sources.• In the Baltic Sea, the mercury levels of fish caught were reduced by 60% due to stringent pollution control measures.• M a j o r r i v e r s s u c h a s the Thames have supported biodiversity, as is evident fr o m t h e reappearance of salmon after rigorous pollution control measures. The ten-year „„clean river‟‟ program initiated by the Singapore government in 1977 at a cost of US $200 million has broughtlife back to the Singapore River and the Kallang Basin, with increased dissolved oxygen levelsranging from 2 to 4 mg per liter (UNEP 1997).• Phasing out of lead from gasoline has reduced lead emissions from vehicular sources.• Wetlands have been widely reported to absorb significant amounts of anthropogenic pollutants.• F e r t i irrigation practices have signifi cantly improved the economic b a s e o f l o w - i n c o m e communities in urban areas. In the tropical countries in particular, controlled and judicious use of aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth (water hyacinth treatment plant for wastewater) and blue andgreen algae (waste stabilization ponds) for treating small wastewater flows helped in improvingenvironmental sanitation and the by-products provided protein and mineral needs of livestock.

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